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/ 

Electric Railway 
Journal 



Volume XLV 

January to June, 1915 

JUN 28 191 5 




McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

239 West 39th St., New York City 




Instructions for Use of Index 



This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating a 
number of different subjects are indexed un- 
der each subject. In addition, a geographical 
reference is published wherever the article 
relates to any particular railway company. 
The geographical method of grouping serves 
to locate in the index any article descriptive 
of practices, conditions, events, etc., when the 
searcher knows the name of the electric 
railway to which the article refers. Group- 
ings are made under the names of the city 
in which the main office of the company is 
located, and cross references are given for 
the names of the railways, which appear in 
alphabetical order. An exception is made in 
the case of electrified sections of steam rail- 
roads, such entries being made direct under 
the name of the railroad. 



In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross refer- 
ences being supplied. Below will be found a 
list of the more common keywords used in 
the index. This list has been subdivided for 
convenience into sixteen general subjects, but 
the general subject headings, shown in capi- 
tal letters, do not appear in the body of the 
index. As an example, if a reader wished to 
locate an article on power-driven motor 
trucks he would obviously look in the list 
under the general subject "vehicles," and of 
the four keywords that appear under this 
only "Commercial Vehicles" could apply to 
the article in question. The reader would 
therefore refer to this keyword under "C" 
in the body of the index. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF KEYWORDS 



ACCIDENTS AND LEGAL 

Accidents (including wrecks) 
Accident claim department 
Legislation 
Legal 

Public service commissions 
Public service corporations 

CARS 

Car design 
Cars (descriptive) 
Cleaning of cars 
Gasoline cars 
Lubrication 
Heating of cars 
Lighting of cars 
Storage battery cars 
Tower cars 
Ventilation of cars 
Work cars 
Wrecking cars 

CAR EQUIPMENT 

Axles 
Bearings 
Brakes, air 

Controllers and wiring 
Couplers 

Current-collection 

Fenders and wheel guards 

Gears and pinions 

Headlights 

Journals 

Motors 

Trucks, car 

Wheels 



EMPLOYEES 



Employees 
Strikes 



FARES 

(including ap- 



Fare collection 

.paratus) 
Fares 

Freight rates 

Through routes and joint rates 

Tickets 

Transfers 

FINANCIAL AND STATISTICS 
Accounting 

Appraisal of railway property 
Financial 



Franchises 
Maps 

Operating records and costs 
Statistics 

Traffic investigations, cities 
HEAVY ELECTRIC TRACTION 

Heavy electric traction 
High tension d.c. railways 
Tnterurban railways 
IiGcomotives 
>Si,'ngle-phase railways 

; Maintenance of equip- 
ment 

Cleaning of cars 
Inspection of cars 
Maintenance records and costs 
Paints and painting 
Repair shop equipment 
Repair shop practice 
Repair shops 
Tests of equipment 
Washing of cars 
Welding, special methods 

OPERATION 

Dispatching trains 
Multiple-unit trains 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Rules 

Schedules and time tables 
Signals 

Stopping of cars 
Telephones 
Trailer operation 
Yards 

POWER 

Boilers and equipment 

Cables 

Catenary construction 

Converters 

Energy consumption 

Overhead construction 

Poles 

Power distribution 
Power generation 
Power stations 
Purchased power 
Storage batteries 
Substations 



Transmission lines 
Trolley wire 

Turbo-generators and equipment 

RECORDS 

Maintenance records and costs 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Record forms 

STRUCTURES 

Bridges 
Carhouses 
Freight stations 
Power stations 
Repair shops 

Terminal stations and terminals 
Waiting stations 

TRACK 

Pavement 

Rail joints and bonds 

Rails 

Ties 

Track construction 
Track maintenance 

TRAFFIC 

Advertising 

Freig'.it and express 

Parks and pleasure resorts 

Public, relations with 

Publicity 

Routing of Cars 

Signs on cars 

Traffic investigations, cities 

VEHICLES (not on tracks) 

Commercial vehicles 
Motor buses 

Service and tower wagons 
Trackless trolleys 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Fire protection and insurance 
Lightning 

Loading limits for cars 

Municipal ownership 

Organiation charts 

Public, relations with 

Standardization 

Storerooms 

Timber preservation 



In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and re- 
ports from railway associations and tech- 
nical societies are grouped under the names 
of the various organizations. Proceedings of 
other associations are indexed only in accord- 
ance with the subject discussed. The heading 
"Cars" includes all extended descriptions of 
individual types of cars, but short accounts 
of cars displaying no important innovations 
appear only under the name of the railway to 



which they apply. Under the headings 
"Financial" and "Statistics" appear all ar- 
ticles relating generally to capitalization, 
earnings and operating costs, as distin- 
guished from the detailed and highly sub- 
divided figures that are entered under "Oper- 
ating Records and Costs." Short descriptions 
of machine tools appear only under the head- 
ing "Repair Shop Equipment" and are not 
indexed alphabetically, because of the wide 
choice in most cases of the proper keyword. 



January-June, 1915.] 



INDEX. 



INDEX 



III 



TO VOLUME XLVA ...^ 



PAGES BY WEEKS 

Jan. 2 pages 1 to 82 

Jan. 9 " 83 to 124 

Jan. 16 " 125 to 164 

Jan. 23 " 165 to 210 

Jan. 30 " 211 to 264 

Feb. 6 " 265 to 316 

Feb. 13 " 317 to 360 

Feb. 20 " 361 to 404 

Feb. 27 " 405 to 446 

March 6 " 447 to 492 

March 13 " 493 to 538 

March 20 " 539 to 610 

March 27 " 611 to 656 

April 3 " 657 to 698 

April 10 " 699 to 740 

April 17 " 741 to 782 

April 24 " 783 to 824 

May 1 " 825 to 868 

May 8 " 869 to 916 

May 15 " 917 to 966 

May 22 " 967 to 1012 

May 29 " 1013 to 1054 

June 5 " 1055 to 1098 

June 12 " 1099 to 1140 

June 19 " 1141 to 1188 

June 26 " 1189 to 1230 



Accident claim department: 

Attorney's view of the accident question 

[Hoover], 461 

Automobile accidents, Handling [Mills], 1203 

Ruling on accident reports, Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, 883 

Prevention of Accidents: 

Accident savings divided, 818 

Boston Elevated Ry., 281; Record, 399 

"Brass Band in Safety Movement," 658 

[B'rush], c845 
Instruction of employees, Effect upon 
accident record, New York State 
Rys. [Lawson], 367 
Insull traction lines, Best "safety-first" 
design, 99 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. 

[Bacon], c *292 
Machine guards in Milwaukee Elec. Ry. 

shops, *756 
Making safety movement permanent 

(Schneider], [Scott], 800 
Montreal, Safety first savings, 165 
Moving pictures, 36 

Moving pictures of Public Service Co. 
N. T., *98 

National electrical safety rules, pre- 
liminary edition, 750 

Newspaper advertising, 39 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co, 
282, *332 

Publicity for Safety-First Movement, 
c 717 

Public Service Ry., 282 

Relation, accidents to length of service, 
Bay State Street Ry., *709 

Results of safety work [George], 794 

Safe method of cutting concrete pave- 
ment [McKelway], *993 

Safety [Webster], 458; Discussion, 455 

Safety methods of various companies, 
Award of Brady medal, *239, 281; 
Comment, 211 

Safety rule book of Chicago Elevated 
Ry., Comment. 83 

Safety-first movement: 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway, 
934 

In Chicago [Brownell], 749 
In Manila, 1120 
Organized Safety r Palmer], 936 
Review of work done by railways, 
34 

Room for intelligent study, 1100 

Safety leagues, 38 

Safety work [Elliott], 97 

Too much publicity given, 658 

School children, parents .and teachers, 
Talks to, in various cities, 35 

Stevens bill in Congress, 252 
Accidents : 

Akron, Ohio, 206 



Accidents: (Continued) 

—Damaged autos repaired in railway's shops, 

972 

Detroit, for 1914, 356 

Detroit United Ry., 205 

Grade crossing accidents, Possibility of re- 
ducing, 407 

Graphic comparisons [Dana], *58 

Important grade crossing, for 1914, 259 

Interstate Commerce Commission bulletin, 

348 

Milwaukee shops, classification, 756 

Montana Railroad Commissioner's report, 

685 

New York City, November, 119 

New York State, and New Jersey, 311, 605, 

1008 

Operating over broken water main in New 

York, *1211 

Subway accident in New York City. Short- 
circuit in high-tension cables, 95; Com- 
ment, 85 

Third Avenue R. R., New York, 1913-1914, 

296 

Accountants' Association: 

Committees: 630 

Education correspondence course pro- 
gress, 630 
Education, Meetings, 589, 630 
Standard classification of accounts, Meet- 
ing, 293 

Accounting: 

Analyzing the balance sheet THix-sonl, 1112 

Electric light & power [Small], 1113 

Progress in 1914, 9 

Accounting and mechanical departments, Rela- 
tion between, [Hemming], 1153 
Advertising: 

Railroads, Comments, 1013, 1043 

Safety-first campaigns, *39 

Syndicated anti-railway news, *462; Com- 
ment, 449; [Waters], c 586 
Akron, Ohio: 
Jitney Bus, 650 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co.: 

Accidents for 1914, 206 

Accident prevention work, 282, *332 

Annual report, 1002 

Parcel checking, 533 
Albany, N. Y.: 
Albanv Southern R. R. : 

Annual Report, 527 
United Traction Co.: 

Hearing on improvements, 206 

Service hearing, 1048 

Service order, 156, 260, 951, 1007 

Stepless car experiment, 1049 
Alberta, Canada: 

Public Utilities Commission, Creation, 1088 

Alexandria, La.: 

Southern Traction & Power Co.: 

Offer to sell city property. 1177 
Service abandoned, 1088; Recommenced, 
1219 

Allentown, Pa. : 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 306 

Brackets for carrying liftinc jack under 

side sill [Branson!. *I91 
Trolley wire pick-un [Branson]. *295 

American Cities Co. (See New York City) 

American Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation (See Accountants' Association) 

American Electric Railway Asssociation : 

Code (See Code of principles) 

Committees : 

Appointments for 191,5, 139 
Appointments for all associations, 1914- 
1915, 59 

Brady medal. Report, *239, 281; Com- 
ment, 21 1 
Education, 61, 101, 317. 889 
Executive, Meeting, 240, 938 
Line construction (See National Joint 

Committee) 
Motor vehicle, appointment, 418: Meet- 
ing, 589; Report, 619: Comment, 
612 

Public relations, Meeting, 240 
Sectional associations. Meeting, 139 
Subjects, Meeting, 241 
Valuation, Meeting, 101 

Company Sections: 

Chicago, 796, 1075 

Denver. Meeting, 293, 418, 798, 1033, 

. , 12 . 10 
Initiative. 699 

Manila, P. I., 337, 380. 673, 798, 1033, 

121 1 ; Officers. *S10 
Milwaukee, Meetings, 380, 418, 673, 986; 

Officers, *100 
Newark. Meetings, 380. 418. 759, 986, 

1211; Officers, *100; Program, 337 
Pamphlet on advantages. 338 
Practical experience [Wliitney], c511 
Programs for winter work 1 
Washington. Meetings, 419, 713, 759, 

798, 889, 1033 

Convention plans, 889, 938 

Mid-vear meeting: 

Baronet. Addre««es n' rTetrce. Slierlev, 
Montague, Henryl, 219; [Allen], 280 

(Abbreviations: " Cllustrated. c Corresponden :e, • 



510, 
986, 



American Electric Railway Association: 
— Mid-year meeting (Continued!/ q> -iT 

President Wilson's adekfess>,2r7f\ E 
Comments of the prcssT~ 270, ~Opm- 
ions [Shonts, Williams, Budd, Clark, 
Cummings], c290 

Plans for, 61, 100, 139, 187 

Proceedings, 214, 219, 220, 223, 275, 280 

Purpose of, 126 

Spirit of the meeting, 211, 266 

New headquarters, 1033, *1075 

New York office, Activity, comments, 611 

President Allen on publicity, 632 

Proceedings issued, 589 

Success of reorganized association, 166 

Work of [Brush], 460 

American Electric Railway Claims Association: 
(See Claims Association) 

American Electric Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion: 

Committees : 

Accounting, Meeting, 379 
Block signals, Meeting, 139, 293 
Electrolysis, Meeting, 889 
Equipment, Meetings, 241, 798, 986, 1032 
Lightning protection, 101, 630 
Power distribution, Meetings, 293, 

713, 889, 938, 986 
Power generation, Meetings, 241, 
1032 

Standards, Meeting,' 241 
Transportation-engineering, Meeting, 418 
Way matters, Meeting, 418, 1210 
American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation: 

Committee meetings, 380 

Convention plans, 188, 510 

Dues reduced, 510; Comment, 493 

American Electric Railway Transportation and 

Traffic Association: 
Committees : 

Block signals, Meeting, 139, 293, 589, 
713 

Claims, Joint committee, Meeting, 759 
Fares and transfers, Meeting, 798 
Passenger traffic, Data circular, 379; 

Meetings, 139, 798 
Rules Meeting, 379, 1075 
Schedules and time tables, Meeting. 759 
Training of employees, Meetings, 630, 

713; Data sheet, 337 
Transportation-engineering, Meeting, 418 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Midwinter convention, 369, 378 

Status of the engineer, Discussion on, 378; 

Comment, 361 

American Public Utilities Co. (See Grand Rapids, 
Mich.) 

American Railway Association: 
Spring session, 985 

American Railways Co. (See Philadelphia, Pa.) 
American Railway Engineering Association: 

Convention proceedings, 570, 629 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion : 

Convention, 1115; Comment, 1099; Exhibits, 

1117 

Plans for annual meeting, 137 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 

Boiler code approved, 377 

Chicago meeting, Heavy electric traction dis- 
cussion [Batchelder, Goss], 982 

American Telephone & Telegraph Company: 

Annual report. Comments, 613 

American Wood Preservers' Association: 

Annual convention, 181, 237 

Anderson, Ind.: 

Union Traction Co.: 

Copper zone fare system, 310; Report, 
652 

Flange-bearing special work [Mitchell], 
1 119 

New publication, 820 
Note issue, 1005 
Annapolis Short Line: 

• Conversion from 6600-volt sinele-phase to 

1200-volt d.c. operation without inter- 
ruption of service, *542 

Use of ampere-hour meters, *722 

Appraisal of railway property: 

— Chicago elevated railways, 110 
— —Cincinnati Traction Co., 391 
— Detroit United Railway, 198 

Federal valuation conference 

ton, 509 

Ohio, Divergent views on valuation matters, 

253 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry., 252 

■ Utility appraisals [Saunders], 984 

Washington & Maryland Ry., Reproduction 

costs and added percentages allowed by 
commission, 732 
Argentine Republic: 
— - — -Buenos Aires, Effect of war, 345 
— Central Argentine Railway: 

High tension d.c. tap-field motors, *679 
— New railroad planned, 985 
Arkansas Association of Public Utility Operators: 

— ritney discussed by President, 1023 
Association of Technical Society Secretaries, 
Meeting, 419 



Washing- 



IV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLV. 



Atlanta, Ga.: 

Georgia Railway & Power Company: 

Annual Report, 90S 

Passes discontinued, 158 

Publicity work, 1 1 1 

Schedule reduction, 77 

Seating capacity, Decision by State 
Railroad Commission, 354 
Atlantic Shore Electric Ry. (See Sanford, Me.) 
Augusta, Ga. : 

Augusta-Aiken (Ga.) Railway & Electric Co.: 

Fare increase, 1050 

Fare matters, 77, 118, 159 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. (See Wheaton, 

111.) 
Australia: 
— . — Melbourne : 

Plan to replace cable by electricity, 597 
Austin, Texas: 

Flood accident, *978 

Austria : 

Vienna Municipal Tramways: 

Motor buses, *49, *51 

Snow removal with trailer wagons. Car 

scraper practice [Spangler], *591 
Wagons hauled by trolley cars, 637 

Vienna-Pressburg single-phase railway [See- 

fehlner], *628; Comments [Archbold], 
[Harte], c 989 

Auto buses (See Jitney bus, See Motor buses) 

Automobile industry and its effect on the inter- 
urban railway, 448 



B 

Bakersfield, Cal.: 
— San Joaquin Light & Power Corporation- 
Bond issue, 1004 

Baggage, Is free handling a traffic error? 

[Laney], 412; Discussion, 411; -Com- 
ment, 405 

Balance weight system in San Francisco, *977 
Hall bearings on storage battery cars [Farr], 

*344 
Baltimore, Md. 

I'nited Railways & Electric Co.: 

Annual Report, 857 

Cars, Prepayment, with fully inclosed 

platform, *86 
Maintenance costs — Reducing by proper 

handling of equipment [Leon- 

hauser], 384; Comment, 406 
Pension system, Results for one year 

172 3 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 

Railroad : 

Annual report, 1045 
Bangor (Me.) Railway & Electric Co., Bond 
issue, 199 

Barre & Montpelier Traction & Power Co , (See 

Montpelier, Vt.) 
Baton Rouge, La. : 

— Baton Rouge Electric Co., Note issue, 815 

Bay State Street Ry. (See Boston, Mass.) 
Bearings: 

Motor-axle, choice of different metals 

[VulcanJ. 760 
Motor-axle, Home-made cast-iron [Lewis], 

*760 

Tri-City Railway shop practice [Suther- 
land], «944 
Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Berlin (See Germany) 
Bingbamton (N. Y.) Rys. : 
— ; — Annual report, 482 
Birmingham, Ala.: 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer Ry., Re- 
ceivership, 437 

Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Railway & Utilities Co. 
(See Tuscaloosa, Ala.) 

Boilers and Equipment: 

Plant of Havana Electric Railway, Light & 

Power Co. [Ricker], *920 

— ■ — Rational unit for rating of, 363 

Rational units for the boiler room [Stott] 

c 468; Comment, 447 

Standard specifications for -design and con- 
struction, American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers, 377 

— — —Use of powdered coal, Comments, 1014 

Boise, Idaho: 

Idaho-Oregon Lt. & Pr. Co. 

Reorganization, 772 

Foreclosure decree, 907 

■ Jitney bus ordinance, 397 

Boston, Mass.: 

Ambulance chaser fined, 356 

Bay State Street Ry.: 

Wage arbitration, 76, 150, 200, 268, 303 
346, 433, 477, 708, 854, *1019, 1205- 
Comments, 870, 1190; [Richey], 
c758 

Chemical engineering practice, 90; Com- 
ment, 84 

■ — — Bill providing for replacement of Charlestown 
elevated line by subway, 857 

Boston Elevated Ry. 

Cars, Center-entrance trailer, *99, *1154 
Complaint handling, 26 
Dispatching cars [Dana], *802 
Safety methods, 281 
Safety record, 399 

Zone system of fares considered [Ban- 
croft], c 890. 

Cambridge subway extension, 113 

Massachusetts Electric Companies, Annual 

report, 254 



Boston, Mass.: (Continued) 

Report of public service commission, 809 

Suggested 6-cent fare, Comments on, 783 

Toll charge abolished for East Boston tun- 
nel, 686 

Transfer charge, 77 

Transportation bills, 433 

West End Street Railway 

Common stock issue, 647, 732 

Boston & Worcester Street Railway: 

Tie treating plant, *678 

Bra-dy safety medal, Award of, *239, 281; Com- 
ment, 211; Presentation, 338 

Brakes: 

Brake shoe report by M. C. B. committee, 

1163 

Clasp brakes, report by M. C. B. committee, 

1163 

Electric, [Sprague], c!076 

Electric regeneration from direct current 

motors, Comment, 918 

New York Municipal Railway cars, *872 

Brakes, Hand: 

— — Light-weight geared (National Brake Co.), 

*517 

Braking, Ree-enerative (See Energy consump- 
tion) 
Brantford, Ont. : 

Municipal operation prevented by lack of 

legal authority, 597 
Brill Co.^ J. G., Annual report, 393 
British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Vancouver, 

B. C.) 
Brookfield, Mass. : 

Warren Brookfield & Spencer Street Rail- 
way, Sale, 773 

Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Advertising contract terminated, 912 
Advertising to be managed by railway, 
1007, 1227 

Attaching signal wires to third-rail 

[McKelway], *1038 
Car-full signs, 532 
Complaint handling, 26 
Cutting concrete, safely [McKelway], 

*993 

Derailments from worn flanges [Will- 
iams], * 1 03" 
Elevated lines and the depreciation of 

property value [Williams], 71 
Employees, Welfare work for, 454 
Fender controversy, 827, 1220 
Foldine box to euard public against 
. welding arc [Williams], 847 

•■••Garment dryer, Electric [Shannon], 
; t *300 

* * * " ^Insurance, 435 

• • • •Mysterious derailments | Williams], 
*...: * 1078 

New cars, Sea Beach Line, 651 

New subway opened, 1218 

Objection to order for new route, 400 

Pine ties reused after service of 21 
years [Cram], 295 

Publicity pamphlets, 205 

Pump for manholes, Power-driven drain- 
age, *247 

Rail life on curves. Comparison of 
open-hearth and manganese steel 
[Bernard], 383 
Safety report for employes, *1 196 
Service hearings, 108, 158, 532 
Splice ears in overhead construction, 
1041 

Submarine cable installation, *805 

Track tools, supplies and appliances 
[Cram], 1169 

Warning siens to protect new paving 
work [Cram], *893 

Marginal railroad bill signed, 1088 

New York Municipal Railways. (See New 

York City) 
— — Speed control for subway, 72 

Transfer order, 356 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., Fare 

increase, 119 
International Traction Co., Annual report, 

1131 

Historical sketch of street an-J electric rail- 
way development [Dickson], 135 

International Railway: 

Buffalo-Niagara Falls line, 302 
Capitalization, Elimination of excess, 
153 

Complaints in legal form, 399 
Construction improvements, 251 
Fare changes, 441 
Traffic decrease, 260 
Service matters, 206 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. (See Roch- 
ester, N. Y.) 

Business Conditions: 

[Heulings] 1131 

"Buy it now" movement, 267 

Electric railway conditions on Tan. 1, 1915, 7 

Growing confidence [Byllesby], 350 

Northwest, Outlook in, 152 

Prediction of prosperity, 152 

President Wilson's address at meeting of 

American Electric Railway Association, 
217, 275 

Railwavs and the manufacturers [Tripp], 

Regulation, Comments. 613 

Report of United States Chamber of Com- 
merce. *95 
Stock market, Comments, 741 

(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Business Conditions: (Continued) 

Unprecedented opportunities [Farrell], 350 

Business courtesy, Reprehensible practice of 

buyers and sellers, 406 
Butte, Mont.: 

Butte Electric Railway, Default on bonds, 

688 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific R.R.: 

Experiences with 2400-volt locomotives 

LCox], 136 



Cab signals (See Signals) 
Cable Cars: 

Grip for two-car train, United Railroads, 

San Francisco, *977 
Cable connectors, Mechanical [Fargo], * 1 2 1 6 
Cable fault localizer, Portable (Westinghouse), 

*387 
Calgary, Can.: 

Municipal Railway finances, 597 

California Railroad Commission: 

Pill for regulating public utilities, 253 

Members, 151 

Camden, N. J.: 

Interstate Railways: 

Earnings and expenses for 1914, 1004 
Stock conversion plan, 731, 956 

Canada: 

Commercial and industrial conditions, 883 

■ Electric railway earnings for 1914, 1179 

Proposals for new lines, 768 

Track built in 1914, 14; Comment, 12 

Canton, Mass.: 

Blue Hill Street Railway: 

Adjustable stand for forge shop, *997 

Fare increase hearing, 863 

Increase in fares, 604; suspended, 1226 
Carbon brush troubles, [ Martindale] , 571 
Car Design: 

Advantages of single-trucks, 406 

All-steel cars for Erie, 1102 

Baltimore prepayment cars, *86 

Collision results, 568; [Keen], *c715 

Equipment, Progress in, 2 

New Orleans all-steel car, *271 

■ Progress in 1914, 11 

Seat space per passenger established in New 

York City, 1094 

■ Small cars. Advantages of, 967; [Layng], 

979; [Wilson], cl206; ["Railway Oper- 
ator"], 1207 

Steel cars, Growth in the use of all-steel 

construction, 3 
Steel cars, Chicago Elevated Ry., Stress 

analysis [ Rettger and George], c*291 
Car-door operation, Santa Barbara center-entrance 

car [Lloyd], *590 
Car propulsion (See Energy consumption) 
Car Steps: 

Lighting, New York State Rvs., 247 

Lower steps in New Hampshire, 119, 260 

Carhouses : 

Evanston, 111., Railway, *660 

Feeder panel for trolley wires, *1214 

Fire protection, Springfield (Ohio) Ry., 

Holyoke Street Railway Company, *930 

■ Municipal Railroad, San Francisco, 667 

Seattle Municipal Ry. [Kennedy], 513 

Springfield (Ohio) Ry., *556 

Vancouver, B. C, Fireproof construction, 

*227 

Cars : 

All-service, East Liverpool Traction & Light 

Co. [Niles], *765 
Ambulance cars, Trier, Germany [EichelJ, 

*83 1 

Baltimore, Prepayment with fully-inclosed 

platform, *86 

Center entrance: 

Annapolis Short Line. * 547 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., *518. *593 

Double-deck, front-exit, Glasgow, *297 

Dump cars, Two-wav (Universal), *299 

Express for Detroit United Railway [Keller], 



Fire-fighting, Duluth, *472 

Front-entrance, center-exit, Cleveland, Ry., 

*364 

Hospital, Germany, *50 

Jamestown, Westfield & Northern Railroad, 

Light-weight C34-ton, 56-ft.) for Toledo, Fos-- 

toria & Findlay Railway, *947 

Low-floor, California type. United Railroads 

of San Francisco, * 10 1 6 

■ New York Municipal Ry., Motors, control, 

conduit and collectors, *496 

One-man, Winona Ry. [Howard], 233; Com- 
ment, 212 

— — Open, steel-underframe, for Public Service 
Railway, *1171 

Salt Lake & Utah Ry., *54 

Semi-steel for Kansas City, Metropolitan 

Street Railway, *850 

Statistics of cars ordered in 1914, 16; Com- 
ment, 12 

Steel : 

Erie Railroad. 1102; Comment, 1100 
Long Island R.R. Ten vears' experience, 

*566; Comment, 539 
New Orleans, *270; Comment, 275 
Parlor cars for Waterloo-Cedar Rapids, 
♦932 

Threp-in-one for repair service [Sherwood], 

*1121 



January-June, 1915.] 



Cars: (Continued) 
Trailers: 

Boston Elevated Ry., Center-entrance, 
*99, *1 1 54 
Catenary construction: 

Annapolis Short Line, *543 

■ Flexible instead of rigid overhead work, 

1040 

Michigan Railway's 2400-volt line. Through 

towns, *1147 

Norfolk & Western Railroad, * 1 065 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa: 

Iowa Railway & Light Company: 

Improvements, in equipment, 855 

Census report on electric railways, statistics on 
cars, traffic, capitalization, income, oper- 
ating expenses, taxes, operating ratio 
and employees, 96, 131 

Central Electric Railway, Accountants' Associa- 
tion. 

Convention, 411, 1112, 1151 

Centra] Electric Railway Association : 

Committees, membership of, 790 

Convention : 

Boat trip, 1162, 1201 

Papers, 1156, 1201 

Proceedings, 455 

Secretary-treasurer's report, [Neereamer], 

■ 413 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Annual report of chairman [Neereamer], 

460 

Chamber of Commerce of United States, Annual 

meeting, 338 
Charles City, la.: 

Charles City Western Railway, Electrifica- 
tion, 643 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Charlotte Electric Railway, Capital stock 

reduction, 1003 

Piedmont & Northern Railway, Rotary con- 
verter equipment, 633 

Southern Public Utilities Co., Company pub- 
lication, 440 

Chemical engineering, Bay State Street Ry„ 90; 

Comment, 84 
Chemical laboratory of Illinois Traction System, 

[Beagle], 423 
Chicago, 111.: 

Authority of Illinois Public Utilities Com- 
mission, 400 
Chicago City Railway: 

Annual Report, 645 
Chicago Elevated Railways: 

Alleged violation of utilities act, 599 

Bond issue, 689 

Bonds sold, 815 

Collateral trust bonds sold, 815 

Examination of books, 728 

Field-coil impregnation, 640 

First-aid stations, 125 

Medical methods, [Fisher], * 1 1 92 

New publication, 952 

Preferred dividend passed, 529 

Repair shop practice, * 5 5 1 ; Comment, 
540 

Safety rule book, Comment, 83 

Steel car, Stress analysis [ Rettger and 

George], c*291 
Strike, *1165; Comment, 1142, 1189 
Valuations, 110 
— — Chicago Railways Co.: 
Expenditures, 112 

Chicago Surface Lines: 

Complaint handling, 26 
Earnings and expenses, 858 
Motor ventilation [Adams], c990 
Provision for minority stockholders in 

merger, 1003 
Rail wear B. O. S. E. report, *1195 
Report on operations distributed among 

employees, 825 
Safety-first work [Brownell], 749 
Service hearing, 486 
Service Ordinance, 532 
Strike, 1165; Comment, 1142, 1189 
Unification upheld by Court, 598 
Wage controversy, 952, 1043, 1087, 1128 
— —Elevated Club, Meeting, 468 

Loop track capacity reached, 399 

Manganese-steel crossing development, *711 

Motor buses, Traction fund for, 348 

Ordinance violations, 305 

Report of Railway Terminal Commission, 

1150, Comment, 1141 

Service matters before commission, 205 

Service question, 76, 157, 486 

Service record chart, *366 

Signs, Destination, Legal suits, 77 

Strike of all platform men, 1165; Comment, 

1142 

Traction fund disposition, 305 

Traction ordinances, 72 

Traction situation, Politics, 126 

Transfer [joints, Suit to force new, 77 

Ventilating ordinance, 120 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. (See 
Michigan City, Ind.) 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad (See 
Highwood, 111.) 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. : 

Electrification of Great Falls (Mont.) ter- 
minal, *1172 

Line construction. Four-car platform, *934 

Locomotives, * 1 072 



INDEX. 



Chicago & Northwestern Ry., Safety-first move- 
ment, 34 

Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake Railroad (See 
Walworth, Wis.) 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. (See Ottawa, 111.) 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Rail- 
way Co, (See South Bend, Ind.) 

Chicago Surface Lines (See Chicago, 111.) 

Chico, Cal. : 

Northern Electric Ry. : 

Finances, 114, 435 

Reorganization, 773 
Children's tickets in St. Louis, 260 
China : 

Railless traction in Shanghai, 592 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Railway (See 

Covington, Ky.) 
Cincinnati, O. : 
Cincinnati Traction Co. 

Appraisal, 391 

Line extension, 686 

Progress of valuation, 598 

Service complaints, 78 

Fare case, 77 

Hearing on transit bill, 768 

Loop measure passed, 1043 

Ohio Electric Ry: 

Baffle plate for motor axle bearing caps, 
[Fox], *424 

Franchises granted, Publicity methods, 
811 

Urbana franchise granted, 1220 
Ohio Traction Company: 

Decision in tax case, 1043 

Inventory controversy, 643 

Note issue, 773 
Plans for improved service through rapid 

transit board, 727 

Rapid transit belt-line project, 152 

Rapid Transit Commission, Work of, 302 

Rapid transit developments, 250, 348 

Rapid transit plans involving use of canal 

bed. Report on [Swain, Schoepf], 108, 413 

Suburban franchise matters, 110 

Transit measure approved by Senate, 812 

Circuit Breakers: 

Reclosing type (Automatic Reclosing Circuit 

Breaker Co.), *996 
Claims Association: 
Committees. 

Executive, Meeting, 293 
Cleaning Cars: 

Practice in various cities, 515 

Use of broom, 625 

Cleburne, Texas: 

Cleburne Street Railway, Sale, 955 

Cleveland. Painesville & Eastern Railroad (See 

Willoughby, Ohio) 
Cleveland, Ohio: 

Air tests in street cars, 533 

Charges against commissioner dismissed, 1128 

Cleveland, Akron & Canton Ry. : 

Negotiations for right of way to Dres- 
den, O., 904 

Subway terms settled, 1220 
Cleveland Ry. : 

Annual report, 350 

Carhouse contract controversy, 999, 
1087 

Cars, Front-entrance, center-exit, for 

crosstown service, *364 
Extensions proposed, 855 
Fare matters, 304 
Injunction, 641 

Presed-steel motors ( Westinghouse) , 
* 1041 

Prooerty holdings, 432 

Repair shops, New, * 1 68 ; [Keen], c290 

Report for Nov., 1914, 71 

Rush-hour methods, 30 

Tax dispute, 198 

Wage adjustment, 962 

Wireless notice for steamer traffic, 399 
Cleveland Rapid Transit Ry. 

Grant approved, 72 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Rail- 
way: 

Annual Report, 1045 

Bonds extended, 815 

Bond issue, 955 

ITome-made axle bearing, *760 

Reducing paint costs, 847 

Testing armature clearance [Lewis], 893 

Testing motors [Lewis], 1037 
Cleveland & Youngstown Ry. 

Freight terminal plans, 1176 

Franchise opposed, 1219 
Extension subsidized by benefited property 

owners, 951 

Freight subwav ordinance, 1178 

One-cent-fare line, 1178 

Safety zones, 77 

Subway plans, 1087, 1129 

Clinton, la. 

-Iowa & Illinois Ry. 

Freight service discontinued, 260 
Coasting Clocks (See Energy Consumption) 
Code of nrinciples adopted by American Electric 

Railway Association [Harding], c58 
Code of principles: 

Address [Williams], 220; Discussions, 

[Tripp, Brush], 214: Comment, 212 

Changes suggested. Sliding scale of returns 

to capital discussed. Cooperation with 
public utilitv associations recommended 
[Crosby], 370; Comment, 362 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



V 



Coasting records of various railways, *706 
Columbus, Ohio: 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light 

Courtesy watch fobs for employees, *22 
Earnings during 1914, 906 
Refunding mortgage, 772 
Savings accounts of employees, 119 
Sprinkler contract, 819 

-Terminal proposals, 1088 

Collisions, Results from. 

All steel cars on Long Island Ry., 568 

Semi-steel cars on American Railways 

[Keen], *715 
Commercial Vehicles: 

Tractor and trailer truck, Kansas City, *516 

Company sections (See American Electric Rail- 
way Association) 
Company section, Individualism of, 362 
Compensation law (See Employees, Insurance) 
CDnduits, Under-water, Preventing condensation 
in, Sault Ste Marie, Mich. [Konpel], 
*296 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry. (See Greenfield, 

Mass.) 

Constitutional Convention in New York, Recom- 
mendations of engineers, 844 
Controllers and Wiring: 

Blow-out coil defects [Squier], *591, *635, 

*677 

Block to protect controller switch blades, 

[Parsons], *386 

Control system for Belmont Tunnel, New 

York City, (Westinghouse), *764, (Gen- 
eral Electric), * 1 1 24 

Equipment defects [Squier], *102, * 140, 

*242 

— —New York Municipal Ry. car, *499 

Repairing division plates [Parsons], 470 

Relay setting to secure uniform accelera- 
tion, [See], 761 

Resistances, Effect of improper [Corning], 

c93 

Reverse drums and interlocking mechanism 

[Squier], *382 
Rheostatic losses, 287 

Starting-resistance calculations, ICoorsL 

*761 

Time element in notching TBuck], *c672 

Convention programs, Possibilities of improve- 
ment, 495 
Converters : 

Equipment, Piedmont & Northern Railway, 

633 

Phase, Norfolk & Western Railroad, * 1061, 

Comment, 1057 
Rating, _ continuous vs. nominal. Proposed 

revision of A. I. E. E. standardization 

rules, 1142; Comment, 1191 

Corea : 

■ Annual report of Railway Bureau, 955 

Corrosion, Electrolytic (See Electrolysis) 
Corrosion test of pure iron and alloy steel, 1175 
Cost figures, Giving publicity to, 743 
Costs, value of publishing [Palmer], c 845 
Couplers: 

M. C. B. experimental tvpes, committee re- 
port, 1164 

Covington, Ky., Cincinnati, Newport & Coving- 
ton Ry. : 

Franchise matters, 1 12, 389, 478, 768, 1000 

Crane, Steam-electric, for tunnel work on Michi- 
gan Central R. R., *437 

Creosote, Statistics of production, 332 

Cross arms (See Overhead construction) 

Crossing protection, Warning signs ordered in 
New Hampshire, 1184 

Crossings, Track, A. R. E. A. report, 571 

Current collection: 

Annapolis Short Line, *550 

Roller-Bearing trolley wheels (American 

Roller Bearing Co.), *966 

Self-lubricating and adjusting trolley wheel 

and harp, * 5 1 6 

Trolley base, ball-bearing, (Trolley Supply 

Co.), *1082 

Curtain fixtures without pinch handles (Dayton), 

*298 

Curves (See Track construction) 

(Also see Track maintenance. Rails, Life 

of) 



D 



Dallas, Tex.: 

— Dallas Street Ry.: 

Welfare work [Meriwetherl, 1029 

Investigation of public service corporations 

planned, 1129 

Jitney bus operation and earnings, 884 

Texas Traction Co.: 

Power purchased from Texas Power & 
Light Co., 1177 
Davenport, Ta. : 

Tri-Citv Railway & Light Company 

Balanced door mechanism, [Sutherland], 
*1038 

Bearing practice [Sutherland], "944 
New publication, 912 
Return circuits [Skelly], 794 
Trouble board, [Sutherland], * 1078 
Dayton. ().: 

Oakwood Street Ry. holdings sold, 816 



VI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLV. 



Decatur, Ind. : 

Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway: 

Receiver's sale, 529, 1004 
Delaware & Hudson Railroad : 

Annual report, 771 

Denver, Colo. : 

Denver & Interurban Railroad: 

Trail cars ordered, 1136 

Denver Tramway Co. : 

Armature-room force, 1215 
Experience with coasting clocks, *705 
Company section, Meeting, 293, 418, 1210 
Complaint handling, 25 
Mating gears and pinions, [McAlouey], 
c990 

Working hard gears with soft pinions, 
[McAloney], 803 
Depreciation, Based on par value in Nebraska, 
1143 

Des Moines, la.: 

Des Moines City Railway: 

Cause of thick and thin wheel flanges, 
[Lloyd], 1037 

Default of interest, 772 

Franchise matter, 198, 432 

Supplementary motor bus service sug- 
gested, 950; Comment, 917 

Wage increase, 605 
Hopeful outlook for franchise agreement, 

1128 

Jitney bus, 649 

Detroit, Mich.: 

Detroit United Ry.: 

Accidents in 1914, 205, 356 

Annual report, 436 

Arbitration agreement, 1043, 1087 

Freight contract, 1050 

Grinding machine for grids [Keller], 
*64 

Interchange decision with Mich. Cent. 
R.R., 532 

Locomotive and cars for freight service 

[Keller], *848 
Merit system suggested for employees, 

1176 

Purchase by city, negotiations, 304, 431, 

477, 523. 686, 725, 901, 1129, 1219 
Results of Safety work [George], 794 
Sale to city authorized, 686 
Strike, 951, 998; Comments, 969 
Temporary trail cars in operation, 961 
Tickets sold at Ford plant, 30 
Transfer suit decision, 440 
Valuations, 198 

Ordinance limiting car capacity, 604 

Traffic report by Barclay Parsons & Klapp, 

595, 664 

Diesel engine test, 639 

Dispatching Trains: 

Assignment board in Holyoke carhouse, 

♦899 

By telephone in city service, New York 

State Railways, Rochester [ Strong 1, 885 
Methods in city service, Boston [Dana], 

802 

Door-operating mechanism, balanced [Suther- 
land], "1038 
Double trolley in Seattle, [Kennedy], *128 
Draft Equipment: 

Report at M. C. B. convention, 1163 

(See also Couplers) 

Dual ownership in Alsace, 1217 

Dubuque, la. : 

Union Electric Co. 

Fibre conduit installation for feeder 
taps, *1 125 

Soldering torch for commutators, 1079 
Duluth, Minn.: 
Duluth Street Rys.: 

Fire-fighting car, *472 

Franchise upheld by Supreme Court, 
346 

Duluth-Superior Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 954 
Dump cars (See Cars, Dump) 



Earnings, passenger-mile, Recorder for [Bon- 
ham], *948 
East Liverpool, Ohio: 

East Liverpool Traction &_ Light Co., All- 
service cars (Niles), *765 

Tri-State Electric & Railway Company, Re- 
ceiver's sale, 647 

Economies, minor, on small roads, 898 

Edmonton (Alta.) Municipal Electric Ry., Fare 
rates, 311 

Education: . ^ . 

Correspondence courses, American Electric 

Railwav Association, 317 

English, Bettering the use of [Earle], c94; 

Comment, 83 

Educational institutions [Jackson], c93; Com- 
ment, 85 

Electric Railway Handbook, Review, 583 
Electric Railway Journal: 

At Panama-Pacific Exposition. 1155 

. Brief for the railways, 1, 447 

-Medal of honor awarded, 1141 

New railways, Misdirected letters to, 871 

Review of activities in 1914, 1 

Subjects of greatest interest indicated by 

subscribers, 52 
Electric railways, Functions of [Ralston], 456; 

Comment, 447 



Electrolysis: 

Causes of corrosion in water pipes and other 

underground structures [Cole], cl86 

Concrete poles, Effect of stray current, New 

York State Rys. [Throop], 294 

Corrosion of metals in natural soils [Rosa, 

McCollum, Ganz, Waterman], c419 

Discussion [Gerbury], 581 

Joint committee of national associations, 

Progress, 84 

Springfield, Mass., report, Attitude of rail- 
way, 507 

Elevated Club of Chicago. Discussion of public 

relations, 759 
Elevated railroads and the depreciation in value 

of abutting property [Williams], 71 
El Paso, Tex. : 

El Paso Electric Railway: 

Cheapest car ride in the world, 1050 
Empire United Rys. (See Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Employees : 

Advertising influence of [Slater], 1029 

■ Alien labor problem. New York City, 113 

Benefit association at Rockford, 111. , 735 

Bonus system for Milwaukee Electric Rv. & 

Light Co., 1008 
Bulletins on courtesy, 23 

Comoensation bill; In Maine, 856; in New 

York, 642, 727, 753; In Pennsylvania 
[Reed], 980, 1130; Rulings in Ohio, 373 

Courtesy toward the public, Efforts on vari- 
ous railways, 20 

Education, Correspondence courses of 

American Electric Railway Association, 
317 

First-aid stations in Chicago, 125 

Group insurance policy, Kansas City, Clay 

County & St. Joseph Railway, 651 

Handling of men, 266 

■ Hours, Bills in Ohio Legislature, 392 

Human element in electric railway opera- 
tion [DeCamp], 1157 

Instruction methods, New York State Rys., 

Rochester, Effect on accident record 
[Lawson], 367 

Instructions, Motormen's rules, Baltimore, 

385 

New York legislation, 318, 390 
Wisconsin compensation law, 234 

Loans to small borrowers under Morris plan, 

687 

Motorman not entitled to engineer's pay, 

West Alameda, Cal., 356 

-Non-unionism a basis of employment, Kan- 
sas decision, 266 

■ Ohio legislation, 149 

Opportunities in transportation [Bullock], 

454 

Pensions: 

Baltimore system, Results for one year, 
172 

Newport News, 1183 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 118 

Physical examinations, Chicago Elevated Rys. 

[Fisherl *1 192 

Policies of Pennsylvania Railroad, 950; Com- 
ments, 917 

Profit sharing by Washington Railway & 

Electric Co., 157 

Promotion by Civil Service on San Fran- 
cisco Municipal Railway, 533 

Re-examination, 407 

Reports from, Disciplinary value of, 125 

Review of conditions of 1914, 11 

Safety co-operation, *43 

Safety reports in Brooklyn, * 1 1 96 

Savings accounts. Columbus. Ohio. 119 

Service stripes, Manila Electric Railway & 

Light Company. 652 

Sharing facts with Chicago surface lines, 825 

"Skilled labor" of platform men, 268 

Training system on New York State Rail- 
ways, *704 

Training steam railroad men for electric 

operation, Pennsylvania Railroad [Rob- 
ertsl, *970; Comments, 968 

Wage adjustment, Cleveland Railway, 962 

Wage conferences, Springfield Street Rail- 
way, 1000 

Wage arbitration, Bay State Street Railwav, 

76. 150, 708, 854, 1019, 1205; Comments, 
870, 1190; [Richey], c 758 

Wages: 

Conditions in steam railroad car build- 
ing, 1105 
Different industries, 726 
Little Rock. Ark., Increase, 159 
War time, 825 

Youngstown, O., Increase, 735 
Workin^men's compensation (See Employees 

— Compensation hill) 

Welfare measures [Welshl. 841 

Welfare work in Dallas [Meriwether]. 1029 

Welfare work, United Railways, St. Louis, 

693 

Energy consumption: 

Ampere-hour meters on Annapolis short line, 

♦722 

Coasting recorders on Third Avenue Rail- 
way, *572; Comment, 541 

Coasting records, Northern Texas Traction, 

*1198 

Decreased with faster schedules, 869 

Effect of meters upon men [Koehler], c633 

Experience with coaster clocks in Denver, 

*705 

Increased power consumption of traction 

lines, Public Service Corporation, 1022 

(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Energy Consumption: (Continued) 

Inertia effect of moving trains [McAnnix], 

c*714; Comment, 699, 825 
Regeneration and electric braking, Comment, 

918 

Regeneration, Progress in, 495 

Regeneration on State Railways of Italy, 

*451; Comment, 495 

Regenerative braking, 1101; [Sprague], cl076 

Results with ampere-hour meters on cars, Chi- 
cago & Milwaukee Ry., *973 

Saving energy by improved methods of car 

design and operation [Storer], *286; 
Comment, 267 

Stop-recording device not needed [Koehler], 

c633 

Tests in San Francisco, 1018 

Time element in controller notching [Buck], 

*c672 

Use of meter records for comparisons of 

motormen, 405, 448 
Engineering considerations in a proposed line, 

c512 

Engineering Foundation, Inauguration of, 188, 

237 
Engineers: 

Place in business, 212 

Status of, Discussion by American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers, 378; Com- 
ment, 361 

England. (See Great Britain) 

Equipment defects [Squier], *102, *140, *242, 
*382 

Erie Railroad: 

All-steel cars, 1102 

Express business. (See Freight and express) 
Evanston, 111. : 

Evanston Railway: 

Carhouse, *660 



Fare collection : 

Automatic registration [Rooke], c844 

Cash and ticket box (Dayton Fare Recorder 

Co.), *1081 

Collection and registration of city and in- 
terurban fares [Hewes], 466; Discussion, 

465 

Fare recorder, Computing (Dayton), * 145 

Fare recorder showing passenger mile earn- 
ings [Bonham], *948 

Front-entrance, center-exit car, Cleveland 

Ry., 365 

Improved change carrier (McGill Ticket 

Punch Co.), *640 

Interurban fare register (New Haven Trol- 
ley Supply Co.), 593, 680 

New form of fare indicator and recorder 

(Dayton), 1173 

Fares: 

Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corp., 

Increase allowed, 118 

Basis of rates to be the cost of service 

[Duncan], 457 

Copper zone extension in Indiana, 734, 777 

Copper zone fare system, Union Traction 

Company of Indiana, 310 

Dividends and rate making, Comment, 701 

Higher fares and the wage earner, 918 

Illinois, Campaigning for increased passen- 
ger rates, 400 

Increase at Canton, Mass., 604 

Increase on Blue Hill Street Railway, Hear- 
ings, 863 

Los Angeles Railway wins 10-cent fare case, 

777 

Milwaukee, Commission rescinds low-fare or- 
der, 333 

North Dakota lignite case, Comment, 659 

Rate-making, responsibility for, 783 

■ Reduction, Vancouver, B. C, 959 

Report of Bureau of Fare Research on oper- 
ating revenues, 183 

Rochester 3-cent fare case, 117 

School fare bill in New York State, 391 

Springfield (Mo.) Gas & Elect. Co., 110 

West Virginia passenger case, 659 

Zone system [Bancroft], c890 

Zone system in Milwaukee [Stearns], *836; 

Comment, 825 
Fault localizer. (See Cable fault) 
Federal reserve system [Weeks], 222; [Morti- 
mer], 226 

Federal Trade Commission, Members, 434 
Feeders. (See Overhead construction) 
Fences: 

A. R. E. A. report, 570 

Spring posts (Carbo Steel Post Co.), *807 

Fender and wheel guards: 

Fenders for New York buses, 1000 

New type air-operated fender (American 

Automatic Fender Co.), *723 

Sandbox opened by fender trip, Third Ave- 
nue Ry. [Tohnson], *106 

Sheet-steel pilot, Chicago, Lake Shore & 

South Bend Ry., *106 

Ferromanganese and the European war, 581 

Ferryboat, Steel, Oakland, Antioch & Eastern 
Ry., *133 

Filing of technical literature [Arthur], c 51 1 
Financial : 

Annual report of Public Service Commission, 

Washington, 528 
Bank holdings of public utility bonds, 306 



January-June, 1915.] 



INDEX. 



VII 



Financial: (Continued) 

— —Bureau of Fare Research: 

Comparison of steam and electric rail- 
way revenues, 183 

Comparison of electric railway revenues, 
bank clearings and building con- 
struction, 506 
Capitalization and financial operations of 

electric railways, Census report, 130 

"Chilled capital" [Bennet], *843 

Declaring dividends out of surplus, 657 

Double liability for stockholders, 827 

Earnings of electric railway, Trend of, 269 

Equipment cost data, Worcester, Mass., 427 

-Extensions of street railway tracks subsi- 
dized bv benefited property owners, 

Cleveland, 951 
Federal reserve system [Weeks], 222; 

[Mortimer], 226 
Increased rate of return allowed by East 

Linden Railway. 525 
Interest rates on public utility bonds during 

the war and reconstruction period 

[Welsh], c 137 
— —Investment required per passenger, [M'- 

Grath], *881; [Bradlee], c987; [Fen- 

stel], cl077; [Emery], clll9 
Iowa interurban railways, Annual report, 

292 

Massachusetts legal street railway bonds, 

154 

Moody review and forecast, 114 

New York State, Securities for new con- 
struction, 393 

Ohio railway valuations, 193 

Probable revenue of new line, considera- 
tions [Mclntire], c799 

Revenue increase for New York State rail- 
ways in 1914, 237 

Steam railroads in 1913, 289 

Supplementary financing, 1056 

Westinghouse conversion plan, 906 

Fire-fighting car at Duluth, *472 

Fire protection and insurance: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 435 

Carhouse at Springfield, Ohio, *560 

Car-wiring code, changes, 285 

Hearing on fuses, Bureau of Standards, 1215 

Precautions for Fourth of July, 1190 

Reducing the fire risk [Daniels], 329 

Fire Protection Association: 

Convention, 936 

Fires: 

Carhouse, Boston & Worcester Street Ry., 

434 

Fitchburg, Mass.: 

Fitchburg & Leominster Street Railway: 

Making safety movement permanent 
[Bennett], c717 
Safety first campaign, 736 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloverville R. R. (See 
Gloversville, N. Y.) 

Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway. (See De- 
catur, Ind.) 

Fort Wayne, Ind.: 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Ry: 

Agricultural educational work, *712 

Fort Worth, Texas: 

Northern Texas Traction Co.: 

Coasting records, * 1 198 

Publicity campaign against jitneys, 1049 

Weed cutter [Griffiths], *1121 

Foxboro, Mass.: 

Norfolk & Bristol Street Railway: 

Fare hearing, 911 

France: 

— —Midi Railway: 

Catenary construction, 1040 
Franchises: 
Valuation: 

New Jersey Gas case, c57, 112, 199, 304, 
1177 
Frederick, Md. : 

Hagerstown & Frederick Ry. : 

Demonstrations of "chilled capital" 
[Bennett], *843 
Freight and express: 

Car-load freight on small lines [Clark], 1114 

Discrimination against electric freight, 3 

Iowa & Illinois Ry., Service discontnued, 260 

Pittsburgh ordinance, 399 

Possibilities, 2 

Statistics of express companies in the United 

States, 323 

Freight cars, Restoring to side bearings on short 

curves [Hinman], *425 
Freight rates: 

■ Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Co., 

311 

Ohio, 206 

Front-end conductors, 31 

Full crew laws, Opposition to, in Pennsylvania 

and New Jersey, 392 
Fuses, Pronosed hearing on, Bureau of Standards, 

1215 



Garment dryer, Electric [Shannon], "300 
Gary, Hobart & Eastern Traction Co. (See Ho- 
bart, Ind.) 

Gas, Electric & Street Railway Association of 

Oklahoma : 
Convention, 983 



Gasoline cars: 

Illinois Central R. R., 51 

Union Pacific R. R., *1215 

Gears and pinions: 

Heating apparatus, 638 

Installation and removal [Parsons], 674 

Method of removing [Dalgleish], *942 

Operation of hard gears and soft pinions 

[McAloney], *803, c990; [Cooper], 

c890; [Phillips], c891 

Removal of pinions [Ross], c800 

Rethrea-ding pinion-ends [Vulcan], 720 

Testing [Allen], *1201 

— Use of gas flame in removing [Parsons], 

c988 

— ■ — Wear of gears and pinions [Ross], 628 
General Electric Co.: 

Exhibit for San Francisco, 194 

New apparatus, 248 

Generators: 

Capacity of direct current [Lamme], 300 

Germany : 

Berlin railways, effect of war, 813 

Female conductors during war in Berlin, 

813 

Effect of war on traffic, 729 

Hospital cars, *50 

Purchase of Berlin Electric Works by city, 

859 

Railway and electrical conditions [Eichel], 

345 

Silesian single phase electrification, *666 

Test of high-tension direct current, 338 

Trier tramways, ambulance cars [Eichel], 

*831 

War revenues of tramways, 599 

Wendelstein Ry., 1500-volt d.c. line with 

regeneration and storage battery, 274 
Glasgow Corporation Tramways. (See Great 

Britain.) 
Gloversville, N. Y. : 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad, 

Fare change, 159 

Workingmen's fare reduction, 1136 

Gongs, Foot [Reiter], *344 
Governors' messages, 146, 195 
Grand Rapids, Mich.: 
American Public Utilities Co. : 

Annual report, 74 

Earnings and expenses, 859 
United Lt. & Rys. Co.: 

Annual report, 814 
Greenfield, Mass.: 

Connecticut Valley Street Railway, Appli- 
cation to consolidate with Northern 
Massachusetts Street Railway, 731 

Great Britain: 

Belfast City Tramways, Recruiting car. 

*793 

Electrification projects, 684 

Glasgow Corporation Tramways: 

Effect of war, 302 

Front exit double-deck car with fold- 
ing step, *297 
Railway men as soldiers, *47 
Women as conductors, 790, 1031 

Hartlepool tramways, Bombardment of, 180 

London : 

Letters from, 69, 301, 476, 683, 853, 1085 
Reasons for success of motor bus, 888 
Strike, 998; Comments, 968 

Manchester Tramways, Effect of war, 302 

Motor bus costs, Comments, 869 

Municipal operation in England, [Connett], 

179 

Operating results of tramways analyzed 

[Lawson], 929 
Railways, Action of, At outbreak of war, 

70 

Signs, Illuminated guide, *473 

Ticket-printing machine at Victoria Sta- 
tion, London, *473 
Great Falls, Mont. : 

Electrification of terminal for C. M. & St. 

P. Ry., *1172 
Ground-wire alarm [Koppel], *144 
Guy anchor (Track Specialties Co.), *808 



H 

Hagerstown & Frederick Ry. (See Frederick, 

Md.) 
Hamilton, Ont. : 

Dominion Power & Transmission Co., Ltd.: 

Annual report, 688 
Hampton, Va. : 

Newport News & Hampton Ry.: 

Pension system, 1183 
Hanover, Pa.: 

Hanover & McSherrytown Street Railway, 

Sale, 731 
Havana, Cuba: 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power 

Company : 

New power station [Ricker], *920 

Hawaii : 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co.: 

Earnings and expenses during 1914. 
1179 

Red-cedar ties, 92 
Headlights : 

Golden Glow (Esterline), Test at Mobile. 

Ala., 194 

Light-weight, (Trolley Supply Co.), "1082 

Locomotive: 

Report of Master Mechanics Ass'n 
committee, 1116 



Headlights: (Continued) 

— ■ — Test United Railways of St. Louis, 639 
Heating of cars: 

Requirements^ Study of, 103 

Heavy Electric Iraction: 

Discussion before A. S. M. E., [Armstrong, 

Batchelder], 982 
■ Discussion of electrification [Goodnow, 

Murray, Gibbs and Katte], 579 
Electrification of Jamestown, Westfield & 

Northwestern R. R., *11 10 
Maintenance of electrical equipment, 

Master Mechanics Ass'n report, 1115 
New York Central R. R., Maintenance 

costs [Katte], 580 

Norfolk & Western Ry. [Gibbs], 581 

Operating costs, Experience of New Haven 

road [Murray], 229; Comment, 213; 

[Storer], c 335; [Henderson], c 380 
Three-phase electrifications in Italy, Re- 
sults [Pontecorvo], *283, *450 
Henderson (Ky.) Street Ry.: 
— ; — Franchise matters, 434 
High-tension direct-current railways: 
Annapolis Short Line, Conversion from 

single-phase to d. c. operation without 

interruption of service, *542 
Berlin tests, 338 

Electrification of "Valeria Way" line in 

Great Falls, Mont., *1173 

Michigan Railway, 2400-volt line, Construc- 
tion features, *1144 

Progress of 1914, 13 

Salt Lake & Utah R. R., Details of line, *54 

Tatra Ry., Hungary, 1650-volt line, 248 

Wendelstein Ry Germany, 1500-volt line, 

274 

Highway crossings: 

Illinois standard, *145 

Protection (See Signals). 

Highwood, 111.: 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad: 

Results with ampere hour meters on 
cars, *973 
Hobart, Ind.: 

Gary, Hobart & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany, Stock reduction, 646 
Hocking Valley Railroad: 

Service order carried to Supreme Court. 

777 

Hoist, Motor truck, For pole handling (North- 
ern Engineering), *475 

Holyoke, Mass.: 

Holyoke Street Railway: 

Bonds offered, 646 

Feeder panels for carhouse trollev wires. 
*1214 

Locating lathe in floor recess, 1040 
New carhouse and shops, *930 
Shop trucks, *899 

Temporary drilling outfit for running- 
board toe plates, 1174 
Houston, Texas: 
Houston Electric Company: 

Advertising, 1050 
Houston Electric Co.: 

Publication of magazine, 260 
Jitney bus, 648, 1021 

Ordinance providing for paving mainte- 
nance by railways, 856 
Hudson & Manhattan R. R. (See New York City) 
Hydroelectric Power Commission: 

Report, 1137 

Hydro-radial Railways: 

Meeting of Niagara District Hydro-radial 

LTnion, 643 



Illinois Central R. R. : 
— —Gas-electric cars, 51 
Illinois Electric Railway Association- 
Feeder tap protection [Smith], 626; Com- 
ment, 659 
— —Meetings, 173, 626 

Illinois Public Utilities Commission First 

year s work, 349 
Illinois Traction System (See Peoria 111 ) 
Impact between moving cars [Endslev], 1164 
Indiana Railways & Light Co. (See Kokomo, 

Ind.) 

Indiana railway statistics [Duncan], 456 
Indianapolis, Ind.: 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company: 

902 V '° ° f arbitration award, 

Earnings during 1914, 907 
Extension of tracks, Commission order 

not upheld, 1000 
Labor controversy, 855 
Motion for injunction by labor, 812 

lerre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern- 

Annual report, 1179 

r o °" ,ral oiling system for power plant 
896 

Contiov-ersy with county commissioners. 

Copper .zone system, 734 
Traction terminal station, Traffic statistics, 

Inertia effect of moving trains (See Energy 

Consumption) 
Inspection of cars: 

Methods in Greater New York [Whiston], 

Procedure, Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co 

787 



(Abbreviationa : 



'Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



VIII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLV. 



One- 



Instruction of employees (See Employees) 
Insulating tape requirements [Austin], 888 
Insulation: 

Materials and methods in motor insulation 

[Ilellmund], 508 
Insulators: 

Boro-porcelain [Lockel], * 765 

Corrugated wet process (Pittsburgh), *593 

Third-rail, new type (Bridgeport Brass 

Co.), *1 175 

Insurance of employees (See Employees, In- 
surance) 

Insurance, Fire (See fire protection and insur- 
ance) 

Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Access to private correspondence denied 

by Supreme Court, 434 

Accident reports, ruling on, 883 

Conference on federal valuation, 1031 

Decision on Crosby transportation case, 

1137 

Report on accidents, 1071 

Report on steam roads for 1913, 289 

Interest rates (See Financial) 
Interurban railways: 

Automobile industry, Effect of, 448 

Statistics in Indiana, 456 

Iowa & Illinois Ry. (See Clinton, la.) 

Iowa Street & Interurban Railway Association: 

Convention papers, 794; Proceedings, 839 

Italy: 

Italian State Rys. : 

Locomotives, Three-phase, 53; [Pontecor- 
vo], *283 

Three-phase electrifications, Results of 

[Pontecorvo], *450 



Tack suspended from side sill of car, Lehigh 
Valley Transit Co. [Branson], *191 

Jacks : 

Emergency (Buckeye), *194 

Emergency (Templeton, Kenly & Co), 897 

Hydraulic [Koppel], *1039 

Ttickson, Miss. * 

■ Jackson Light & Traction Company, 

man cars, 1136 

Jacksonville (Fla.) Traction Co. financial mat- 
ters, 254 

Jamestown, Westfield & Northern Railroad: 

Electrification, 1110 

Jersey City: 

. Industrial development railway proposal, 

♦663 

Jim Crow law upheld m Kentucky, 400 
Jitney buses: 

Ammunition in jitney war, *634 

As a gold brick, 919 

Boise, Idaho, ordinance, 397 

Buses for sale in Kansas City, *1 149 

Cartoons, *846 

Coloi line, Comment, 1189 

Competition in various cities, Early his- 
tory [Meade, Black], *324; Comment, 
318 

■ Complaisance regarding accidents, 1141 

Convention, 650, 817, 911, 960 

Cost of bus operation, Figures based on 

actual results for auto buses and jitneys, 

Estimates made by projected companies 

[Lafferty, Weaver], *414 

Cost of operation, 620 

Craze on the wane, 784 

Data from Houston, Texas, 1021 _ 

Distribution of nickel compared with street 

railway, 1024 

Discussion of [Kealy], 1071 

Eighty years ago, 611 

El Paso, Texas, 1105 

For Houston, Texas [J. G. Brill], *640 

Franchise developments in Des Moines, 

950; Comments, 917 

Georgia Railroad Commission ruling, 1182 

Illinois Commission hearing, 1093; Order, 

1135 

— — -In Los Angeles, 76; [Lewis], 757 
In Omaha [Palm], 795 

-Information summarized from fourteen 

cities, 648 

Issue at Los Angeles election, 1094 

Jitney situation [Johnson], 985 

Jitneys and railway service. Comments, 969 

Legislation in various cities, 484 

Maryland, Rules established, 1226 

Massachusetts bill, 258 

Menace, 83 

Misleading advertisements, 657 

Official publication, 912 

Operating cost compared with electric rail- 
way, 622 . 

Operation in Dallas, Texas, Earnings, 884 

Permanent national organization, 960 

Philadelphia, 1223 

Publicity campaign against. Ft. Worth, 1049 

Publicity for the jitney, Comment, 1013 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co. 

enters field, 1093 

. Record of the movement, 76, 156, 204, 258, 

309, 353, 374, 396, 484, 530, 602, 648, 
691, 733, 774, 817, 861, 908, 957, 1005, 
1048, 1092, 1133, 1182 

Regulation in various cities, 374, 817; 

Comment, 361 
Report of American Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 619 



San Antonio, Count, 1197 

San Francisco jitney bus matters, 256 

Situation in Mobile, Ala. [Wilson], c 421 

Syndicated anti-railway news, *462; Com- 
ment, 449; [Waters], c 586 

Tabulation of bond and license requirements 

in various cities, 1223 

The jitney situation, 494 

Who are jitney drivers? 967 

(See also Motor buses) 

Joliet, 111.: 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway: 

Paving experiences [Tennon], 1079 

Safety work, 934 
Joliet & Eastern Traction: 

Stock destruction, 731 
■ Joliet, Plainfield & Aurora: 

Second bankruptcy dividend, 731 
Junction box, Home-made [Koppel], *383 
Kankakee & TJrbana Traction Co. (See Ur- 

bana, 111.) 



K 



Kansas City, Mo.: 

Board of control, Work of, 251 

Floods, 1129 

Interurban railway station proposal, 524, 

725 

Jitney bus, 649 

"Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Railway: 

Fare reduction restrained, 1136 
Insurance for employees, 651 
Poles blown down, 625 
St. Joseph rates restrained, 118 

Kansas City Railway & Light Co.: 

Reorganization plan, 197, 351, 481, 773 
Reorganization time extended, 74 

Metropolitan Street Railway: 

Christmas shoppers assisted by conduct- 
ors, 76 

City to purchase system, 349 
Extensions recommended, 391 
Financial statement from receivers, 956 
Issue receivers' certificates, 906 
Joker discovered in franchise, 1007 
New cars, *850 
New viaduct line, 728 
Reorganization time extended, 1221 
Reorganization plan disapproved, 481 
Rush-hour methods, 31 
Side destination signs, 735 
Tractor and trailer truck, * 5 1 6 
Transfer greetings, 78 

Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf R. R. 

Electrification suggested, 252 

Safety zones, permanent, 1007 

Union station service, 109 

Kansas City-Western Ry. 

Fare readjustment, 78 

Kansas-Oklahoma Traction Co. (See Nowata, 
Okla.) 

Kennebunk, Maine: 

Atlantic Shore Railway: 

Annual report, 905 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (See Lex- 
ington, Ky.) 

Keyport, N. J.: 

New Jersey Traction Company sale, 689 

Kokomo, Ind.: 

Indiana Railways & Light Co.: 

Extension of copper zone system, 119 



Labor. (See Employees) 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad. (See 

Scranton, Pa.) 
Lamp bank, Portable, for use in substations 

[Tanis], *893 
Lamps, Electric: 

Small Mazdas with concentrated filaments, 

519 

(See also Lighting of cars) 

Lawrence, Mass. : 

Bay State Street Railway transfer privilege, 

651 

Legal : 

Alien Labor Bill repealed in New York, 525 

Decision on delayed deliveries of material, 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry, 1177 
Decisions on liability for negligence, 107, 

900 

Decision on taxes for leased lines in Ohio, 

1179 

Electric railway legal decisions, 107, 681, 

900 

Franchises invalid without consent of prop- 
erty holders, Cincinnati, O., 1178 

Franchise valuations, New Jersey Gas Case 

(See Franchises: Valuation) 

Tim Crow law in Kentucky, 400 

Michigan Central Railroad ordered to in- 
terchange cars with Detroit United Ry, 
532 

New Jersey "Seven Sisters" law amended, 

727 

Non-unionism a basis of employment, Kan- 
sas decision, 266 

Order for free electric service to public 

buildings in Plainfield, N. J., set aside, 
668 

Ordinance against smoking in Butte, Mont., 

533 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Pay-as-you-enter patent decision, 195 

Repeal of New York Alien Labor law per- 
mits work to recommence on subways, 

599 

Special rates no basis for permanent rates 

in California, 1007 
Legislation: 

Electric railway, in various States, 434, 685, 

855 

Indiana, 302, 347, 390, 432, 478 

New York, 433, 478 

Ohio, 391, 478 

Rayburn, Interstate Commerce bill, 151 

Texas, 392 

Trend in State of Washington [Leonard], 

729 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, Pa.) 

Lewiston, Me.: 

Lewiston-Augusta & Waterville Railway: 

Freight equipment [Nottage], * 121 3 
Note issue, 1004 

Way records on cost-per-section basis 
[Hulett], *669 
Lexington, Ky. : 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal: 

Employes' participation plan proposed, 
1183 

"We" slogan sign [Bacon], c *292 
Lighting of cars: 

Emergency magnet switches (Palmer Elec- 
tric & Mfg.), *640 

Investigation New York Municipal Railway 

Corporation (Gove, Porter), *614, *710 

Locking sockets and receptacles to prevent 

thefts of incandescent lamps (General 
Electric), *429 

Voltage regulator, *851 

Lighting a gage board from behind, * 193 

Little Rock, Ark.: 

Railway & Electric Co. wage increase, 159 

Loan society organized in New York, 687 

Loading limits for cars: 

Board of Health order in New York City, 

487, 604, 735, 961; Comment, 494 

Order to Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 777 

Ordinance in Detroit, 604 

Proposed ordinance in Toronto, 533 

Proposed for Chicago, 605 

Standard seating space, Public Service Com- 
mission, New York, 1094 

Locomotives: 

Bethlehem-Chile Iron Mines Co., 67 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific R. R., Experi- 
ences with 2400-volt locomotives [Cox], 
136 

Comparison of Mallet and electric, *1073 

— Design of [Arthur], 1209 

Electric and steam compared, 1155 

Italian State Railway, Three-phase locomo- 
tives, 53; [Pontecorvo], *283, *450 

Modern rugged design, 1055 

Maintenance costs, New York Central R. R. 

[Katte], 580; Comment, 611 

Panama Canal towing locomotives, *235 

Pennsylvania R. R., at the Panama-Pacific 

Exposition, *387 

Single-phase, for Prussian State Railways, 

667 

Single-phase, three-phase, Norfolk & West- 
ern, *1060 

Steam and electric maintenance costs, c 672 

3000-volt d.c. for Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul Railway, *1072; Comments, 1055 
Locomotive, Internal combustion, One man, *68 
London, Ontario: 
London Street Railway, 731 

Annual report. 
Long Island City: 

Manhattan & Queens Trac. Corp.: 

Three-in-one car for line repairs' [Sher- 
wood], *1 121 
Long Island R. R.: 

Combined steel and wooden trains dis- 
continued, 78 
Operation costs, 815 

Protest against reelection of directors, 773 

Steel cars, Ten years' experience, *566; 

Comment, 539 
Stockholders' suit against Pennsylvania 

R. R., 731 

Tracks to be used by New York subway 

trains, 599 
Los Angeles, Cal. : 

Car maintenance records, 1214 

Court sustains 10-cent fare to Eagle Rock, 

856 

Jitney bus: 

Election issue, 1094 

Regulations, Hearing, 156; Comment, 83 
Special message, 76 

Los Angeles Railway Corporation: 

Bond issue, 1004 

Illuminated destination sign with car 
and run numbers, * 1 1 69 

Monticeto R. R., Opening, 391 

Pacific Electric Railway: 

Collision with locomotive, 1050 

New interlocking plant (General Ry 

Signal), *946 
Shockless railroad crossing, *994 
Street and station indicator, 67 

Purchasing of railways by city under con- 
sideration, 349, 1220 

Service methods, 78 

Transfer of railway properties denied, 528 

Transportation problems, 1129 

Lost articles, Handling, New York Rys., 28 



January-June, 1915.] 



INDEX. 



IX 



Louisville, Ky. : 

Louisville & Interurban: 

Dealing with the spitter, 487 
Louisville Railway: 

Accident record, 899 

Reminiscences of veteran employe, 1209 
Value of politeness [Funk], 735 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Trac. Co.: 

Freight rate agitation, 820 

Safety zone plan, 735 

Sand-spreading wagon [Havass], 300 

Lubrication of motors, siphon, Budapest, *342 
Lumber, Grading of, A. R. E. A. report, 571 



M 



McKeesport, Pa.: 

■ Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Westmoreland 

Ry., Receiver sale, 816 
Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Co. (See 

Youngstown, Ohio) 
Mail Transportation: 

Moon Post Office Bill defeated, 521 

Parcel post "without additional compensa- 
tion," 165 

Pay for mail compared with express rates, 

741 

Maine, Railway statistics, 73 

Maintenance expenses, proportionate increase 

since 1907, 540 
Maintenance of electric railway equipment 

[Barnes], 467; Discussion, 465 
Maintenance of cars: 

Reducing by proper handling of equipment 

[Leonhauser] , 384 
Maintenance records and costs: 

Car maintenance, Rome, Ga. [Wade], 383 

Car maintenance records, Los Angeles, 1214 

Costs of concreting pavement [Gausmann], 

718 

Motor repairs on Memphis Street Ry, * 72 1 

New York Central R. R. [Katte], 580; 

Comments, 611 
Signal maintenance, New York, Westchester 

& Boston Ry., 565 

Steam and electric locomotives, c 672 

Wheel and axle records, Chicago Elevated, 

*551 

Manganese Steel Foundrv Society, Special work 

standards, 755, 1118 
Manganese steel (See Truck Construction) 
Manganese Track Society: 

Manganese steel work specifications, 1118 

Special work standards, 755 

Manila, P. I.: 

Manila Electric Railroad & Light Co.: 

Company section, Meetings, 337, 380, 
673, 798, 1033, 1211; Officers, *S10 
New schedule, 260 
Operating results, 422 
Safety first movement, 1120 

Manhattan & Queens Traction Corporation (See 
Long Island City) 

Manufacturers and their relations to the rail- 
ways [Tripp], 185 

Maps: 

Jamestown, Westfield & Northern Railroad, 

1111 

Michigan Railway and allied lines, 1145 

Norfolk & Western electric zone, *1060 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (See Boston) 
Massachusetts: 

Public Service Commission: 

Annual report, 196 
Railway investments, 201 

Transportation in western part of state, Re- 
port of legislative commission, 197 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association, Meet- 
ing, 137 

Master Car Builders' Association: 

Convention, 1163; Exhibits, 1117 

Plans for annual meeting, 137 

Mayor's Utility Bureau, Organization, 112 
Medal, Anthony N. Brady, Award of, *239; 

Comment, 211 
Medical methods, Chicago Elevated Rys. [Fisher], 

*1192 
Memphis, Teiin.: 

Memphis Street Railway Company: 

Maintenance co-operation, *721 
Publicity in the shop, 699 
Messages of the governors, 146, 195 
Metallic salts for pyrometric purposes, Use of 

(Nehls Alloy Co.), 106 
Meters on cars (See energy consumption) 
Metropolitan Street Ry. (See Kansas City, Mo.) 
Mexico : 

Effect of war on railways, 1086 

Michigan City, Ind. : 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry.: 

Sheet steel pilot, * 106 
Michigan Railway: 

Description of 2400-volt line; service, road- 
way, third-rail construction, surge pro- 
tection, * 1 1 44 
New line opened, 1044 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry. (See Newton- 

ville, Mass.) 
Midi Railway (See France) 
Mileage statistics for 1914, 14; Comment, 12 
Milwaukee Wis.: 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Company: 

Annual report, 645 

Asphalt relaying with hot mixer, *1080 



Milwaukee, Wis.: 

— Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co.: (Continued) 

Bonus system for employees, 1008 

Company section, 100, 418 

Fare case decision, 1226 

Machine tool guards, 756 

Railroad commission rescinds low-fare 
order, 333 

Repair-shop procedure, *786 

Zone fares. Paper before New England 
R. R. Club [Stearns], *836; Com- 
ment, 825 
Milwaukee Northern Railway: 

Regulators for car lighting circuits, *851 
Wisconsin Railway Light & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 153 
Minneapolis, Minn.: 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 527 

Cable splicer's portable tool box, *247 
Flange-bearing special work [Wilson], 
c 1034 

Pension plan for employees, 118 
Missouri Association of Public Utilities: 
Convention, 1071 

Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf R. R. (See Kansas 

City) 

Missouri public utility law, 113 
Mobile, Ala.: 

Advantages of small cars [Wilson]. cl206 

Jitney bus situation [Wilson], c 421 

Monterey, Cal. : 

Monterey & Pacific Grove Railway, Bond 

issue refused by commission, 773 
Monticeto R. R. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Montpelier, Vt. : 

Barre & Montpelier Traction & Power Co., 

Fare increase, 1 19 
Montreal, Can.: 

Flange-bearing special work [Graves], 

c 1034 

Montreal Tramways: 

Franchise extension, 112 

Note issue, 689 

Municipal ownership, Report on, 1001 

Safety first league, 159 

Safety first savings, 165 

Montreaux Oberland Ry. (See Switzerland) 
Morris Plan Co., New York organization, 687 
Motor Buses: 

(Also see Jitney Buses) 

Chicago, Traction fund for municipal sys- 
tem, 348 

Double deck, with low roof, Vienna, *49 

In London [Gordon], 888; Comment, 869 

Interurban bus service, 1218 

Rush hour service, 658 

Seattle, Wash., motor bus fund, 199 

Well construction with low roof in Vienna, 

*49, *51 

Washington Motor Bus Co., Details of serv- 
ice, 1225 

Motors : 

Axle bearing cap with oil-saving filler, *66 

Baffle plate for motor axle bearing caps 

[Fox], *424 

Calculations of starting resistances [Sim- 
mon, Cameron], c 238; [Buck], *330; 
[Castighoni], c 336, 381; [Harding], 
c 186; Comment, 405.. 

Chart for the transformation of speed 

curves for different voltages [Castig- 
lioni], *515 

Efficiency [Hellmund], 594 

Field-control motor speeds [Hellmund], 

520 

1500-yolt for C. M. & St. P. Ry., Charac- 
teristic curves, *1073 

High-tension d. c. tap field for Central Ar- 
gentine Railway, *679 

Impregnation of coils (Electric Operations 

Co.), *429 

Insulating materials and methods [Hell- 
mund], 508 

Lubrication, Siphon, Budapest, *342 

Maximum motor input [Mulder], c511 

New York Municipal Ry., 160-hp., tap- 
field, *497 

Overloads and flashing [Parshall], c 57 

Pressed steel (Westinghouse), * 1 041 

Resistances, Effects of incorrect starting 

resistances [Corning], c*93 

Selection for city service [Remington], 675 

Steinway tunnel equipment (General Elec- 
tric Co.), *1124; (Westinghouse), *764 

Testing insulation [Lewis], 1037; Comment, 

1055; [Gove], c 1119 
Ventilated cover to increase output [Par- 
sons], 1170 

Ventilation, advantages and disadvantages 

[Hellmund], *833; Comment, 827; 
[Priest], c891; [Hellmundl, *937; Com- 
ment, 968; [Adams], c 990; [Phillips], 
1209 

Mt. Vernon, Ohio: 

Mt. Vernon Railway, Receiver appointed, 

773 

Moving pictures (See Accident claim depart- 
ment, Prevention) 
Multiple unit trains, Maintenance cost, 611 
Municipal Electric Railway (See Edmonton, 
Alta.) 

Municipal Ownership: 

Bills defeated, Massachusetts, 643, 812 

Dual ownership in Alsace, 1217 

England, Experience in [Connett], 179 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Municipal Ownership: (Continued; 

Inquiry bill, California, 643 

Ohio bill passed permitting bond issues for 

purchase, 769 

Ordinance discussed, Toledo, 1042 

Pekin (111.) Street Railway transferred to 

City, 1000 



N 

Nashville, Tenn.: 

Nashville Ry. & Lt. Co. 

Safety crusade in schools, 1077 

Safety-first campaign, 78 
Nashville Traction Company, line opened, 

1000 

National bureau of transportation suggested by 

Howard Elliott, 741 
National Civic Federation: 

-Workmen's compensation suggestions, 252 

National Committee on Line Construction: 

Meeting, 798, 986 

Plans, 101 

National electrical week, Plans, 435 
National Electric Light Association: 

Address by President Scott, 1106 

Convention : 

Proceedings, 1106 

Officers elected, 1162 
National Electrical Safety Code: 
Comment, 825 

Conference postponed, Comment, 1189 

Discussion on [Harvie], c 768; [Hanna, 

Cadle], c 1036; [Crecelius], c941: 

[Tingley], c 845 

Explanation of [Rosa], c 939 

Preliminary edition, 750; Comments, 741 

Representation at conference on details, 

1162 

Status of work [Rosa], 673 

National Railway Appliance Association: 

Secretary appointed, 1044 

New Bedford, Mass.: 

New Bedford & Onset St. Ry.: 

Increase of fares, 819 
Increased fare suspended, 1136 

New England Street Railway Club: 

Annual meeting, 631 

Zone fares in Milwaukee [Stearns], *836; 

Comment, 825 
New Jersey Public Utility Commission report, 

148 

New Jersey Traction Co. (See Keyport, N. J.) 
New Jersey Utilities League, 390 
New Haven, Conn.: 

Connecticut Co.: 

Life of way structure [Wilson], * 1212 
New Orleans, La.: 

New Orleans Railwav & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 1002 

Cars,_ all-steel, *270; Comment, 275 

Traffic survey, 311 
New York Central Railroad: 

Maintenance costs [Katte], 580; Comment, 

611 

Suburban fare case decision, 1136 

New York City: 

Accident statistics, 119, 134, 736, 1139 

American Cities Company: 

Annual report, 954 
Condition of subsidiaries, 307 

American Light & Traction: 

Earnings in 1914, 906 

Auto-bus franchises, 480 

Board of Education, Vocational lectures, 

454 

Capacity of cars limited by Board of Health, 

487, 604, 693, 856, 961; Comment, 494; 
Order defied, 1049; Upheld by courts, 
1184 

Consolidation of New York, Westchester X: 

Boston Railway & Westchester North- 
ern Railroad, 1091 

Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Ry.: 

Bond issue not approved, 955 

Electric Bond & Share Co., Capital increase, 

393 

Fenders for Fifth Ave. buses, 1000 

Ferry-car transfers continued, 1184 

Hudson & Manhattan Railroad: 

Annual report, 730 

Complaint handling, 26 

Courtesy of employees, 20 

Earnings in 1914, 114 

Hudson Companies, Annual meeting. 
, 153 

Painting cars in two days, Use of bak- 
ing enamel [See], *584 
Relay setting for uniform acceleration 

[See]. *761 
Safety record, 777 

Inspection of equipment by Public Service 

Commission [Whiston], 133 
Interborough-Metropolitan Investing & Se- 
curity Co., Investigation, 303 

Interborough-Metropolitan readjustment plan, 

858; Approved, 1090 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company: 

Dual system contract modified in re- 
gard to new steel subway cars, 770 
Elevated Railways: 
Accidents, 356 
Signals needed, 391 
Steel car report, 252 
Third-tracking, 480 



X 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLV. 



New York City: 

— Interborough Rapid Transit Co.: (Continued) 
Electrical equipment of Belmont tunnel 

cars, *764, 803, *1 124 
Subway franchise taxable, 767 
Passenger traffic, 134, 689 
Remodeling Seventy-fourth St. power 

station, 744, *764; Comment, 742 
Removal order against wooden subway 

cars, 644. 953 
Subway: 

Accident caused by short-circuit, 

95, 148, 432; Comment, 85 
Delay, third-rail short circuit, 305 
Fire, 598 

Labor problem, 113, 480 
Sand for, from Europe, 1200 
Service order concerning seating 

of passengers, 260 
Suggested changes for preventing 
accidents, 251, 729 
Welfare work, 487 

"Tay Walkers," Plan to suppress, 400 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Franchise tax 

reduction, 728 

Motor bus franchise matters, 113, 480, 1088 

New York Municipal Railway Corp.: 

Brakes and auxiliaries on new cars, 
*872 

Car lighting investigation [Gove, Por- 
ter], *614, *710 

Cars — Motors, control, conduit and 
collectors, *496 

Report on construction progress, 249 

Speed control for Brooklyn subway, 72 

Testing motor insulation [Gove], 1119 
New York & Queens County Ry.: 

Abandonment of portion of franchise 
prohibited, 952 

Service order, 863 
New York Railways: 

Interest rate fixed on income bonds, 689 

Lost articles, Handling, 28 

Snow-sweeper with outward swung 
broom, Tests of, *320; Comment, 
317 

Operating over broken water main, * 12 1 1 

New York, Westchester & Boston Railway: 

Consolidation with Westchester & 

Northern Railroad, 1091 
Signal maintenance methods, *561; 
Comment, 539 

Proposed leases of Long Island tracks to 

city, 772 

Public Service Commission: 

Charges against commission and in- 
vestigation, 71, 152, 199, 265, 
302, 309, 346, 430, 477, 641, 811, 
1042 

Inspection of equipment [Whiston], 133 
Report, 196 

Service orders to be enforced, 206 
Signal and steel car resolutions, 110 
Standard seating space fixed, 1094 
Suggestions regarding changes in sub- 
way, 251 

— — Repeal of Alien Labor Law, 599 
Republic Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 1090 
— — Smoking order suspended, 1227 
Staten Island Midland Railway: 

Issue of trust certificates, 860 
Steinway Tunnel: 

Electrical equipment for cars, *764, 
♦1124 

Modifying agreement for temporary 

operation, 903 

Third Avenue Ry.: 

Accidents for 1913 and 1914, 296 
Ampere-hour meters on battery cars, 

593 

Ash-pit for blacksmith forges, Remov- 
able [Jenkins], *425 

Axles, Reclaimed by welding [Johnson], 
♦294 

Blockade photos, Cash offered for, 158 
Coasting time recorders, Experience, 

*572; Comment, 541 
Crane car for track work [Ryder], *763 
Investigation by stockholder's commit- 
tee, Report, 307 
Knife guard for jointer or planer fTohn- 

son], *805 
President's statement, 647 
Transfer printing plant, *702 
Sandbox opened by fender trip [Tohn- 

son], *106 
Snow pictures, 441 

Use of gas flame in removing pinions 

[Parsons], 988 
Window cleaner, Fixed squeegee on 
motorman's cab [Johnson], *339 
Utah Securities Corporation, Annual re- 
port, 1089 

J. G. White Companies, Annual report, 

1090 

New York Electric Railway Association: 

Meeting at Lake George, 464; Comment, 

447 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: 

Charter revision hearing, 769 

Electrified division, operating results [Mur- 
ray], 229; Comment, 213; [Storer], 
c 335; [Henderson], c 380 

Future plans, 389 

Indictment of officials, 151, 643, 686, 729 



New York Railroad Club: 

Electrical night [Gibbs ; Eaton, Pender, 

Murray, Armstrong, turner and McClel- 
lan], 624 

New York State: 

Constitutional Convention, Comment, 869 

Industrial Commission created, 1044 

Public Service Commission: 

Capitalization report, 306 
Quarterly pamphlet issued, 282 
Reorganization proposed, 71 
Report, 196, 509 

Rules of procedure, Changes, 112 

■ Securities for new construction, 393 

New York State Rys. (See Rochester, N. Y.) 

(See Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Newark, N. J.: 

Passaic Gas case. (See Passaic, N. J.) 

Public Service Corporation: 

Annual Report, 600 

Public Service Ry- : 

Company section: 

Meetings, 188, 380, 418, 589, 631, 1211 
Officers,. *100 
Program for year, 337 
Winter program, 1 
Increased energy consumption, 1022 
Moving pictures in safety education, 
*98 

Near side stop established by law in 

New Jersey, 962 
Open, steel underframe car, *1171 
Terminal, progress on, *793 
Safety methods, 282 

Newport i\ews & Hampton Ry. (See Hamp- 
ton, Va.) 

Newtonville, Mass. : 

Middlesex & Boston. Street Ry: 

Fare case, 137 

Niagara District Hydro-Radial Union: 

Annual Meeting, 643 

Niagara, Ste. Catharines & Toronto Ry. (See 
Ste. Catharines, Ont.) 

Norfolk & Bristol Street Ry. (See Foxboro, 
Mass.) 

Norfolk & Western Ry. : 

Electrification plans [Gibbs], 581 

Electrification, Description of line, locomo- 
tives, power house and service, * 1 058 ; 
Comment, 1057 

Northern Electric Ry. (See Chico, Cal.) 

Northern Ohio Traction Co. (See Akron, 
Ohio) 

Northern Texas Traction Co. (See Fort Worth, 
Tex.) 

Northern White Cedar Association: 

Convention, 274 

Norwich, Conn. : 

■ Shore Line Elect. Ry.: 

Wage increase, 1226 
Notices to the public, Wording of, 361 
Nowata, Okla. : 

Kansas-Oklahoma Traction: 

Combination cars, 806 

Number box. Illuminated, Rockford, III. [Gra- 
ham], *341 



o 

Oakland, Cal.: 

Exposition crowds, San Francisco, 642 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway: 

Annual report, 773, 905 

Management report, 646 

Steel ferryboat, * 1 33 
— —San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 

Automobile accidents, Handling [Mills], 
1203 

Note issue, 74 

Power contract declared unreasonable, 
1001 

Readjustment statements, 1131 

Valuation findings, 1090 

Value of Key-Route property, Ap- 
praisal, 646 
Oakwood Street Railway. (See Dayton, O.) 
Ocean Shore R.R. (See San Francisco, Cal.) 
Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati) 
Ohio Industrial Commission: 

Compensation rulings, 373 

Ohio Public Utilities Commission: 
Report, 151 

Ohio Traction Company. (See Cincinnati, O.) 
Oiling system: 

Central lubricators, *896 

Oklahoma City: 
Jitney bus, 648 

Omaha & Lincoln Ry. & Lt. Co. (See Ralston, 

Neb.) 
Omaha, Neb.: 

Omaha & Council Bluff Street Railway: 

Annual report, 1045 
Valuation of properties, 252 

One-man cars: 

Experiences with [Howard], 233 

Ontario Hydro-Electric railways, 305 
Ontario. Canada: 

Railways under compensation act, 348 

Storm conditions, 347 

Operating problems: 

Increasing capacity of the line, 6 

Standards in the operating department, 8 

Operating records and costs: 

Amperehour meter records, Chicago & Mil- 
waukee Railroad, 974 

Bay State Street Railwav, arbitration, sta- 
tistics quoted, 708; Comment, 700 

(Abbreviations: Tllustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Operating Records and Costs: (Continued) 

Coasting records, Various railways, *706, 

♦1198 

Distribution of operating expenses, Census 

report, 96, 131 

Economies with small cars [Layng], *979 

Equipment failure records, Standardization, 

1099 

Jitney bus, 620 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 333 

Need for standards, 8 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R., 

Electrified division [Murray], 329; 
Comment, 213 

Pennsylvania R. R., locomotive performance, 

1217 

Service record chart, Chicago, *366 

Taxicabs, 621 

Tramways of Great Britain [Lawson], 929 

■ (See also Traffic counts) 

Ottawa, 111.: 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. : 

Bridge and building inspection report 

forms, *342 
Restoring wheel dangers with welder 

[Murphy], *719 
Sand experience [Carr], 143 
Way department rule book to promote 
standard practice, 89 
Ottawa, Ont.: 

Ottawa Traction Company, Ltd.: 

Annual report, 688 
Overhead construction: 

Automatic section insulator (Westinghouse), 

*852 

Clevis clamps for standard cable, *805 

Combination side-feed wedge for splice ears, 

"1041 

Cross arms. Malleable iron, on wooden 

poles, New York State Rys., *297 

Dead-ending feeders to metal poles [M'Kel- 

way], * 1 43 

Double trolley system, Seattle [Kennedy], 

*128 

Italv. the Lecco-Calolzio line [ Pontecorvo] , 

*453 

Line construction on Chicago, Milwaukee & 

St. Paul Railway, *934 

Mechanical cable connections [Fargo], * 1 2 1 6 

Philadelphia-Paoli electrification, 1118 

Pick-up for broken trolley wires [Branson], 

*295 

Trolley frogs for high-speed operation [West- 
inghouse], 1217 

Trolley frogs for one degree of angle 

(Westinghouse), *428 

■ Trollev wire location on curves [Foster], 

*62, *105, *142. 191, *242 

Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (See San Francisco, 
Cal.) 

Packages, Charge for carrying on cars abolished 
in Seattle, Wash., 1184 



P 

Paints and painting: 

Eliminating frills to reduce cost [Lewis], 

847 

■ Hudson & Manhattan R.R., Use of baking 

enamel [Lee], *584 

Uniformity in color [McAloney], c468 

Change color and save money, 268 

Palo Alto, Cal.: 

Rate complaint against Southern Pacific Ry. 

dividend, 1050 
Panama Canal: 

Electric towing, *235 

Panama-Pacific Exposition: 

Award to Electric Railway Journal, 1141 

Electric railway exhibits, 519 

Electric Railway Journal booth, 1155 

Fair grounds transportation, *754 

Jury on awards, 890 

Locomotive, Electric, of Pennsylvania R.R., 

*387 

Transportation exhibits, *504 

Pantographs : 

Annapolis Short Line, *550 

C, M. & St. P. Ry., Double contact pans 

[Armstrong], *1072 
Parkersburg, W. Va.: 
Kanawha Traction & Electric Co.: 

Merger with Parkersburg, Marietta & 
Interurban Ry., 1180 

Parks: 

Amusement parks opened in Kansas City, 

1024 

Gas rate case, c57, 112, 199, 304, 1177 

Passenger-mile earnings, Recorder for (Bon- 
ham), *948 
Pavement : 

Asphalt relaving with hot mixer, *1080 

Cutting concrete [M'Kelway], *993 

Discussions on wood block and stone block 

paving [Oxholm, Tillson, Schmidt], 134 

Experiences at Joliet [Tinnon], *1079 

Methods and cost of concreting [Gaus- 

mann], 718 

Traffic standards and traffic values, 135 

Treated wood-block pavements, Discussions 

at American Wood Preservers' Associa- 
tion, 181 

Warning signs for new work [Cram], *893 

Peak traffic. (See Rush-hour) 

Pearson, Dr. F. S., Obituary [Quick], c 988 



January-June, 1915.] 



INDEX. 



XI 



Peekskill, N. Y. : 

Putnam & Westchester Traction Co., One- 
man operation, 399 
Pekin, 111.: 

■ Municipal railway bonds, 391 

Pekin Street Railway transferred to city, 

1000 

Pennsylvania Railroad: 
Electrification plans, 524 

Mailing communications with dividends, 613 

Locomotive performance, 1217 

Philadelphia electrification trials, 596 

Policy with employees, 950 

Publicity practice, 1042; Comments, 1013 

Training men for electric operation [Rob- 
erts], *970; Comments, 968 
Pennsylvania State: 

Compensation measures signed, 1130 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association: 

Spring meeting, 935, *979; Question Box, 

781 

Peoria, 111.: 

Illinois Traction System: 

Chemical laboratory [Beagle], 423 
Coil winding unit [Chubbuck], * 1 2 1 3 
Power Dispatching methods [Fitch], 
*470 

Signaling system, Installations of 1914 
[Leisenring], *408 
Jitney bus, 649 

Phase converters, 1061; Comment, 1057 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 

American Railways Company: 

Semi-steel cars in collision [Keen], 
*c 715 

Fairmount Park Transportation Co.: 

Order to sell at auction, 955 
Receivers loan, 689 
Sale, 1222 

■ Fare registration [Edmunds], c 716 

Jitney bus, 649 

■ Rapid transit: 

Improvements, 349, 684 

Loan approved, 901 

Loan ordinance, 152 

Mass meeting, 200 

Measure signed, 523 

Ordinance, 479 

Plans, 391 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company: 

Safety-first poster stamps, *665 

United Railways Investment Company: 

Financial statement [Starring], 646 

Pilots, Sheet steel, Chicago, Lake Shore & South 
Bend Ry., *106 

Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

Freight ordinance, 399 

Objection to Pittsburgh subway bill, 644 

Pittsburgh Railways Co.: 

Baling waste paper, shavings and ex- 
celsior [Yungbluth], c 239 

Portable substations, *1039 

Safety propaganda, *796 

Transfer system, 399 
Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Westmoreland Ry. 

(See McKeesport, Pa.) 
Pittsfield, Mass.: 
Berkshire Street Railway: 

Cheshire high-tension wire case, 78 

Petition for increased fares, 693 

Substation, Portable semi-outdoor, *56 

Poles: 

Concrete, Electrolysis develops defects, New 

York State Railways [Throop], 294 

■ Discussion at Western Red Cedar Associa- 
tion, 180 

■ (See also Timber preservation) 

Portland, Me.: 

Cumberland County Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Fare reduction denied, 605 

Jitney advertisement, *634 
Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway. (See 

Salem, Ore.) 
Portland, Ore.: 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 1089 

Titney bus, Statement concerning, 396 
Note offering, 816 
Readjustment of capitalization, 860 
Rush-hour traffic and schedule adjust- 
ment, *13S 
Weekly publication for patrons, 651 
Porto Rico: 

■ Porto Rico Railways: 

Annual report, 7'32 
Portugal: 

Lisbon Tramways, Earnings and expenses, 

1222 

Power dispatching, Illinois Traction System 

[Fitch],, *470 
Power Distribution: 

Cable splicer's tool box, Minneapolis, *247 

Feeder-tap, Effect on schedule speed 

rStahl], *991 

Feeder-tap protection, Comment, 659 

■ Feeder-tap resistance in rotary-converter 

practice- [Creceliusl, [ Rougher], c799 
Fibre conduit installation for feeder taps, 

•1125 

Location of feeder-taps [Smith], 627 

National joint committee on line construc- 
tion (See National Committee) 

Return circuits [Skelly], 794 

Review of. 1914, 4 

Power Generation: 

Diesel engines, insurance of, 1057 

Direct-connected exciters, 680 

Fuel valued of coal, oil and gas [Hunter], 

984; [Purtee], 984 



Power Generation: (Continued) 

Future central station development [Moyer], 

c987 

Obsolescence on a large scale, 742 

Oil fuel for standby service [Delany], 1106 

Review of 1914, 4 

Test of Diesel engine (Mcintosh & Sey- 
mour), 639 

Transformer blower (Buffalo Forge), 639 

Power Stations: 

New plant for Havana Ry., *920 

Norfolk & Western Railroad at Bluestone, 

1063 

Possible lines of progress [Thomas], c939 

Remodeling 74th Street Station of Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Co., 744 
Power stations, Hydroelectric: 

Rochester Railway & Light Co., 247 

President of a railway, Qualifications, 503 
President Wilson's address at mid-year meeting, 
217, 275; Comments of the press, 278; 
Opinions [Shonts, Williams, Budd, 
Clark, Cummir.gs], c290 
Profits, Limiting, 149 
Providence, R. I.: 

Rhode Island Co.: 

Federal dissolution decree, 479 
Plublic, Relations with: 

Business conditions [Tripp], 185 

Complaint bureaus on various lines, 23 

Human nature and the railroad, 1099 

Management and public relations [Peirce], 

459 

"Mixing" as an asset [Cooper], 842 

"Pointed paragraphs on public policy,"' 71 

Public-be-pleased policy, Review of current 

railway practice, 20 

Railwavs must give good service, 9 

Report of N. E. L. A. committee, 1107 

(See also Referendnms; Complaints, etc.) 

Public Service Commissions: 
Annual Reports: 

California, 771, 769, 815; Connecticut, 
769; Indiana, 684; Missouri, 725; 
Washington, 528 

Commission organized in Wyoming, 728 

Conferences with officers of public utilities, 

265 

■ — — Engineers as members [Cooley], 1158 

Exhibit at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 707 

-Extension of powers in New jersey, 598 

Investigation in New York (See New York 

City) 

Nominations recalled in Pennsylvania, 810 

Ohio Commission sustained by Supreme 

Court, 597, 598 
Public co-operation at commission hearings, 

167 

Publication of annotated reports proposed, 

250 

Publicity by commissions [Cushing], c58 

Qualifications, Comment on, 699 

Regulation bv, [Maltbie, Mitchel and Har- 
rison], 810 

Regulation by commission. "Experimental 

service," 167 
Regulation of common carriers [Duncan], 

632 

Service standards for St. Louis, 961 

Utility law amended in State of Washing- 
ton, 770 

Views on regulation expressed at . New York 

State Constitutional Convention, 1086 

Work during 1914. Care in choosing of 

personnel, 5 
Public Service Corporations: 

Co-operation and publicity [Kingsbury], 223; 

Discussions [Ely, Connette], 216; Com- 
ment, 213 

Order against duplication of facilities in 

California, 525 

Policies criticized [Cooke], 522 

Principles of taxation, 784 

Regulation [Atterbury], 378 

Publicity: 

Advantages [Allen], 280 

Atlanta, Ga. Newspaper advertising, 111 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Publicity 

pamphlets, 205 

Code of principles [Williamsl, 220; Discus- 
sions [Tripp, Brush], 214; Comment, 
212 

Cost figures, importance of, 743, 

Mailing communications with dividends, 613 

New publications: 

Chicago Elevated Railways, 952 
Tri-City Railway & Light Co., 912 
Union Traction Co., Indianapolis, 820 
Virginia Railway & Power Company, 
692 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co., 
651 

Syndicated anti-railway news, *462; Com- 
ment, 499; [Watersl, c 586 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, Wash.) 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co. (See 
Seattle, Wash.) 

Pumps, Manhole -drainage, Brooklyn, *247 

Putnam & Westchester Traction Co. (See Peeks- 
kill, N. Y.) 

R 

Rail grinder, One-man (Equipment Engineering 

Co.), »475 
Rail Joints and Bonds: 

Maintaining the return circuit [Skelly], 794 

Short bonds costly [Fuller], 791 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrati tl. c Correspondence. 



Rail Joints and Bonds: (Continued) 

Tests and costs of electrically welded joints 

[Price!, 1156 
Track bonds, Norfolk & Western Railroad, 

1067 

Raillcss traction in Shanghai, China, 592 
Kails : 

Corrugation, Harder rails suggested as pre- 
ventative of [Sellon], 578 

Life of open-hearth steel compared with 

manganese steeL on curves, Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Co. [Bernard], 383 

Manganese double-web guard rail [Bernard], 

*427 

Outfit for laying, Kankakee & Urbana Trac- 
tion Co. [Shelton], *242 

Statistics of production for 1914, 832 

Titanium, Influence of, on segregation 

[Fitzgerald], 58 

Vanadium, Test of, Pennsylvania Steel Co.. 

*388 

Wear in Chicago B. O. S. E. report, *1 195 

Railway Signal Association: 

Spring meeting, 1023 

Winter meeting, 582 

Ralston, Neb. : 

Omaha & Lincoln Railway & Light Com- 
pany 

New issue of securities, 731 
Rates, Railway (See Fares) 
Reactance (See Transmission lines) 
Reading, Pa.: 

Reading Transit Company, New line, 686 

Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 1914, 19 
Record forms: 

Inspection report, B'ridge and building, Chi- 
cago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., *342 

Instruction department forms, Rochester. 

N. Y., 367 

Recording progress in assembly of equip- 
ment [Litchfield], *339 

Track maintenance [Hulett], *669 

Recorder for passenger-mile earnings (Bonham 
Fare Recorder Co.), *948 

Records : 

Equipment failures standardized, 1099 

Graphical, and their use, 1014 

Records as evidence, 657 

Trouble^ board record, Chicago Elevated, 

Red Book ceases publication, 463 

Referendums in Brooklyn, Kansas City, Boston 

and Denver, 27 
Registers (See also Fare Collection) 
Regulation (See Public Service Corporations) 
Repair shop equipment: 

Adjustable stand for forge shop, Blue Hill 

Street Railway, *997 

Ash pit for blacksmith forges. Removable 

[Jenkins], *425 

Cabinets for small stock at Holyoke, *899 

Coil-winding unit [Chubbuck], *1213 

Combination welding and cutting outfit (Im- 
perial Brass Mfg. Co.), *997 
Goggles on grinder, 896 

Grinding machine for grids [Keller], *64 

Fleadlight test bench at Holyoke, *899 

Home made saw for light tubing [Parsonsl. 

*849 

Hydraulic jack for pinion removal [Koppell. 

*1039 ' ' 

Oil-bath tank [Parsons], *65 

Portable commutator slotter [Koppell 

♦847 

Portable electric drills (Western Electric 

"Temco"), *949 

Portable lamp bank holder [Janis], *893 

Reel for live conductor used in moving 

cars or trucks in shop { Parsons], *894 
Switch for fixed or portable lamps in nit. 

*899 

Repair shop practice: 

Armature-room force, Denver Tramways, 

1215 

Axles reclaimed by welding [Tohnson], *294 

Chicago Elevated R. R., *551; Comment, 540 

Commutator soldering torch [ Donovan 1 

*1079 

Controller segment sample boards, *66 

Economic limit of repair shop [Berry], 1027 

Forming blocks for motor-case bolts, Rock- 
ford, 111. [Graham], »296 

Handling armatures, *1041 

Heating pinions, 638 

Impregnation of coils saves copper, 640 

Increasing hydraulic press output ["Vul- 
can"], 1170 

Installation and removal of pinions T Par- 
sons], *674 

Jig for planing bearing caps [Sutherland], 

944 

Knife guard for jointer and hand planer 

[Johnson], *805 

Labor side of maintenance, 540 

Lamp bank for equipment tests, Portable 

[Hinman], *513 

Locating wheel lathe in floor recess, *1040 

Maintenance of all-steel cars on Long Island 

R.R., *566; Comment, 539 

Maintenance of pinions [Parsons], 638 

Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co.'s procedure, 

*786 

Notched stick to steer wheel sets, New York 

State Rys., *592 

Publicity in the shop, Memphis, 699 

Removing pinions [Ross], 800 

■ Rethreading pinion-ends ["Vulcan"], *720 

Safety co-operation with employees, *43 

Scientific spirit in the shop, 1189 



XII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLV. 



Repair Shop Practice :. (Continued) 

Short circuits in field coils. Testing methods 

[Foote], *64 

Sleeves shrunk on worn armature shafts 

["Vulcan"], *720 
Slotting commutators in motor shell 

[Koppel], *847 

Temporary drilling outfit at Holyoke, *1174 

Testing armature clearance r Lewis], 893 

Thrust Dlate for worn car axles [Vulcan], 

*635 

Trouble board, Tri-City Railway [Suther- 
land], *1078 

Voltmeter measurements of direct current, 

Table [McKelway], 341; Corrections, 
427 

Welding worn wheel flanges [Murphy], *719; 

Danger of [Hayes], *942; Comment, 917 
Repair Shops: 

Cleveland Ry., Details of new buildings, 168; 

[Keen], c 290 

Evanston Railway, *660 

Holyoke Street Railway, *930 

Norfolk & Western Railroad, *1069 

Springfield (Ohio) Ry., *556 

Republic Railway & Light Co. (See New Vork 

City) 

Rerailer for cars which serves as derailer for 

vehicles (Sargent), *594 
Resistances (See Motors) 

Rhode Island Public Utilities Commission, Re- 
port, 250 
Richmond, Va. : 

Virginia Railway & Power Co. : 

Franchise matters, 252, 1088 
New publication, 692 

Riverside, Cal.: 

Riverside, Rialto & Pacific Railroad: 

Purchase by Pacific Electric Co., 690 
Rochester, N. Y. : 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. : 

Linemen's searchlight, *472 
New York State Rys.: 

Annual report, 482 

Complaint department, 23, 26 

Courtesy of employees, 21 

Cross arms, Malleable iron, on wooden 
poles, *297 

Electrolysis developes defects in con- 
crete poles [Throop], 294 

Fare case, Three-cent, Arguments before 
commission, 117; Decision, 439 

Instruction of employees, Methods of, 
and effect on the accident record 
[Lawson], 367 

Passenger handling at Kodak Park, *838 

Snow removal from under-running third- 
rail [Hinman], *469 

Step lighting, 247 

Telephone dispatching, *885 

Train-operation, Methods, *752 

Way records on cost-per-section basis 
[Falconer], c 1035 
Rochester Railway & Light Co., Hydroelectric 

plant, 247 
Rockford, 111.: 

Rockford Citv Traction Company: 

Mutual Benefit Association, 735 
Rockford & Interurban Ry.: 

Forming blocks for motor-case bolts 
[Graham], *296 

Pond issue, 646 

Tail-light box [Graham], *424 
Rolling stock (See Cars) 
Rome (Ga.) Railway & Light Co.: 
Car maintenance, 383 

Runawav-car ston on Lackawanna & Wyoming 

Valley Ry., *706 
Rules, Discussion by A. E. R. A. committee, 379 
Rush-hour, Plotting peak traffic as an aid to 

schedule adjustment, Portland, Ore., 

*138 

s 

Safety-First Movement (See Accident Claim 

Dept. — Prevention) 
St. Catharines, Canada: 

Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Ry. : 

Pav-as-you enter interurban cars, *246 
St. Louis, Mo.: 
Jitney bus, 648 

Service order, standards of operation, 961 

St. Louis Elect. Term. Ry. : 

Safety record, 1197 
— ■ — Service order fixing standards of operation, 

96! 

United Railways: 

Annual report, 481 

Children's tickets, 260 

Compromise of tax suit suggested, 1129 

Earnings decrease, 253 

Eliminating stops, 1136 

Employees' magazine, 260 

First home built under loan plan, 863 

Headlight tests, 639 

Manganese steel crossings [Hawkins], 
c 892 

Mill-tax case, 112, 151, 349 

Mill-tax decision, Opinion of Judge 

Walker, 70 
Pension plan, 78 
Rapid transit hearing, 204 
Service inquiry, 77 
Signs in cars, 77 
Welfare work, 487 
Salem, Ore.: 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway: 

One-man cars, 1136 



Salt Lake City: 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry. : 

Steel tie construction in electrically 
warmed concrete [Bamberger], * 1 89 
High-tension direct-current system, De- 
tails of, *54 

Utah Securities Corporation takes over prop- 
erties, 435 

San Antonio, Tex. : 

San Antonio Traction Company: 

Advertising band concerts, 1136 
Track construction [Smith], 1030 

San Diego, Cal.: 

Panama-California Exposition, Terminal 

facilities, *587- 
San Diego Elec. Ry., Division of accident 

savings among employes, 818 
San Francisco: 

Accident on Fillmore Street hill, 1137 

California Railway & Power Co. 

Annual report, 436 
Central California Traction Company. Lease 

to Stockton Electric Railroad, 6S8 

Jitney bus, 256, 648 

Municipal Railwav: 

Annual report, 687, 1221 

Earnings and expenses during 1914, 
1004 

Examination of employees, 355 

Extensions, 433, 1222 

Geary Street carhouse enlarged, 667 

Stockton Street line, 112 
— Ocean Shore R. R., Assessment, 816 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. : 

Bond issue, 816 

Redemption of notes, 732 

Stock distribution, 115 

Stock dividend, 1180, 1004 

Public relations [Lilienthal], 150 

Southern Pacific Co., Rate case, 120, 260 

Street traffic signal, *671 

Transfers between Municipal Ry. and United 

Railroads, 605 
Transportation facilities during Exposition, 

259 

United Railroads: 

Attitude toward the municipal railway, 

250 

Commission finds deficit, 1003 
Experiences [Lilienthal], 150, 398 
Low-floor, California type car, * 101 6 
Policy as to extensions and improve- 
ments, 200 
Protest against Municipal Ry's schedule, 
1136 

Two-car trains on 25% grade, *977, 1137 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. (See Oak- 
land, Cal.) 

Sand-spreading wagon for slippery pavement 

(Havass), 300 
Sand, experiences with, Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria 

Ry. [Carr], 143 
Sand Tracks: 

Sand trough for stopping runaway cars on 

L. & W. V. Ry., *706 
Saniord, Me., .Atlantic Shore Electric Ry. 

Fare changes, 159 

Santa Barbara (Cal.) & Suburban Ry. : 

Car-door operation [Lloyd], *590 

Saskatoon, Can.: 

Sale of municipal railway proposed, 304 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.: 

Preventing condensation in under-water con- 
duit [Koppel], *296 
Saving power (See Energy consumption) 
Schedules and Time Tables: 

Application of traffic statistics to service 

TDoolittle], *928 

Preparing time schedules [Sloss], 795 

Schedule speed in city service, Importance 

of high speed, 29 

Schedule speed, Neglected factor, 742 

Scientific car schedules, Comment, 700 

Short headways, Advantages shown by 

jitney, 967 
Schenectady, N. Y.: 

General Elec. Co., Annual report, 814 

Schenectady Ry. : 

Fare schedule, 355 

Rush-hour methods, 30 
Scranton, Pa.: 

Lackawanna S: Wyoming Valley Railroad: 

Sand stop for runaway cars, *706 

Scranton Railway: 

Experience meetings, 735, 818 
Extension ordinance annulled, 1227 

Scrap material, Handling and selling [Alex- 
ander], 245 

Scrap metals, Sales of [Alexander], 192 • 

[Yungbluth], c 381 
Seating capacity of cars. Law limiting, Toronto, 

399; (See also Loading limits for cars)' 

Seats: 

New York Municipal Railway cars, *877 

Removable, collapsible for motorman (Elec- 
tric Service Supplies), *1126 

Seattle, Wash.: 

Jitney bus, 649 

Stattle Municipal Railway: 

Accident at power plant, 952 

Bond issue questioned, 770 

Carhouse [Kennedyl, *513 

Cost of operation, 816 

Double trolley system, [Kennedy], *128 

Financial difficulties, 431. 480, 598 

Lease plan defeated, 1219 

Legal difficulties, 111 

Mayor's veto on bond issue, 198 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Seattle, Wash.: 

Seattle Municipal Ry. : (Continued) 

Report for six months, 201 

Right to operate, 523 

Sale or lease suggested, 1178 

Sale rejected, 72 

Municipal motor-bus fund, 199 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Change in street grade, *832 

Jitney bus issue, 1093 

"Seattle-Everett fare reduction, 119, 311 

Service or-der, 77, 776, 1094 

Strike avoided, 767 

Wallingford case, 819 
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry.: 

Fare case, 820 

Purchase postponed, 434 

Right-of-way condemnation proceedings 
abandoned, 728 
Selling of car wheels, rails and scrap iron 

[Alexander], 245 
Shelters (See Waiting Stations) 
Signal cord bushing, Fiber (Pahler), 248 
Signals: 

Attaching signal wires to third-rail [Mc- 
Kelway], *1038 

Automatic flagman [Brach], 806 

Block system: 

Cab signals, British view of. 125 
Illinois Traction System. Installations 

of 1914 [Leisenring], *408 
Installation for city service in South 

Bend, Ind. (Nachod), *1127 
Interlocking installation on Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway (General Railway Sig- 
nal Co), *946 
Maintenance methods, New York, West- 
chester & Boston Ry., *561; Com- 
ment, 539 
Statistics for 1914, 18; Comment, 5 

Car stop and start, United Railway, St. 

Louis, 652 

Control of Street Railway Signal Co. by 

Electric Service Supplies Co., 680 

Highway-crossing protection. Report of Il- 
linois Electric Railways Association, 
* 1 74 ; Comment, 165 

Light: 

Self-contained blocks, Illinois Traction 
System [Leisenring], *409 

Outdoor substations for, *807 

— —Reports at Railway Signal Association 
meeting, 582 

Semaphore and automatic whistle for street 

traffic, San Francisco, *671 

Speed control system: 

New York Municipal Railway cars, 878 

Steam railroad statistics, 138 

— Testing signal circuits, 1023 

Signs on cars: 

Destination signs, Legal difficulties in Chi- 
cago, 77 

Illuminated guide signs in England, *473 

Illuminated, with car and run numbers in 

Los Angeles [Stephens], 1169 
Street and station indicator, Los Angeles, 

Cal., 67 

Tail-light or classification light box, Rock- 
ford, 111. [Graham], *424 

"We" slogan sign, Kentucky Traction & 

Terminal Co. [Bacon], c*292 

Single-phase railways: 

Conversion to d. c. operation without inter- 
ruption of service, Annapolis Short 
' Line, *542 

Operating results on New Haven, 229 

Progress in a. c. electrification, 10 

Prussian State Railways, Silesian electri- 
fication, *666 
Vienna-Pressburg railway. Choice of sys- 
tem, inductive interference, rolling 
stock, *830 
Snow removal: 

Cincinnati suggestions, 259 

Clearing an under-running third rail, New 

York State Rys. [Hinman], *469 

Snow-sweeper with out-board broom, New 

York Rys., *320; Comment, 317 

Vienna, Austria, Use of trailer wagons 

[Spangler], *591 

Society for Electrical Development: 

— Electrical prosperity week organization, 686 

South American trade, Consular recommenda- 
tions on, 463 

South Bend, Ind.: 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 

Ry. : 

Signals for city service, * 1 1 27 
Southern Pacific Co. (See San Francisco) 
Southwestern Electrical and Gas Association: 

Convention, 1025 

Mid-winter meeting, 323 

Program plans, 495 

Question box, 1070 

Specifications, Preparation of, Bav State Street 

Ry., 90 

Speed indicator, electrical (Esterline Co.), *897 
Speed indicator, recording (Holtzer-Cabot) , 852 
Speed of cars (See Schedules and time tables) 
Speyer, Sir Edward, Retirement, 1176 
Spokane, Wash.: 

Washington Water Power Company: 

Appraisal, 727 
Springfield, Mass.: 
Springfield Street Railway: 

Arbitration with employees, 727 

Electrolysis report, 507 
. Strike, 684, 812, 901, 950, 1000 
Springfield, Mo.: 

Springfield Gas & Elec. Co., Rate case, 110 



January-June, 1915.] 



INDEX. 



XIII 



Springfield, Ohio: 

Springfiefd Ry. : 

Repair shops and carhouse, *S 5 6 
Starting resistance (.See Motors) 
Staten Island Midland Railway (New York City) 
Stationery forms, economy in, 753 
Statistics: 

Cars ordered in 1914, 16; Comment, 12 

Census report electric railways, Relation of 

traffic to population, distribution of in- 
come, classification of track mileage, pri- 
vate right-of-way, 96, 13 1 
Center of purchases and center of popula- 
tion, 166 

Coal and metal production in 1914, 92 

Economic conditions employees, Bay State 

Street Railway, *708 
Electric railway earnings in 1914, 815; Com- 
ments, 783 

Electric railway monthly earnings, 647, 690, 

732, 774, 816, 861, 908, 957, 1005, 1047, 
1133, 1181, 1223 

■ Express companies, 323 

Figures of Bureau of Fare Research (four 

months), 183; Comment, 269 

Indiana railways [Duncan], 456 

Indianapolis terminal station traffic, 440 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany, 645 

Operating statistics of the New Haven Road, 

230, 231 

Passenger car orders since 1908, 644 

Passengers carried and accidents to passen- 
gers in New York, 134 

Rail production in United States, 832 

Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 1914, 

19 

Signals installed during 1914, 18; Com- 
ment; 5 

Steam railroads, Report of Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, 755 

Track built in 1914, 14; Comment, 12 

— — Wages of different industries, 726 

Steel, Carbon-Vanadium forging (American 

Vanadium Co.), 1126 
Steel construction, Terminology for [Keen], 
c290 

Stopping of cars: 

Cleveland, Skip-stop, 205 

Detroit, Mich., 311 

Indianapolis, Stops on both sides of street, 

311 

Influence of skip-stop on schedule speed, 

742 

Milwaukee, Wis., Skip-stop, 205 

Near-side stop, List of cities with, 31 

Ordinance in Springfield, Mo., 1184 

Reduction in number of stops in St. Louis, 

1136 

Storage battery cars: 

Ball bearings, Value of [Farr], *344 

Third Avenue Ry., Ampere-hour meters on 

cars, 593 

f"^ I r i IvCS " 

Chicago, 111., *1 165 ; Comment, 1142, 1189 

■ Detroit United Railway, 951, 998; Com- 
ments, 969 

Fast Liverpool, 522 

In London, 998; Comment, 968 

Springfield Street Railway, 684, 812 

Syracuse, Empire United Railways, 726, 

767; Comment, 783 
Wilkes-Barre, 726, 856 

Subsidized extensions of street railway tracks in 

_ Cleveland, 951 
Substations: 

Annapolis Short Line, *546 

Norfolk & Western Railroad, *1064 

Outdoor, Covington, Va. (Transmission Eng. 

Co.), *519 

Portable substations, Pittsburgh Railways 

Company, *1039 

Rating of equipment, Comment, 1142, 1191 

Reclosing circuit breaker (Automatic Re- 
closing Circuit-Breaker Co.), 996 
Semi-outdoor portable, Berkshire Street Ry., 

*56 
Swit'-hes: 

Donble-throw horn-gap (Railway & Indus- 
trial Engineering Co.), * 4 7 5 

Series trip for high-voltage oil switches 

(General Electric), *343 

Switzerland : 

Montreaux-Oberland Ry: 

Ball bearings, *808 
Syndicated Anti-railway news, *462; Comment, 

449; | Waters], c 586 
Syracuse, N. Y. : 
■ Empire United Railway: 

Arbitration with employees, 999 

Strike, 726, 767 
New York State Rys. : 

Manganese steel crossings [Roundey], 
892 

Training platform recruits, *704 
Way records [Roundey], *945 



T 

Tacoma, Wash.: 

Puget^ Sound Electric Ry.: 

F"are change, 77 

■ Short municipal lines open, 199 

Tanks : 

-Rustless steel (Dover Boiler Works), 949 

Tatra Ry., Hungary, 1650-volt d.c. line, 248 



Taxation : 

Indiana railway statistics for 1914, 53 

Principles of, 784 

Real significance, 925 

Refunding illegal collection in Ohio, 770 

Wisconsin, Effect of increase in taxes upon 

public service companies [Gruhl], 234 
Taxicabs : 

Operating costs, 621 

Technical journal, Reading of [Cooper], c716 

Temperature measurements using metallic salts 
(Nehls Alloy Co.), 106 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern. (See In- 
dianapolis, Ind) 

Testing equipment: 

Portable lamp bank [Hinman], *513 

(See also Motors) 

Texas: 

Interurban consolidation bill passed, 1088 

Texas Traction Company (See Dallas, Tex.) 
Third Rails: 

Construction of 2400-volt line, Michigan 

Railway. * 1 146 

Cable-end bell (Electrical Engineers Equip- 
ment Co.), *343 

High-voltage third-rail construction, Sug- 
gested type [Tracy], *469 

Snow removal from under-running third 

rail, New York State Rys. [Hinman], 
*469 

Ticket-printing machine at Victoria station, 
London, *473 

Ties: 

Calculating total annual cost, 570 

Pine ties reused after service of 21 years, 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. [Cram], 

295 

Steel, Laid in electrically warmed concrete, 

Salt Lake City [Bamberger], * 1 89 

Treated, Costs and methods of handling, 182 

Treating plant on Boston & Worcester Street 

Ry., *678 

Trough-shaped steel [Cambria], *766 

(See also Northern White Cedar Association) 

Timber preservation: 

A. R. E. A. report, 570 

■ Creosote sources in U. S., 332 

Discussions at American Wood Preservers' 

Association. 181, 237 
Treating plant on Boston & Worcester Street 

Ry., *678 
Titanium (See Rails) 
Toledo, Ohio: 

Contempt cases, 251, 1088 

Jitney bus, 649 

Municipal ownership discussion, 856, 1042 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway: 

Light-weight steel cars, 947 
Toledo Railways & Light: 

Bond issue of city for purchase of rail- 
way, 390 

Franchise matters, 109, 149, 643, 728, 769, 
1087, 1220 
Topeka, Kan. : 

Topeka Street Ry.: 

Passes discontinued, 119 
Toronto, Canada: 

Board of control and the transportation 

problem. 251 

Municipal ownership suggestions, 1130 

Rapid transit plans, 598 

Regulatory bills rejected, 687 
Toronto Railway: 

Car capacity controversy, 399, 533 

Decision on type of cars, 1136 

Extensions, 249 

Fender test, 391 

Service extension controversy. 198, 347, 
392, 903, 1094, 1176, 1183 
Track construction: 

By contractor or way department? [Gaus- 

mann], 895 

Cost details, Buffalo, 135 

Development in 1914, 7 

Flange-bearing special work [Graves, An- 

gerer, Wilson], c 1034 [Mitchell] c 1119 

In paved streets [Brown], 1028 

Laying out a compound curve, Two ways 

[Streizheff], *426 

Manganese special work: 

Experience of several companies on 

Pacific Coast, 576 
Specifications, 1118 
Standard composition, 755 

Mysterious derailments [Williams], 1078 

Non-splashing electric switch, 1083, 1127 

— Crane car. Third Ave. Ry. [Ryder], 763 
Rail-laying outfit, Kankakee & Urbana Trac- 
tion Co. [Shelton], *242 

San Antonio Traction Company [Smith], 

1030 

Shockless railroad crossing, Pacific Electric 

Railway, *994 

Special-work shop [G'ausmann], *992 

Statistics of 1914 for United States and 

Canada, 14; Comment, 12 

Steel ties laid in electrically warmed con- 
crete, Salt Lake City [Bamberger], * 1 89 

Track maintenance: 

Flange-bearing special work beneficial, 871 

Folding box for arc welding to protect pub- 
lic [Williams], *847 

— ■ — Joint repairs [Gausmann], 803 

Life of open-hearth steel rails compared with 

manganese steel, on curves, Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Co. [Bernard], 383 
— T ife of way structure [Wilsonl, "1212 

Manganese-steel crossings in Chicago, *711 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Track Maintenance: (Continued) 

Pine ties reused after service of 21 years, 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. [Cram], 

295 

Real economy in, 1015 

Records on cost-per-section basis [Hulett], 

*669 

-Records on New York State Railways, 

Syracuse lines [Roundey], *945 

Result of neglect [Fuller], 791; Comments, 

1065 

Shop equipment needed to turn out special 

work [Gausmann], 992 

Special manganese steel crossings [Haw- 
kins, [Roundey], c 892 

Special work on steel structure, Muncxe, 

Ind., Maintenance record, *68 

Tools, supplies and appliances [Cram], 1169 

Way department rule book to promote 

standard practice, Chicago, Ottawa & 
Peoria Ry., 89 

■ Way records on cost-per-section basis 

[ Falconer], c 1 035 

Weed cutter [Griffiths], *1121 

Trackless trolleys: 

Considered in Pennsylvania, 150, 304 

In Shanghai, China, 592 

Traffic Surveys: 

Importance of [Emery], c 1 1 1 9 

Organization [Doolittle], 1160; Comment, 

1141 

Schemes in Pittsburgh, Boston & Kansas 

City. 27 
Traffic characteristics: 

Construction of models [Doolittle], cl077 

Statistical measurements [Doolittle], *926; 

Comments, 917 
Traffic Control: 

Semaphore signals with automatic whistles, 

*671 

Recommendations of Safety First Federa- 
tion of America, 1137 

Traffic Investigations, Cities: 
Detroit, 594, 664 

Traffic, Rush-hour: 

Front-end conductors for congested points, 

31 

Prizes for relief suggestions, New York 

Municipal Art Society, 1051 

Relieving congestion in various cities, 30 

Trailers : 

List of cities using, 31 

-Operation in Rochester, N. Y., *752 

Train resistance (See Power Consumption.) 
Transfers : 

Cost of printing, 704 

Printing plant of Third Ave. Railway, *702 

Privileges in Lawrence Transfer Case, 651 

Transformers, signal light (General Electric), "'67 
Transmission Lines: 

"Linemen as tightwire walkers," Portland, 

Me., *193 

Linemen's searchlights. Buffalo, Lockport 

& Rochester Ry., *472 

Mechanical cable connections [Fargo], * 1 2 1 6 

Mechanical and heating effects of short 

circuits, Reactance to limit [Gross], 132; 
Comment, 127 

Norfolk & Western Railroad, *1064 

Underground construction, Report of N. E. 

L. A. committee, 1107 

Transportation, United States department recom- 
mended by Howard Elliot, 741 

Tri-City Railway & Light Company. (See 
Davenport, la.) 

Tri-State Electric & Ry. Co. (See East Liver- 
pool, Ohio.) 

Trolley retrievers and catchers (Sterling), *343 
Trolley-wheel oil-less bushings and non-arcing 

harps (More Jones), *474 
Trolley wire, location on curves [Foster], *62, 

*105 

Trolley wire pick-up. Lehigh Valley Transit Co. 
[Branson], *295 

Trucks : 

Angularity on curves, * 1079 

Maximum traction (Taylor Elec. Truck Co.), 

*1126 
Tucson, Ariz.: 

One-man cars sanctioned, 1049 

Tulsa, Okla,: 

Tulsa Street Railway, One-man cars, 1136 

Turbo-generators and Equipment: 

Arrangement of piping at remodeled 74th 

Street Station, Interborough Rapid 
Transit Co., 746 
Auxiliaries for new Havana power station, 

*923 

Losses in steam turbines, 785 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. : 

Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Railway & Utilities 

Co., Opening, 391 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co. ( See Minneapolis, 

Minn.) 

u 

Union Electric Co. (See Dubuque, la.) 
Union Pacific R.R.: 

-Gasoline-driven train (McKeen), *1215 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (See An- 
derson, Ind.) 
United Lt. & Rys. Co. (See Grand Rapids, 
Mich.) 

United Traction Co. (See Albany, N. Y.) 
Urbana, 111.: 

Kankakee & Urbana Traction Co., Rail-laying 

outfit [Shelton], *242 



XIV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLV. 



Urbana, 111.: (Continued) 

Urbana & Champaign Railway, Gas & Elec- 
tric Co., Bond issue, 647 
Utah Public Utilities proposed, 252 



V 

Valuation (See Appraisal) 

Vancouver, B, C. : 

British Columbia Electrrc Ry. 

Annual report, 393 

Fare reduction. 959 

Fireproof carhouse, *227 
Vancouver, Wash.: 
Washington-Oregon Corporation : 

Keorganizaton, 954 
Vehicular obstruction, Relieving, 29 
Vending machine for electric cars [Drum], *388 
Ventilation of cars, Chicago ordinance, 120 
Vienna (See Austria) 

Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Richmond, 
Va.) 

Voltmeter measurements of direct current, Table 
[McKelway], 341; Corrections, 427 



w 

Waiting stations and shelters: 

Practice in various cities, *33 

Walworth, Wis.: 

Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake Railway, 

Bond issue, 689 

War: 

Effect on railways in Berlin, 729, 813 

Washington, D. C: 

Capital Traction Company: 

Annual report, 730 

Mating of gears and pinions [Dal- 
gleish], 942 

City & Suburban Ry., Change in zone sys- 
tem denied, 311 

Conductors required on trailers, 605 

Consolidation plans for street railways, 1223 

Crosser bill in Congress, 112, 199 

Merger of street railways, 305 

Potomac Electric Power Co. : 

Christmas entertainment, 119 

Trailers, Hearing on, 355 

Washington, Berwin & Laurel Electric Ry.: 

Fare zone petition denied, 78 

Washington & Maryland Ry.: 

Valuation, 732 



Washington, D. C: (Continued) 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry. : 

Decision on delayed delivery of material, 
1177 

Wasnington Railway & Electric Company: 

Annual report, 771 

Bond issue, 690 

Christmas entertainment, 119 

Company section, Meeting, 419 

Profit-sharing results, 157 

Washington Utilities Co., Note offering, 816 

Waste paper baling: 

Equipment, *66 

Methods [Youngbluth], c 239 

Waste, Trade-marked, standardized waste (Royal 

Mfg. Co.), 1174 
Waterloo, Iowa: 

Waterloo-Cedar Falls & Northern Railway: 

Steel parlor cars, *932 
Welding, special methods: 

Dangers of welding worn wheel nanges 

[Hayes], c*942; Comment, 917 

Folding box to guard public [Williams], *847 

— i — Oxy-acetylene equipment (Imperial Brass), 
*517 

Oxy-acetylene weld on large casting, *898 

Portable arc-welding outfit on line car, * 1 1 23 

Restoring worn wheel-flanges [Murphy], 719 

Wendelstein Ry. (See Germany) 
West Jersey & Seashore Railroad: 

Lease to Pennsylvania R. R. not approved. 

Commission upheld by courts, 903 
West Virginia: 

Public Service Commission appointments, 

1129 

Public Utility Association organized, 953 

Western Association of Electrical Inspectors, 

Convention, 285 
Western Red Cedar Association: 

Annual meeting, 180 

Western Society of Engineers: 

Electrification discussed, 579 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co.: 

Absorbs Westinghouse Machine Co., 73 

Annual report, 1002 

Wheaton, 111., Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.: 

Oil-saving filler for motor-axle cap, *66 

Wheel grinder: 

Inexpensive tvpe (Wheel-Truing Brakeshoe 

Co.), *1175 

Wheels: 

. Cause of thick & thin flanges [Lloyd], 1037 

■ Derailments from worn flanges [Williams], 

♦1037 

Welding worn flanges [Murphy], *719; Dan- 
ger of [Hayes], *942; Comment, 917 



Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: 
Wilkes-Barre Uy. : 

Center-entrance cars, * 5 1 8. *593 

StriKe, 151, 726, 856, 1049 
Willoughby, Ohio: 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad: 

Annual report, 905 
Wilson, President. Address at convention of 

American Electric Railway Association, 

217, 275; Comments of the press, 27.8; 

Upinions [Shonts, Williams, Budd, 

Clark, Cummings], c 290 
Window cleaner, Fixed squeegee for vestibuled 

cars, Third Avenue Ry. [Johnson], *339 
Winnipeg, Can.: 

Service order, 525 

Stopping of cars, 159 

Winnipeg Electric Railway: 

Annual report, 687 

Reduction in dividend, 690 

Service reduction, 819 
Winona (Minn.) Ry. : 

One-man car, Experience with [Howard], 

*233; Comment, 212 
Wiring cars: 

Change in code recommended^ 285 

Wisconsin Electrical Association:" 

— — Convention proceedings, 232 

Wisconsin Railway, Light & Power Co. (See 

Milwaukee, Wis.) 
Wood, Treatment (See Timber Preservation) 
W'orcester, Mass.: 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry.: 

Equipment cost data, 427 

Workmen's compensation (See Employees, Insur- 
ance) 

Y 

Yonkers (N. Y.) Ry. : 

Near-side stop, 819 

Youngstown, Ohio: 

Mahoning & Shenango Valley Railway & 

Light Co.: 

Company publication, 158 
Freight rates, 311 
Increase in wages, 735 



z 

Zanesville, Ohio: 

Southeastern Ohio Railway, Light & Power 

Company : 

Receiver appointed, 956 



A 

Adams, H. H. Motor ventilation, c 990 
Alexander, J. P. Handling of scrap material, 

245 

Sales of scrap metals, 192 

Allen, C. L. Address at mid-year meeting, 280 
Allen, W. L. Railway motor gearing, 1201 
Angerer, V. Flange-bearing special work, 1034 
Archbold, W. K. The Vienna-Pressburg elec- 
trification, 989 
Arthur, William. Filing of technical literature, 
c 511 

Locomotive design, c 1209 

Austin, George E. Comments on insulating 
tape, 888 

Bacon, F. W. The "We" slogan sign, c *292 

B 

Bamberger, J. M. Steel tie construction in 
electrically-warmed concrete, *189 

Bancroft, William A. Zone system of fares, c 890 

Barnes, J. P. What constitutes good and suffi- 
cient maintenance? 467 

Baugher, E. C. Feeder-tap resistance in ro- 
tary-converter practice, c 799 

Beagle, N. R. Chemical department of Illinois 
Traction System, 433 

Bennett, H. K. Making the safety movement 
permanent, c 717 

Bernard, M. Car life of plain curves, 383 

Berry, V. W. Economical limit of the repair 
shop, 1027 

Blackburn, A. A. Recruiting car at Belfast, 
*793 

Bradlee, Henry G. Investment per passenger, 
c987 

Branson, Harry. Brackets for carrying lifting 

jack under side sill, * 19 1 

■ Trolley wire pick-up, *295 

Brown, B. R. Track construction in paved 

streets, 1028 
Brownell H. L. "Safety First for You and 

Me," 749 

Brush, M. C. Brass band in the safety move- 
ment, c 845 

Buck, A. M. Proportioning of railway motor 

resistances, *330 

Time element in controller notching, c *672 

Budd, B. I. The President's address, c 290 
Burritt, E. B. Washington conference and 

dinner, 187 



AUTHOR INDEX 



C 

Cadle, C. L. National electrical safety code, 
c 1036 

Cameron, G. M. Calculation of starting re- 
sistances for railway motors, c 238 
Carr, W. F. Railway sand experience, 143 
Castiglioni, F. Chart for use in transforming 
motor speed curves for different volt- 
ages, *515 

Starting resistance for railway motors, 

c 336, c381 
Chubbuck, O. P. Coil-winding unit, *1213 
Clark, James S. Car-load freight on small 

lines, 1114 

Clark, W. J. The President's address, c 290 
Cole, W. W. Causes of corrosion of under- 
ground structures, c 186 
Cooley, M. E. Engineers and public service, 1158 
Cooper, H. S. Mating gears and pinions, c 890 
"Mixing" as an asset of public utility busi- 
ness. 842 

Reading a technical journal, c 716 

Coors, W. F. Graphic commercial progression 
method for starting-resistance calcula- 
tions, *761 

Corning, J. W. Effects of incorrect starting 
resistances, c *93 

Cram, R. C. Track tools, supplies and appli- 
ances, 1169 

Use of old pine ties, 295 

Warning signs to protect paving work in 

tracks under traffic, *893 
Crecelius, L. P. Feeder-top resistance in ro- 
tary-converter practice, c 799 

National electrical safety code, c 941 

Crosby, O. T. Code of principles, c 370 
Cummings, J. J. The President's address, c 290 
Cushing, W. F. Publicity by public utility com- 
missions, c 58 

D 

Dalgleish. R. Ii. Notes on gears and pinions, 
*942 

Dana^ Edward. Dispatching city cars, *802 

Graphic comparisons of accidents, *58 

Decamp, H. C, Human element on electric rail- 
ways, 1157 

Donovan, J. C. Commutator soldering torch, 
*1079 

Doolittle, F. W. Traffic characteristics *926, 
c 1077 

(Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Doolittle, F. W. Organizing the traffic survey, 
1160 

Duncan, Thomas. Regulation and railway rates, 

456 

E 

Earle, S. C. Bettering the use of English, c 94 
Edmunds, V. L. Registration of fares, c 716 
Emery, J. A. Traffic characteristics and invest- 
ment per revenue passenger, c 1119 

F 

Falconer, D. P. Way records on a cost per 

section basis, c 1035 
Farlow, W. B. Low-floor California-type car, 

1016 

Feustel, Robert M. Investment per passenger, 

c 1077 

Fisher, D. G. Presidential address, South- 
western Association, 1027 

Fisher, Dr. H. E. Chicago Elevated Ry. medical 
methods, * 1 192 

Fitch, G. L. Power dispatching, *470 

Foote, F. J. Methods of testing for short cir- 
cuits in field coils, *64 

Foster, S. L. Location of trolley wire on 
curves, *62, *105, 142, 191, *244 

Fox, Ralph. Baffle plate for motor axle bearing 
caps, *424 

Fuller, Carl H. Deferred maintenance, 791 

G 

Ganz, A. F. Corrosion of metals in natural 
soils, c 420 

Gausmann, S. Joint repairs, *803 

Methods and costs of concreting modern 

pavement, 718 

Special-work shop for electric railways, *992 

Track work by contractor or way depart- 
ment? 895 

George, F. K. Results of safety work, 794 

George, S. G. (See Rettger, E. W.) 

Gibbs, George. Electrification of the Norfolk 
& Western Railway, 581 

Gove, Win. G. Testing railway motor insula- 
tion, c 1119 

Graham, J. N. Forming blocks for motor case 

bolts, *296_ 
Illuminated train-number box, *341 



January-June, 1915.] 



INDEX. 



XV 



Tail-light or classification light box. *424 

Graves, W. F. Flange-bearing special work, 
c 1034 

Griffiths, R. E. Northern Texas Traction weed 
cutter, * 1 121 

Gruhl. Edwin. Increased taxation in Wiscon- 
sin and its effect upon public service 
companies, 234 



H 



Hanna, T. H. National electrical safety code, 
"c 1036 

Harding, C. F. Calculation of starting resist- 
ances for railway motors, c 186 

Education and the code of principles, c 58 

Harte, Charles Rufus. The Vienna-Pressburg 
electrification, c 989 

Harvie, W. J. Bureau of Standards' safety 
rules, c 758 

Hawkins, C. L. Recent manganese steel cross- 
ings, c 892 

Hayes, Morgan D. Danger of welding processes 
as applied to tires and wheels, *942 

Hellmund. Rudolph E. Advantage and limita- 
tions of railway motor ventilation, *833 

Hemming, R. N. Accounting and mechanical de- 
partments, 1153 

Henderson, G. R. Important factors in steam 
railway electrification, c 380 

Hewes, J. E. Collection and registration of 
city and interurban fares, 466 

Hinman, F. L. Portable lamp bank for equip- 
ment tests, *513 

Removing snow from under-running third 

rail, *469 

Restoring loaded freight cars to side bear- 
ings in rounding short curves, *425 

Hixson, L. T. Analyzing the balance sheet, 
1112 

Howard, R. M. Experience with one-man elec- 
tric car in small city, *233 

Hulett, Frank W. Way records on cost per 
section basis, 669 

Hemming, R. N, Relation between accounting 
and mechanical departments, 1153 

Hunter, E. H. Fuel values of coal, oil and 
gas, 984 



J 



Jackson, D. C. Teachers and the industry, c 93 
Jenkins, J. R. Removable ash-pit for black- 
smith forges, *425 
Johnson, A. R. Case-hardened collar and weld- 
ing reclaim worn button-end axles, *294 

Fixed squeegee for vestibuled cars, *339 

Knife guard for jointer or hand planer, *805 

Sandbox opened by fender trip, * 1 06 

Johnson, J. J. The jitney situation, 985 



K 



Katte, E. B. Maintenance costs on the New 

York Central Railroad, 580 
Keen, C. G. Semi-steel cars in collision, c *715 

Terminology for steel construction, c 290 

Keller, C. L. Locomotive and trail cars in De- 
troit, United freight service, *848 
— —Machine for grinding home-made grids, *64 
Kennedy, H. J. Carhouse of Seattle Municipal 
Railway, *513 

Double trolley system in Seattle, *128 

Kingsbury, N. C. Public service and publicity, 
223 

Koehler, C. H. Meters and men, c'633 
Koppel, J. G. Ground wire alarm, *144 

Home-made junction box, *383 

■ Hydraulic jack for pinion removal, * 1 039 

■ — ■ — Preventing condensation in under-water 

conduit, *296 
Slotting commutators in the motor shell, 

*847 



L 

Laney, C. J. Is the handling of free baggage 
a traffic error, 412 

Lawson, A. J. Tramways in the United King- 
dom, Analysis of operating results, 929 

Lawson, George. Results obtained by instruc- 
tion department of New York State 
Railways, Rochester lines, 367 

Lnvng, T. F. Economies in operating small cars, 
*979 

Leisenring, John. Signaling on the Illinois 

Traction System, *408 
Leonhauser, H. A. Maintenance cost reduction 

by proper handling of equipment and 

departmental co-operation, 384 
Lewis, A. P. Checking air gap by solder spots, 

893 

Eliminating frills to reduce paint cost, 847 

Home-made cast-iron axle bearing, *760 

Testing motors for electrical and mechani- 
cal conditions, 1037 
Lewis, E. L. The jitney bus in Los Angeles, 
c 757 



Litchfield, Norman. Recording progress in con- 
struction of cars and assembly of 
equipment, *339 

Lloyd, J. N. Car-door operation with sprocket 
chain and worm shaft, *590 

Lloyd, M. M. Cause of thick and thin wheel 
flanges, 1037 



M 



McGrath, D. J. Investment required per pas- 
senger, 881 

McAloney, VV. H. Mating gears and pinions, 
c 990 

Uniformity in car colors, c 468 

Working ordinary and hard gears and 

pinions together, *803 
McCollum, Burton. (See Rosa, E. P.) 
Mclntire, J. B. Engineering considerations in 

a proposed line, c 799 
McKelway, G. H. Attaching signal wires to 

third-rail, *1038 

Dead-ending feeders to metal poles, * 1 43 

Safe and unsafe way of cutting concrete, 

*993 

■ Voltmeter measurements of direct current, 

341 

Meriwether, Richard. Welfare and educational 
work among employees, 1029 

Mitchell, L. A. Flange-bearing special work, 
c 1119 

Mills, John F. Investigating and handling auto- 
mobile accidents, 1203 

Moyer, J. A. Future central station develop- 
ment, c 987 

Mulder, H. J. Maximum motor input, c 511 

Murphy, F. A. Restoring steel wheel flanges 
with a welder, * 7 1 9 

Muskat, Carl. Wisconsin's compensation law, 234 



N 

Neereamer, A. L. Report of secretary-treasurer 
of Central Electric Railway Association, 
413 

Nottage, C. H. Electric railway freight in Maine, 
1213 



P 



Palm, C. I. The jitney bus, 795 

Palmer, L. R. Organized safety, 936 

Palmer, W. K. Value of published costs, c 845 

Parshall, H. F. Motor overloads and flashing, 

c 57 

Parsons, R. H. Block to protect switch blades of 

type-K controllers, *386 
Home-made saw for light tubing, commutator 

bars, etc., *849 
Oil bath tank, *65 

Painters' putty and shellac for repairing con- 
troller division plates, 470 

Pointers on the installation and removal of 

pinions, 638, *674 

Power reel for cars, trucks, etc., *894 

Use of gas flame in removing pinions, c 988 

Ventilating scheme for increasing motor out- 
put, *1170 

Phillips, W. H. Mating gears and pinions, c891 
Phillips, F. R. Ventilated motors, c 1209 
Pontecorvo, G. Italian three-phase electrifica- 
tions, *450 

Three-phase Italian passenger locomotives, 

*283 

Price, E. C. Track joining and bonding, 1156 
Priest, Edward D. • Self-ventilated railway 

motors, c 891 
Purtee, L. G. Fuel values of coal, oil and gas, 

984 



Q 

Quick, Howard P. The passing of a great engi- 
neer— Dr. F. S. Pearson, c 988 



R 



Ralston, S. M. Interurban fares in Indiana, 456 
Reed, D. A. Workingmen's compensation in 

Pennsylvania, 980 
Remington, G. W. Selection of city motor equip- 
ment, 675 

Rettgcr, E. VV., and S. G. George. Stress analy- 
sis of the Chicago steel car, c *291 
Richey, Albert S., Bay State arbitration, c 758 
Kicker, C. W. New power station for Havana, 
*920 

Roberts, Clarence. Training steam railroad men 
for electrical operation, *970 

Rooke, George F, Automatic registration of 
fares, c 844 

Rosa, E. B. National electrical safety rules, 750 
The safety code, c 939 

and Burton McCollum. Corrosion of metals 

in natural soils, c 419 
Ross, A. A. Removing pinions from motor 

axles, c 800 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Roundey, E. P. Recent manganese steel cross- 
ings, c 892 
Way records, *945 

Ryder, E. M. T. Crane car for track work, 763 



s 



Saunders, George B. Utility appraisals, 984 
Schneider, E. F. Making the safety movement 

permanent, c 800 
Scott, Charles B. Making the safety movement 

permanent, c 801 
See, P. V. Painting cars in two days, *584 
Relay setting to maintain uniform accelera- 
tion, *761 

Shelton, T. W. Rail-laying outfit on the Kanka- 
kee & Urbana Traction Co., *242 
Sherwood, E. C. The three-in-one car, *1121 
Shonts, T. P. The President's address, c 290 
Simmon, K. A. Calculations of starting resist- 
ances for railway motors, c 238 
Skelly, F. V. Railway return circuits, 794 
Slater, F. R. Advertising influence of the em- 
ployee, 1029 
Sloss, L. L. Time schedule, 795 
Small, Oren A. Electric light and power account- 
ing, 1113 

Smith, Charles H. Feeder-tap protection and 
care of commutators, 827 

Smith, G. W. Track re-construction in San An- 
tonio, 1030 

Spiingler Ludwig. Motor cars supplant horses 
for drayage in Vienna, *637 

Trailer wagons in Vienna snow removal, * 59 1 

Sprague, Frank J. Regenerative braidm?. 4076 
Squier, C. W. Equipment defects, *102, *242, 

*382, *591, *635, *677, *740 
Stahl, Nicholas. Effect of remote feeder taps on 

schedule speed, *991 
Stearns, R. B. Zone fares in Milwaukee, *836 
Stephens, E. L. Los Angeles illuminated destina- 
tion signs, *1 169 
Storer, N. W. Electrification on New Haven 
road, c 335 

Stott, H. G. Rational units for the boiler room, 
c 468 

Striezheff, S. Two ways of laying out a com- 
pound curve, *426 

Strong, Elmer E. Telephone dispatching in city 
service, *885 

Sutherland, John. Balanced door-operating mech- 
anism, *1038 

Tri-City trouble board, *1078 

Tri-City railway bearing practice, *944 



T 



Tanis, G. B. Improved portable lamp bank 
holder, 893 

Thomas, Carl C. Possible lines of power plant 

progress, c 939 
Throop, H. G. Electrolysis develops defects in 

concrete poles, 294 
Tingley, C. L. S. National electrical safety 

code, c 845 

Tinnon, lohn R Paving experience at Toliet, 
l"079 

Tracy, A. H. High-voltage third-rail construc- 
tion, *469 



w 



Wade, A. Maintenance of cars at Rome, Ga., 

383 

Waterman, F. N. Corrosion of metals in natural 
soils, c 420 

Waters, W. T. The jitney bus and syndicated 

news, c 586 
Weeks, T. W. Federal reserve system 222 
Welsh, H. S. Interest rates on public utility 

bonds, c 137 
New Jersey decision, c 57 

Welsh, Maurice A. Welfare measures for em- 
ployees, 841 

Whitney, G. C. Company section movement, 
c 511 

Williams, R. P. Derailments from worn flanges, 
*1037 

Folding box to guard the public when weld- 
ing track, *847 

■ Mysterious derailments, 1078 

Williams, T. S. The code of principles, 220 
The President's address, c 290 

Wilson, George L. Flange-bearing special work, 
c 1034 

Wilson, T. TT. The jitney situation, c 421 

Jitneys vs. light cars, c 1206 

Wilson, P. Ney. Life of way structure, *1212 
Wilson, Woodrow, President. Address at meet- 
ing of American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, 217, 275 



Y 



Yungbluth, B. J. Baling waste paper, shavings 

and excelsior, c 239 
Sale of scrap metals, c 381 



XVI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLV. 



PERSONAL 



Adams, Charles Francis, 653 
Alcired, J. E., 778 
Alexander, Harry W., 79 
Alexander, Norman S., *962 
Alexander, Walter, 312 
Allen, Edgar, 488 
Allen, J. Drew, 1051 
Allen, Walter Spooner, 737 
Allison, Giles S., 121 
Anthony, Nathan, 160 
Armstrong, Alexander, Jr., 312 
Atherton, F. B., 736 

Baird, ]. L., 312 
Balfour, Robert A., 401 
Baltzer, A., 312 
Bamberger, Julian M., 1227 
Bancroft, William IT., 913 
Banghart, C. S., 442, *448 
Barnard, F. S., 312 
Beach, H. L., 442, *534 
Beck, A. E., 400 
Bennett, S. H., 312 
Benz, G., 356 
Berliner, R. W., 1185 
Bibb, W. A., 206 
Blain, H. E., 356 
Blake, W. E., 356 
Bock, E. J., 120 
Borchers, William, 694 
Brain, O. W., 778 
Brewster, John C., 313 
Bronsdon, M. H., 653 
Brown, C. E., 356 
Brown, John W., 1185 
Brown, Richard S., 1227 
Budd, D. E., 121 
Bullock, George, 312 
Burt, Byron T., 1185 
Byllesby, H. M., 442 

Callahan, B. L., 206 

Campbell, R. V., 1137 

Cantrell, Deaderick, H., 820, 913 

Capitain, Henry D., *864 

Cargill, Walter N., 400 

Carmalt, James W., 79 

Carr, James O., 864 

Carraway, Leake, 442 

Carroll, Edward T., 400 

Chadwiek, C. T., "l 137 

Chapman, C. t., 442, 488 

Chapman, Clarence L., 79 

Chase, Benjamin Ellery, 694 

Chisholm, William W., 313 

Clapp, Harold W., 1009 

Clapper, Will, 442 534 

Clay, Herbert, 261 

Cole, C. C., 606 

Collette, H. S., 912 

Collins, T. V., 652 

Colvin, C. W., 312 

Cook, R. S., 736 

Coons, Charles A., 820 

Cooper, C. P., 312 

Cosgrove, Robert E., 261 

Couch, H. C., 1051 

Cox, George M., 79, 261 

Crilly, John A., 778 

Cronbach, Ernst, 161 

Crook, R. W., 1227 

Crosby, Oscar T., 606 

Curran, D. D., *121, 160 

Curtis, Rodney, 1051 

Curtis, T., 206 

Cutter, George, 778 

Daly, David, 442, * 105 1 
Davidson, A. T., 488 
Davis, W. L., 206 
Day, Joseph P., 1009 
De Lamarter, L. J., 400 
Dewey, Francis H.. 1095 
Dibbins, W. T., 1009 
Dill, S. J., 312 
Donlon, Joseph, 121 



Dows, S. C, 736 
Draper, Walter A., 160 
Dravton, Henry Lumley, 1137 
Duffy, C. Nesbitt, 488 
Dunn, Sherman W., 606 

Eagleson, Freeman T., 1095 
Eastman, Joseph B., 120 
Edwards, Allen F., 1095 
Elwell, Charles C, 534 
Englis, John, 736 
Estabrook, G. L., 400 
Evans, Martin, 864 
Erickson, Halford, *912 
Ewing, M. C, *261 

Fairchild, C. B., Tr., 1137 
Feustel, Robert M., 400 
Fisher, F. E., *206 
Flanigan, C. D., 312 
Foote, W. A., 778 
Foraker, T. Benson, 864 
Fuller, Arthur B., 261 
Fuller, Carl H., 1009 
Fuller, F. L., 488 

Gaboury, J. A., 736, 778 
Gahagan, FI. I., 120 
Gaither, Walter H., 79, 160 
Garner, John P., 1051 
Gausmann, Samuel, 534 
Geary, W. P., 912 
Gilman, William A., 962 
Glazier, Harry, 261 
Gonzenbach, Ernest, 1051 
Goodrich, Donald, 913 
Graham, Edward M., 261 
Creen, Thomas, 1095 
Greeley, Tohn E., 160 
Griffith, C. J., 442 
Guckel, Charles H., 820 
Gunnison, Stanley Eaton, 1009 

Hagerman, H. M.,-160 
Hale, Toshua, 1185 
Hall, Henry Clay, 79 
Hall, W. R., 534 
Hamel, William S., 261 
Hamilton, D. G., 401 
Hamilton, George, 1095 
Harmer, J. T., 1009 
Harries, George H., 488 
Harries, Herbert L., 1095 
Harris, Charles, 160 
Harrsen, Harro, 534 
Hartung, H. C., 442 
Flawkins, N. H., 736 
Hayes, W. S., 913 
Havward, William, 694 
Hazlitt, W. H., 400 
Heft, N. H., 488 
Hemingway, W. I... 820 
Hendrie, John Strathearn, 1137 
Henry, Charles L., *488 
Henrv, G. S., 120, 160 
Henry, S. T., 1227 
Herrin, J. C, 736 
Higgins, Wallace E., 1051 
Hilliard, Thomas, 1051 
Hoag, C. A., 312 
Honnold, O. A.. 534 
Hood, Smith, 606 
Horner, Edward, 120 
Hornung, J. FI., 261 

Ireland, L. G., 1137 

Tackson, Carl D., 261, 312 
Tenks, C. O., 1095 
Jones, H. T., 160, *207 

Kavanaugh, William M., 443 
Keele, A. R., 312 
Keim, Lewis, 488 
Kelly, John T., 962 



Kingsley, Darwin P., 1051 
Knapp, Z. E., 357 
Kucera, Joseph A., 820 

Lad-d, Charles H., 401 
Landis, Lee FI., 160 
Langdon, Lawrence K., 1095 
Leach, Thomas A., 963 
Learned, Clarence E., *653 
Lee, J. W., Jr., 120 
Leonard, H. Ward, 401 
Levinson, L. M., 606 
Libby, Charles F., 1137 
Linen, James A., Jr., 736 
Loop, C., 312 

McCarthv, P. O., 206 
McCloskey, Hugh, 312 
McCullum, J. Grant, 207 
McCulloch, George F., 694 
McCulloch, Richard, *443 
McElroy, James F., 356 
McGrath, W. H., *261 
McMillin, Emerson, 1185 
Mack, John M., 313 
Mackenzie, Alexander, 1009 
Mackintosh, John G., 1137 
MacLean, Tohn E., 160 
Magoon, W. W., 443 
Maltbie, Milo R., 694 
Mandelick, W. E., 120, 357 
Marcum, Tames O., 694 
Marquardt, J. C, 864 
Martin, Burr, 120 
Martin, Carl N., 962 
Martin, Thomas W., 912 
Martin, W. L„ 606 
Massengale, Lee, 737 
Mather, Thomas H., 160 
Mathews, E. L., 534 
Matthew, H. T., 1227 
Merrill, J. H., 1185 
Mitchell, Guy E., 120 
Mitchell, James, 606 
Moore, E. Blaine, 606 
Moore, Tohn S., 488 
Morrell, C. K., 606 
Morrison, Norman, 206 
Mover, C. C„ 1009 
Mueller, John A., 778 
Mumford, Charles C, 312 
Murdock, Samuel T., 1009 
Murphy, Tohn D., 737 
Murphy, P. T., 1051 
Mvers, W. C, 1009 
Manton, A. M., 488 

Neal, Henry V., *313 
Nelson, J. M., 356 
Newton, H. S., 606 
Nutting, Harry G. D., 160 

O'Connell, William, 736 

Palmer, W. L., 312, 400 
Parker, Tames D., 313 
Parker, William, 534 
Parry, David McLean, 963 
Parshall, Horace Field, 1227 
Pearson, F. S., 963 
Pennypacker, Samuel W., 79 
Pepperman, W. Leon, 652 
Pevear, J. S., 312 
Pneuman, J. M., 160 
Poor, Henry W., 778 
Prather H. C, 534 
Price, Charles S., 161 
Proctor, C. L., 652 
Purinton, A. T., 1051 
Purvis, Allen, 400, 736 

Rabe, T. H., 736 
Rathenau, Dr. Emil, 1227 
Rathbun, E. W., 534 
Ray, William D., 606 
Reagan, L. S., 912 
Ream, Norman B., 356 
Reese, Daniel W., 400 



Richardson, John Wesley, 313 
Richey, Albert S., *652 
Riddle, Samuel, 261 
Rider, John Hall, 261 
Risser, George W., 401 
Bobbins, C. H„ 778 
Robertson, C. IL, 206 
Rogers, A. G., 160 
Rogers, G. Tracy, 534 
Rogers, S. C, 1051 
Ross, J. P., 736 
Rothery, J. C, 606 
Russ, S. H., 160 
Russel, George H., 1009 
Rye, L. F„ 1227 

Sanborn, C. H., 1009 
Sanborn, H. H., 736 
Sanderson, E. N., 400 
Sawtelle, Walter L., 963 
Sawyer, P. B., 79 
Sawyer, W. H., 1009 
Sears, Russell A., *312 
Shaw, E. P., Jr., 963 
Siddons, Frederick L., 356 
Simons, J. W., 120, 160 
Slocum, John W., 778 
Smith, Frank Sullivan, 1185 
Snyder, H. C, 442 
Somers, Herbert John, 864 
Soule, G. F., 160 
Southard, F. R., 1227 
Speyer, Edgar, 1009, 1095 
Stacy, John W., 736 
Stanley, Albert M., 652 
Steckel, W. A., 160 
Stichter, R. B., 120, *161 
Stickle. Linus H., 820 
Strandborg, W. P., 534 
Sullivan, J. V., 864 

Taaffe, W. H., 534 
Talmadge, O. G., 160 
Tarkington, W. B., 207 
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 653 
Thomas, J. P., 356 
Thompson, E. B., 206 
Thyse, Emil N., 778 
Townley, Calvert, 864 
Trimble, Robert, 606 
Turner, William F., 778 

Van Viense. A. T., 820 
Von Schrenk, Arnold, 206 
Veley, Elmer, 864 ' 
Verner, J. P., 864 
Veser, L. O., 1095 
Vreeland, H. H., 912 

Wadsworth, Eliot, 652 
Walcott, W. S., 778 
Walker, Howard, 400 
Wallace, Charles F., 962, 1185 
Waltermire, Beecher W., 312 
Warfield, F. Howard, 312 
Watson, James O., 606 
Webster, Frank W., 261 
Weisenfluh, J. E., 736 
Wells, Toseph S., 442 
West, George S., 160 
West, W. S., 161 
Westman, A. W., 121 
White, Clinton, 912, 1009 
White, Pope Y., 312 
Whiteley, Calvin, Jr., 1009 
Whitley, C. W., 442 
Whitridge, Frederick W., 1137 
Wickersham, L. B., 694 
Williams, Robert E., 261 
Winslow, E. F., 864 
Wissel, A., 443 
Wolff, S. E., 400 
Wood, Clark V., *1095 
Woodward, W. O., 534 
Worman, P. H., 261 
Wright, J. A., 120 



* Denotes Portrait. 



Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Revie 



Vol. XLV 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, mt 



THE "JOURNAL" In this issue we present statisti- 
IN 1914 eal tables showing the number of 

AND 1915 cars ordered the miles of track 

built, block signal systems installed, receivers ap- 
pointed and foreclosure sales effected during the year. 
We comment at length in our editorial pages this week 
upon the salient facts disclosed by these statistics, as 
well as upon the general business situation and the 
technical progress made during the year in the electric 
railway industry. It will be seen from these editorial 
reviews that while gross receipts of a great many elec- 
tric railway companies have shown a decrease as com- 
pared with last year, or have failed to maintain the usual 
annual increase, notable progress has been made which 
promises improved conditions within the near future in 
the technical, business and legal status of electric rail- 
ways. The Journal will attempt to report and inter- 
pret these events as they occur during the coming year 
as in the past, as well as carry out special lines of in- 
vestigation and effort which will be of assistance to 
electric railway companies. A review of the pages of 
this paper during 1914 will indicate the class of articles 
we have in mind. We refer, for example, to the study 
by this paper of special work track problems in Chicago 
and elsewhere printed during the year by which new 
light was thrown upon this important subject; to the 
direction of attention to the importance of a change 
from the long-standing M.C.B. brass to a design more 
suitable to the needs of rapid braking on high-speed 
trains; to various articles on steel car design and 
modern methods of signaling, and to the public rela- 
tions convention number, which presented the views 
of a large number of railway men, representatives of 
commissions and publicists on various phases of this 
important question. The Journal realizes the gen- 
erous support and assistance which it has received 
from electric railway companies and their officials dur- 
ing the past year and hopes to merit a continuation of 
this assistance and approval in the future by even more 
energetic efforts in behalf of the industry. 



A BRIEF FOR 
THE 

RAILWAYS 



One of the several curious phases 
of the attitude of a large section 
of the public toward the railways 
is the objection that is made if the roads speak out in 
their own defense. A city official recently wrote to the 
Electric Railway Journal advising it to abandon its 
"partisan attitude in favor of street railroads." "I 
very frequently get the impression," said this cor- 
respondent, "that you are holding a brief for the public 
utilities in striving to impress their viewpoint." The 




impression is justified, we hope/Tlnd IT it amounts to 
an impeachment we plead guilty. But why should it be 
considered a fault to speak in defense of electric rail- 
ways, to state their side of the case, to defend them 
against attack? No one would propose that the most 
despicable criminal should be deprived of advocate and 
counsel. Yet objection is frequently made when rail- 
ways presume to speak in their own behalf. Nothing 
could bring into stronger relief the evil that has come 
upon us by reason of long silence under misrepresen- 
tation and abuse. Instead of allowing the fact noted 
to turn us from the effort to establish the electric railway 
industry in the esteem of the public, it should revive and 
renew effort in this direction. After so long and so heavy 
a list composed almost entirely of railway wrongs, rail- 
way rights may seem unpalatable at first. But they 
must be served as regularly and systematically as the 
wrongs have been. In the United States we have built 
up the greatest mileage of the best operated and 
equipped electric railways in the world. As to speed, 
comfort, service and cost of transportation they are the 
envy of every people but our own. How much do we 
hear about this; how much in volume as compared to 
criticisms? Yes, this journal does "hold a brief" for 
the electric railways and is proud of its clients. It will 
continue to express and impress their viewpoint, and 
in this effort it hopes to be joined actively by the 
privates as well as the leaders of the industry. Evi- 
dently we must all hang together, or, as an early Ameri- 
can statesman remarked, we shall hang separately — and 
if some present-day patriots have their way, without 
opportunity for defense. 



COMPANY 
SECTION 
PROGRAMS 



Success in sectional association 
work, as elsewhere, depends upon 
the efforts of the program com- 
mittee in providing what the men need and want. This 
self-evident truth was suggested again by the announce- 
ment of the plans for the winter's work made at 
the November Public Service Railway Company Sec- 
tion meeting and noted in a recent issue of this paper. 
There are so many organizations to which a man must 
or would like to belong that each must prove to him that 
he cannot get along without it; otherwise he cannot 
afford to join it. The company section idea appeals to 
the average railway man as a good proposition. He 
feels also that loyalty to his employer compels his en- 
thusiastic support when a section is started, on the 
assumption that he will be benefited in one way or an- 
other. For a year or so his enthusiasm carries him 
along, hut a time will usually come when he will strike 



2 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



a balance between cost and profit. A cold, rainy meet- 
ing night tests his loyalty. A warm fireside looks good 
to him. Here is the test of the real value of this section 
work. In order that a section may be continuingly and 
increasingly successful certain features of the program 
appear to us to be essential. In the first place it must 
be continuous from meeting to meeting so far as funda- 
mental purpose is concerned. Casual speakers, if invited 
to participate, should be expected to conform to this pur- 
pose. While occasional inspirational addresses lend in- 
terest invitation to make such should be extended spar- 
ingly and cautiously. Second, the topics discussed should 
be of local interest, dealing primarily with the local prop- 
erty. They should grip the audience by their homely 
character. The questions following the papers will al- 
ways show whether or not speakers have found a point 
of contact with the audience. In the third place the 
treatment of topics should be elementary and well illus- 
trated. Men are tired at night and no matter how well 
qualified they are, they do not want to exert any un- 
necessary effort. The Newark plan appears to meet 
these requirements. The men there are to be instructed 
in an interesting way in Public Service problems. 
Needless to say, they are enthused over the prospect. 



ADVANCES IN CAR EQUIPMENT 
With the introduction and acceptance of the com- 
mutating pole motor for every class of service and the 
development of master control for city surface cars no 
further advance in electric railway equipment appeared 
imminent. The past year, however, has been marked 
by orders which are more than large enough to indicate 
that the tapped-field-control motor has also become a 
fixture. The last cry is the pressed-steel motor which 
holds forth promise to those who are looking for the 
ultimate in weight reduction, while the baby motor 
previously developed is meeting with favor on such large 
and widely separated properties as the Third Avenue 
Railway System, New York, and the United Railroads of 
San Francisco. The cars of the New York Municipal 
Railway Corporation are being equipped with a system 
of multiple-unit control, soon to be described in these 
columns, in which all the usual under-car apparatus, 
except the resistors, has been placed under one cover to 
facilitate inspection and maintenance. At the same time 
the manipulation of the controller effects several train 
make-up functions which have hitherto been performed 
separately and at an appreciable loss in time. 

An excellent guide to other car improvements, under 
way, or proposed, is found in the prospectus which 
W. G. Gove, chairman, has prepared on the work before 
the 1915 committee on equipment of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association. Perhaps one of 
the most interesting subjects, because it points to a 
parting of the ways from steam railroad standards, is 
that of remodeling the M.C.B. brass. Such heavy elec- 
tric traction operators as the New York, Westchester 
& Boston Railway, the West Jersey & Seashore Rail- 
way, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the 
New York Municipal Railway Corporation have already 



adopted modified brasses so that the committee will have 
a sound basis from which to work out a standard de- 
sign. Two other subjects which will call for much pio- 
neer work by the committee are specifications for air- 
brake hose with oil-resisting inner tube, and lighter 
conduit for car wires and cables. The committee will 
also continue the work on gears and pinions and review 
all existing standards and recommendations originat- 
ing with the committee on equipment. Of all its re- 
visional duties that of steel wheel design promises to 
prove the most important because the low-floor car has 
given the small-diameter wheel a degree of prominence 
that was quite unlooked for two or three years ago. 



POSSIBILITIES OF ELECTRIC FREIGHT SERVICE 
Several factors in connection with interurban rail- 
way operation have forced renewed interest in the de- 
velopment of a wholesale freight business. Paradoxical 
as it may seem, the freight business on interurban lines 
has shown little or no decrease during the past six 
months, and with some companies a handsome increase 
has been recorded, despite the general business depres T 
sion and its effect on the freight business of the steam 
railroads. This difference may be attributed in part 
to the fact that package freight business as a rule is 
more stable than bulk freight business, because it con- 
sists of foodstuffs and other prime necessities. An- 
other reason undoubtedly is that farm products this 
year, especially in the Central States where most of the 
interurban freight lines are, have broken all records 
of quantity and price, so that these sections have not 
greatly felt the business depression. The passenger 
traffic on the interurban lines has decreased to a con- 
siderable extent, although proportionately not as much 
as that of their steam road competitors. The automo- 
bile has been a factor in the decrease in passenger traf- 
fic on the electric lines, but it has not perceptibly 
affected the freight business. 

Believing that the automobile will become a more 
and more important competitor for passenger traffic, 
many electric railway managers are looking with much 
favor on the development of a wholesale freight busi- 
ness for relief. Interest in this topic was most marked 
in the discussion of the report of the committee on ex- 
press and freight traffic at the last Atlantic City conven- 
tion. Some managers have given the possibilities of 
development along this line such extended considera- 
tion that they have about decided to make an effort to 
secure franchise amendments in cities where the 
amount and character of freight traffic which they can 
now do is restricted. Unquestionably electric interur- 
ban roads must seek other fields of endeavor if they 
want to show increases in their earnings in excess of. 
those made possible by the normal growth of the popu- 
lation in the communities they serve. There is no more 
desirable business than short-haul freight and express 
when conducted on a profitable basis. When it is once 
established, the convenience of the frequent service to 
the public or community it serves will keep public senti- 
ment in its favor. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



3 



DISCRIMINATION AGAINST ELECTRIC FREIGHT 

Soon after electric interurban lines came into exis- 
tence they prepared to handle freight on a large scale. 
But the steam roads, realizing the danger to them of 
this popular competition, made it as difficult as pos- 
sible, by the denial of switching connections and in other 
ways, for the electric roads to expand their freight 
business. Since that time, which was more than a 
decade ago, this attitude has materially changed, par- 
ticularly toward those roads which have requested privi- 
leges from non-competing steam lines. As a rule, how- 
ever, steam railroad organizations still offer certain bar- 
riers which are important, in fact, vital, to the complete 
development of general freight business. While some 
electric lines have been admitted to the steam railroad 
associations and have received the same privileges as 
a steam railroad member, others have found it impossi- 
ble to obtain free interchange relations without the aid 
of state utility commissions or the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. 

Probably the most important stumbling block put in 
the way of a wholesale electric freight business is that 
electric lines have been prohibited from becoming mem- 
bers of the per diem agreement. Long electric lines en- 
gaged in handling any great amount of freight business 
cannot interchange equipment profitably on a demurrage 
basis, since their haul is short, hence their proportion 
of a through-rate is small. To an unbiased observer it 
seems strange that the difference in motive power should 
make any difference in the privileges granted to a com- 
mon carrier. In some states electric interurban lines 
have been built under a steam railroad act, while in 
others they are built under a special interurban act, but 
in either case they are common carriers so far as their 
lines run. Under these conditions, nothing less than 
"rankest discrimination" can be the term applied to the 
methods employed or the excuses offered by steam rail- 
roads in not granting the electric lines free interchange 
of freight of all classes. 

The recent increase in freight rates on practically all 
commodities in the Eastern district would afford the 
electric lines financial relief if there were no barriers 
in the way to limit the handling of freight. Moreover, 
that fact that electric freight, notwithstanding the 
present business depression, has demonstrated its sta- 
bility, attracts the favorable attention of managers 
more than ever toward a more intensive cultivation. 
The close friendly relations between the electric line 
and the public it serves should be a great inducement 
to steam railroads to grant free interchange of freight. 
Electric lines not only have additional non-competitive 
territory to offer to their steam railroad allies, but their 
intensive cultivation of passenger traffic has placed 
them in a position practically to glean the territory they 
serve so far as freight is concerned. To sum up, both 
the steam and electric roads are in the transportation 
business for profit. For either of them to assume a 
myopic policy which results in one or the other not be- 
coming as efficient a machine as it should be, is not only 
economic waste, but the height of folly, from a stand- 
point of good management. 



THE ALL-STEEL CAR 

That the construction of wooden passenger cars has 
practically ceased during the past year was one of the 
most striking statements made before the Association 
of Railway Commissioners a month ago. Of course, 
this applied only to steam railroads, as the use of steel 
may be said to be only just beginning on electric rail- 
ways. Nevertheless, the year 1914 has seen the intro- 
duction of the all-steel car on a surprising number of 
electric lines, of which at least one, the Michigan United 
Traction Company, has been so enterprising as to have 
dropped wooden construction altogether and adopted 
steel exclusively for all of its new equipment. In fact, 
the steel car for electric railway service has, at last, 
fully emerged from the experimental stage, this being 
exemplified by the recently-adopted policy of one elec- 
tric railway carbuilder who has abandoned his wood 
mill and now refuses to accept orders for wooden cars 
of any kind. 

New interurban lines like the Kansas City, Clay 
County & St. Joseph Railway and the Salt Lake & Utah 
Railroad, have, in general, standardized largely 
on all-steel equipment, and in elevated and subway 
service nothing but steel has even been considered dur- 
ing the year just past. In city service the number of 
all-steel cars has been greatly augmented by the com- 
pletion of the large orders that had been placed in 1913 
for cars of the Brooklyn and New York stepless types, 
wooden construction, as a matter of fact, being a prac- 
tical impossibility for the latter design. 

The reasons for this rapid growth in the use of steel 
are by no means obscure. The price of wood, due to the 
limited supply, is advancing rapidly. That of steel is 
just as rapidly becoming less with the increased ex- 
perience of the builders and users of steel cars. Even 
at this time the matter of first cost seems to favor steel, 
several prominent builders having stated during the 
past twelvemonth that, generally speaking, the steel 
car should cost some 5 per cent less than an equivalent 
one made of wood. With this, also, go the exceedingly 
important advantages of light weight, great strength 
and insignificant maintenance expense, so that it ap- 
pears not unreasonable to prophesy still further exten- 
sion of the all-steel idea for every class of service dur- 
ing the coming year. Even in the Southern states, 
where high-grade wood is plentiful and inexpensive, the 
use of steel is already making headway — possibly not 
to the extent of all-steel construction, but at least as 
regards steel side-sheathing and (perhaps unfortunate- 
ly) steel underframes as well. 

Of course, such substitutions of steel for wood are 
due to other causes than the inherent strength of the 
metal. Weight for weight, there is nothing to choose 
between the two materials. A block of steel, as a mat- 
ter of fact, has actually less ability to resist force, 
either tensile or compressive, than a block of wood of 
equal weight and proportioned accordingly. The qual- 
ities that place steel in the van are uniformity and an 
ability to be worked into irregular shapes in which the 
strength can be placed where it is needed. Thus the 
steel car is superior to the wooden car only because it 



4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



provides an opportunity for improved design, and if 
this fact is neglected the advantages of steel construc- 
tion largely disappear. The mere substitution of steel 
members for wooden ones accomplishes nothing, and 
it is quite likely that a steel car that is built in accord- 
ance with the old "underframe" principle inherent in 
wooden car design will cost more, weigh more, and in- 
volve more repairs than a similar car built throughout 
of wood. This, at least, has been the experience with 
most of the early steel cars, and that fact, in turn, has 
no doubt retarded the use of steel to some extent. On 
the other hand, when advantage has been taken of the 
experience already gained in steel car construction, the 
results have been so thoroughly satisfactory that the 
possibility of a return t< 'he wooden car has been quite 
as remote as would be a return to the wooden highway 
bridge that once was practically universal in rural 
districts. 



POWER GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION 

A review of the situation in regard to power genera- 
tion, as evidenced in power plant changes and by papers 
and reports on the subject presented before technical 
societies, indicates that refinement is the order of the 
day. Such topics as smoke prevention, improvements in 
condenser design, the use of more scientific boiler-room 
practice, cooling and washing of ventilating air for 
generators and protection of apparatus from the effects 
of short-circuit occupy attention. These improvements 
do not effect sensational increases in operating economy 
but they improve reliability of operation and cut down 
the unit cost of energy somewhat. Power plant book- 
keeping has now developed to a point at which it is pos- 
sible to calculate this cost more closely, as has been 
rendered necessary by the wholesale purchase of energy, 
particularly by electric railways. The topics mentioned 
are of importance principally in the large plant which 
has continued more and more to specialize in generating 
electrical energy on a large scale and in a.c. form, ob- 
taining a high load factor through the diversity of 
customers' requirements. 

As this issue of the paper goes to press the first of 
the 30,000-kw steam turbine units, mentioned in the 
issue of Aug. 23, 1913, is undergoing a test in the 
Seventy-fourth Street power plant of the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company in New York. This installa- 
tion is of particular interest, aside from the large size 
of the unit, from the fact that the latter is built in two 
sections, one operating at 750 and the other at 1500 
r.p.m. The use of such large units is practicable only 
in extremely large plants. It is comforting to the oper- 
ator of the smaller plant to note, however, that the 5000- 
kw turbine consumes but about 14 lb. of steam per 
kilowatt-hour as compared with 13 lb. in the 30,000-kw 
machine. 

In boiler room practice the use of the large boiler is 
still urged and W. L. Abbott, chief operating engineer 
of the Commonwealth Edison Company, recommends 
that the boiler be made shorter. High combustion effi- 
ciency of these large units is shown in the Detroit Edi- 
son plant where the Hue gases average 13 ' j per cent 



C0 2 , reaching 16 per cent at times. The old-fashioned 
horse-power rating of boilers is becoming more anom- 
alous as stokers employing forced draft become more 
popular and this same forced draft practice is bringing 
the economizer back. All of this is forcing the use of a 
higher grade of fireman who takes a personal pride in 
delivering steam to the turbine room at the lowest pos- 
sible rate of cost. 

While electric railway engineers are still interested 
in power generation their attention is being concen- 
trated on distribution, as they are relieved from re- 
sponsibility in the power plant. They are taking up the 
making of concrete poles among other things and these 
poles are standing up well. The committee on power 
distribution of the Engineering Association considered 
the matter important enough to go again into design 
details in its report and the assignments for this year 
include further study of it. The Toronto Hydro-Electric 
Commission has made 25,000 poles at about the same 
cost as wooden ones. 

In high-tension transmission the insulator still fur- 
nishes interesting problems for designer and manu- 
facturer as was explained by A. O. Austin in the 
A. I. E. E. paper abstracted in our issue for Dec. 19. As 
he pointed out, however, progress in the making of bet- 
ter insulators is encouraging and the "chunky" string 
of suspension insulator units can be made almost light- 
ning proof by forcing lightning, as it does, to "spill 
over" rather than puncture the porcelain. 

Following the prevailing "get-together" tendency a 
joint rubber insulation committee was formed some time 
ago and last year presented a report on a standard speci- 
fication for 30 per cent Para rubber insulation. This 
was adopted by the Engineering Association in October 
and constitutes a real advance through co-operation. 
Within a few weeks past a joint committee on overhead 
and underground line construction has been inaugu- 
rated with excellent prospects for securing plenty of 
work. 

The joint national committee on electrolysis has 
its first report in process of editing, indicating that 
much work has been done during 1914. These joint 
committees, of which there is a constantly increasing 
number, are evidences of a constantly growing spirit of 
co-operation. 

A glance backward would be incomplete unless it in- 
cluded a glimpse of the revised A. I. E. E. standardiza- 
tion rules just published. These suggest the signifi- 
cant changes which have occurred in electrical ma- 
chinery design particularly in regard to improvement 
in heat-resisting properties of insulation. The rules 
recognize the fact that temperatures can run higher 
than the traditional limits set to protect earlier and less 
durable insulation. The rules include for the first time 
a section on standards for wires and cables. They are 
also richer in definitions than the old ones, practice now 
being sufficiently standardized to justify more careful 
attention to standardization of phraseology. All of the 
Railway Association committees to whose work these 
rules relate have undertaken to apply them to electric 
railway conditions. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



5 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY SIGNALING 

Events in the field of signaling have moved during 
1914 with all of the rapidity characteristic of previous 
years. Notwithstanding the hard times, the number 
of installations, as shown by the list on another page 
of this issue, is surprisingly large. This is due, no 
doubt, to the growing realization that signals are no 
longer a luxury, as exemplified by the willingness of the 
industry to accept refinements that must, of necessity, 
involve a somewhat increased cost. Such an attitude is 
shown by the prompt commercial development, during 
the year, of the American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion's standard aspect for contact signals, which re- 
quires one more light than the number used in any of 
the previous all-light signals, but which thus assures 
a definiteness of indication that previously had been 
lacking. 

In track-circuit signaling for high-speed, single-track 
lines the year has been notable for the apparent super- 
cession of the preliminary by the intermediate signal. 
The former device, involving the extension of the insu- 
lated track beyond the signal at one end of each block, 
was developed for the early single-track installations 
to prevent simultaneous entrance of trains at opposite 
ends of a block. The beginning of its end came in 
1912 when self-contained blocks with intermediate sig- 
nals were introduced on the Washington, Baltimore & 
Annapolis Electric Railroad, and, among the new signal 
installations ordered since the latter part of 1913, all 
have used the intermediate signal in some form. 
Indeed, it seems hardly likely that the preliminary will 
be used for any future systems, for the self-contained 
block offers the great advantage of simplicity as well 
as the ready opportunity to accelerate traffic by operat- 
ing under signals alone and without train orders. 

Recognition of the possibilities of the latter pro- 
cedure has been, perhaps, the most important feature 
of the year's progress in signaling. Strange to say, it 
has been the steam railroads that have first seized upon 
its opportunities. F. P. Patenall, president of the Rail- 
way Signal Association, stated at the convention last 
fall that, to be up to date, the signal engineer must 
now meet successfully the widespread demand for the 
operation of single-track railroads by signal indica- 
tions alone, and this assertion, coming as it does from 
the field wherein the train order has been supreme for 
half a century cannot fail to have deep significance for 
electric railways. 

During the year, however, operation without train 
orders has been introduced successfully on one inter- 
urban electric line, the Scranton & Binghamton Rail- 
way, and other roads are reported to be considering it, 
so that there is reason to believe that the electric rail- 
ways will not fail to play a significant part in the 
future development of this important and far-reaching 
improvement. Certainly the interurban lines with their 
short trains and frequent service have far more to 
gain by such a time-saving scheme than have the steam 
roads, whose real profits come from freight trains of 
such enormous length and such inherent slowness of 



movement that the time lost in taking orders is not of 
so great importance. 



THE WORK OF THE COMMISSIONS 

It was not to be expected, of course, that the year 
1914 would show much progress in the way of new pub- 
lic service commission laws, for at the beginning of the 
period all states except Delaware, Utah and Wyoming 
already possessed regulatory bodies of some kind. The 
work of the last year has been rather that of perfecting 
the operations of the organizations already existing and 
of formulating standards and systems for the guidance 
of new commissions. Yet just before the bells began 
ringing out the old year there came proposals for bills 
to create in Texas and Alabama bodies separate from 
the railroad commissions for the regulation of public 
utilities, and an intimated intention on the part of the 
administration to divide the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission into three divisions controlling rates, valuation 
and security issues. There can assuredly be expansion 
in the commission organization of some states to bring 
all public utilities under uniform control, and the lead- 
ers at Washington may find it expedient to divide the 
Interstate Commerce Commission as suggested. To our 
mind, however, such structural changes are less im- 
portant than the future choosing of commission person- 
nel and utilizing of commission powers so that there 
can be not even a breath of suspicion or disfavor against 
this most modern branch of our government. 

Public utility regulation is of value in proportion to 
its fairness and impartiality, and the influence of com- 
mission personnel on these points is too generally rec- 
ognized in theory if not always in practice to need em- 
phasis by expansion. In properly carrying out their 
delegated powers, however, public service commissions 
are constantly opposed by advocates of local regulation 
or federal regulation. We believe that state regulation 
offers the only sane solution of public utility problems. 
Just as our government is founded on a proper and 
successful, division of authority between Congress for 
interstate questions, state legislatures for intrastate af- 
fairs and the exercise of the police power, and munici- 
pal councils for matters exclusively local, so the power 
of regulation should be used by the federal commission 
lor purely interstate transportation, by state commis- 
sions for controlling the state-wide important subjects 
of public utility competition, capitalization, accounts, 
rates and municipal operation, and by municipalities 
for police regulation and a right to forbid the 
use of particular streets. We have no patience with 
those who advocate local regulation, a system which re- 
sults only in poorer service, discriminatory rates and 
expenses concealed in tax levies. State regulation has 
proved successful, and the only problem to be solved as 
regards jurisdiction is the drawing of a clear-cut line 
between interstate and intrastate cases. On this point 
we hope the recent hearing in Washington before the 
Interstate Commerce Commission will result in a sim- 
ple separation satisfactory to state commissions and 
public utilities. 



6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



In the exercise of state regulatory powers, the cloud 
on the horizon in previous years has been the evident 
attempt to give excessive weight to the reproduction- 
cost-new theory of valuation with too limited allowance 
for intangible values in rate-making cases. Yet several 
decisions have been handed down during the last year 
which lead us to hope that this cloud may not be entirely 
without its silver lining. First we have the enlightened 
view of the New York up-State commission in the 
Schenectady Railway case, leading to the affirmation 
that commissions were not intended to restrict utilities 
to such scanty earnings as would keep them out of bank- 
ruptcy but rather to allow them under good manage- 
ment to attain a portion of reasonably assured pros- 
perity. Then we have the Manchester Street Railway 
decision of the New Hampshire commission, recogniz- 
ing the impossibility of taking care of past depreciation 
and adding this amount as cost of progress to the de- 
preciated value in order to determine the present fair 
value. A decision reaching a similar result, although 
by a different principle, is that in the Middlesex & Bos- 
ton rate case, where as a result of the strict Massachu- 
setts capitalization laws the company was allowed to 
earn a return on its actual investment instead of on 
reproduction cost. It is interesting to note that as an 
outcome of this decision the commission decided that the 
patrons had fared better than the investors and that 
the bugaboo of a maximum 5-cent fare should be 
banished in favor of a 6-cent rate. 

For the last examples, we have the more recent 
rate decision of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
giving consideration to the increasing hire of capital as 
well as other increased costs, and the opinion of the 
New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals in the Public 
Service Gas Company case, stating that when the mar- 
ket value of stock added to indebtedness shows an ex- 
cess over the physical valuation and development cost, 
there is evidence of special franchise values that should 
be included in the basis for rate-making. The capacity 
for forceful and sound thinking exhibited in all these 
cases leads us to feel that all commissions will eventually 
realize that they are as responsible for the equitable 
treatment of public utility capital as for prompt atten- 
tion to any complaining citizen. 

We hope that the doctrine of the above decisions will 
be spread far and wide. In this connection, we take 
delight in referring to one specific outcome of the 
year's progress, the definite plans to publish annotated 
commission reports. While commissions must be guided 
by the empowering laws, most problems cannot be 
solved by reference to the statutes but require careful 
personal consideration and the exercise of good judg- 
ment on all the factors concerned. Identical facts have 
often appealed to various commissioners in different 
ways, but the annotated reports that are to begin with 
Jan. 1, 1915, should do much to clear up the lack of har- 
mony that has previously existed. Such a system has 
long been needed to provide the commissioners and the 
public at large with material for a systematic develop- 
ment and wider recognition of the doctrines and prin- 
ciples underlying public utility regulation. 



INCREASING THE CAPACITY OF THE LINE 
The problem of the operating department to increase 
the capacity of the line or, reciprocally considered, to 
decrease the congestion of the line, has been in the 
foreground during the past year. The measures for re- 
lief, if not for cure, naturally fall into two classes, those 
which can be applied to the car and those which can be 
applied to the line. Palliative measures on or at the car 
lie almost solely in the hands of the railway itself, but 
those relating to the line require a large degree of co- 
operation from the public and the municipality. It is 
clear that the first step in increasing line capacity is 
to speed up car movement at terminals or other heavy 
loading points. Here the facilities for the entrance 
of passengers to the car and the ease of fare collection 
are prime requisites at all locations where ticket booth 
operation is impracticable. The speed of passenger 
handling at the car is being promoted by a low-level 
drop platform like those of the Third Avenue Railway 
System, New York, by a separate front exit as on the 
Pittsburgh Railway's latest type, and by an emergency 
rear exit as used on the Philadelphia near-side cars. So 
far as fare collection is concerned, the Kansas City 
plan of front-end fare collectors has been adopted also 
at San Francisco, Detroit, and one or two other cities. 
By this plan of simultaneous prepayment collection at 
both ends the loading time is cut almost in half. At 
Brooklyn no attempt is made to get fares in advance 
on the center-entrance prepayment cars during the rush 
hour at heavy terminal points like the Atlantic Avenue 
loop and the New York end of the Brooklyn Bridge. At 
these points the triple aisle (two exits and one en- 
trance) permits the car to be filled directly in very 
quick time and with better distribution of passengers 
than in end-entrance cars. The non-stop run over the 
Brooklyn Bridge and other local conditions favor this 
plan of collecting the fares after the passengers have 
boarded the car, but before the prepayment zone is 
reached. 

Increase in the capacity of the line is largely a mat- 
ter of the number of stops, the stop spacing and traffic 
regulations. The question of stops lies largely with 
the public and that of regulation with the municipality 
and police. To lengthen the distance between stops and 
have the cars halt at fixed intervals regardless of cross- 
ings, as in Europe, seems a hopeless task here because 
of paving conditions and reckless drivers. American city 
railways are therefore working along the more promis- 
ing lines of educating the public to accept the plan of 
stopping at every other crossing, and at Cleveland it 
has been proposed to be fair to all riders by having the 
car, when outward bound, stop at those streets which 
it is privileged to skip when inward bound. Express or 
non-stop runs in the outer zones have also found ac- 
ceptance in a few places. Wider than either of these 
movements has been the adoption of the near-side stop 
in scores of cities, sometimes eliminating thereby two 
or three stops per mile. 

The more stringent traffic regulations which have 
been a feature of the past year, even in the smaller 
cities like Canton, Ohio, and Louisville, Ky., are directed 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



7 



primarily against the ubiquitous, self-propelled vehicle. 
In Cleveland and San Francisco semaphore and lighting 
devices are giving most effective results in promoting 
safe traffic movement. The electric railway can only 
benefit from this tendency toward better traffic regula- 
tion, for it will insure a less obstructed track accom- 
panied by greater safety to those who want to ride. 

DEVELOPMENTS IN TRACK CONSTRUCTION 
Interest in track construction during the year just 
passed has been almost wholly confined to that in paved 
streets, although the increasing demand for better special 
work to withstand the heavy service incident to closer 
headways, higher speeds and heavier rolling stock has 
extended into all fields. Track and roadway engineers 
generally are anxious to see solid and insert manganese 
steel pass through the development stage to a point 
where a more uniform product can be assured. While 
rapid strides have been made by the manufacturers, 
many of whom now believe they have approximated per- 
fection, sufficient time has not elapsed to demonstrate 
that convincing service results have been obtained. On 
the other hand, the various steps taken to obtain a more 
uniform product indicate that marked progress has been 
made. 

Probably during no other similar period has so much 
interest been aroused in all classes of track special work 
as during the past year. The fact that there was little 
or no available literature on this subject aided largely 
in intensifying interest in the discussions and articles. 
No doubt these contributions will ultimately be crystal- 
lized in the form of specifications governing the manu- 
facture and installation of the various types of track 
special work. 

Along this same line much attention has been directed 
toward the refinement of electric welding processes in 
track repairs. But few other pieces of track and road- 
way equipment have grown so rapidly in popularity or 
have been the center of so much attention as the welder 
in its application to track repairs. It has made possible 
economies which have been of vital importance during 
the present period of retrenchment. In addition to its 
adaptability to track repairs the electric welder has also 
introduced new types of welded joints, welded special 
work, tie plates, etc. In fact, completely welded all-steel 
track, including the ties, has been successfully laid. 

The report of the 1914 committee on way matters re- 
garding proper foundations for tracks in paved streets 
was one of the most important contributions to the elec- 
tric railway industry that this committee has ever made. 
Although the four types of foundation construction sub- 
mitted for adoption as recommended designs were not 
accepted in detail, it was generally conceded that they 
were representative of the best practice at this time. The 
committee's treatment of this subject in such a compre- 
hensive and scientific manner makes the report valuable 
as a guide in the selection of track foundation construc- 
tion for both large and small companies. As indicated 
in another part of this report, there is but little to be 
added to the information already available regarding 
use of T-rails in paved streets. The facts that there are 



approximately 2250 miles of T-rail track in use in the 
paved streets of this country furnishes some light on 
its popularity. It is also probably safe to predict that 
the future will see a still larger percentage of the total 
miles of track in paved streets laid with T-rails. There 
has also been increased interest in the so-called "alloy 
steel" rail for other than special conditions. 

Evidence that carefully maintained, permanent track 
construction is all that the name indicates was probably 
never more forcibly exemplified than in the track re- 
habilitation undertaken in Detroit during the past sum- 
mer. The fact that this company found that its con- 
crete-slab, sand-cushion track construction, which had 
been under extremely heavy service for twelve years 
could be rehabilitated by simply renewing the rail and 
pavement demonstrated what may be obtained from 
work well done. The Detroit experience also indicates 
that there is much to be accomplished by the adoption of 
tie plates and screw spikes toward prolonging the me- 
chanical life of wooden ties. The conditions of the white 
oak ties after twelve years of service in Detroit indicate 
that unless they fail mechanically at least twelve years 
more may be expected of them. 

In general, our observation leads us to believe that 
track and roadway engineers are working along the 
right lines at the present time. Many of them have 
adopted the policy of attaining true economy by the em- 
ployment of the best materials in conjunction with the 
most practical workmanship consistent with the class of 
service to be rendered. 

THE BUSINESS SITUATION 
It is difficult to form an opinion acceptable to all in 
regard to the electric railway business situation. Like 
any subject of great enough importance to be widely 
discussed, it is kaleidoscopic, and observers divergently 
located secure different views according to their pecu- 
liar combination of the factors involved. By factors 
we mean- such items as the following : rates ; gross earn- 
ings; maintenance, depreciation, transportation and 
traffic expenses ; federal, state and local taxation ; rent- 
als, leases and other cantractual obligations; holding 
company administration versus local management; fed- 
eral and state regulations; causes of receiverships; 
rights of stockholders; financing; accounting; labor leg- 
islation ; politics, and changing economic and social con- 
ditions. All these and others may be blended into in- 
numerable combinations before the financial results of 
the year are complete. In order, then, for a man to 
reach a sound conclusion as to electric railway prosperi- 
ty, it is necessary for him not to judge the question 
from his own limited sphere of action or be guided by 
such a familiarity with a particular factor as precludes 
a general knowledge of all, but rather to look at all fac- 
tors without prejudice so that accurate deductions may 
be made. It is of no avail to live in the past days of 
railroading or to measure past morality by present 
standards. Railway conditions to-day are a product of 
the present and should be so judged, for only in this 
way can the factors of railway economics be analyzed 
and properly correlated. 



8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



We should like to make here such a composite analy- 
sis of all the factors involved in the present business 
situation, but space forbids anything more than a sum- 
mary of what is treated more in detail in other edi- 
torials of this issue. The characteristic tone is that of 
optimism. This in a way may seem surprising. For 
many months a large number of industries have been 
prostrated and most have suffered curtailment of busi- 
ness, a condition not caused entirely by the European 
war but also by a steadily increasing depression in this 
country from the middle of 1913. The effect of this 
prostration has been clear for months to railways, in- 
dustrials, banks, shippers and the general public. In 
view of the effects upon general business, it is not sur- 
prising that many electric railways have shown de- 
creased returns or have not maintained the normal rate 
of increase. We do not look for a business "boom," but 
the opening of the New York Stock Exchange, the 
favorable settlement of the steam railroad rate case, 
the new banking law and the increasing adjustment of 
other factors upset by political disturbances and war 
conditions seem now really to justify the expectations 
of an era of improving general business conditions dur- 
ing the new year. In these improved conditions the 
electric railways should share, as greater industrial 
activity will mean greater demands for transportation 
for both passengers and light freight. 

It might be well to dwell for a moment on one or two 
factors that pertain particularly to the electric railway 
field and therefore are not usually mentioned in any 
general discussion of business prospects. One of the 
most interesting of these is the comparatively small num- 
ber of receiverships and foreclosure sales in 1914. In 
spite of the depression, only one-half as many com- 
panies were forced to go under receivers as in 1913, 
while the foreclosure sales in 1914 were only eleven as 
compared to eighteen in 1913. It is true that the tight- 
ness of money was a direct preventive of three sales, 
but even with these included the last year's showing 
would be better. These results speak well for the economy 
and the financing ability of electric railway officials, for 
they were obtained in a period that was a more severe 
drain on electric railway earnings than on those of other 
utilities. Other favorable signs are the evidences that 
a more rational view of the urgency of some form of 
relief to the railways is being taken by the courts, by 
the commissions and by the general public. 

In the equipment field there ought to be a correspond- 
ing or even greater improvement. The times them- 
selves should encourage purchases. As long as we re- 
main in the shadow of a receding business depression 
prices will be low, labor plentiful and deliveries from 
underworked manufacturers amazingly prompt. Build- 
ing operations, such as shops, etc., begun at this time, 
should show a much lower cost than if postponed until 
prices are higher. We believe that electric railways 
will have no difficulty in floating long-time loans in the 
coming business revival at fairly moderate rates, al- 
though all interest rates will be higher for a long time 
to come, owing to the destruction of capital in the war. 



STANDARDS IN THE OPERATING DEPARTMENT 

Tangible evidence of the value of standards in the 
transportation department can be found by studying 
progressively the reports of the several committees of 
the American Electric Railway Transportation & Traf- 
fic Association since it was organized in 1907, but dur- 
ing the past year a really definite step forward has been 
taken by the formation of a permanent transportation 
and traffic standards committee, whose first duty will 
be to co-ordinate and classify for ready reference the 
work already accomplished. As a matter of fact, it is 
somewhat surprising that such a committee has not 
been organized before this, because it is obvious that, 
through co-operation between the new committee and 
the committee on standards of the Engineering Asso- 
ciation, valuable results may be expected in the many 
cases where the scope of engineering work overlaps the 
field peculiar to the transportation branch of the elec- 
tric railway industry. 

Aside from matters allied with engineering, however, 
much can be accomplished by the development of stand- 
ard units of comparison as well as of standard prac- 
tices, because the possibility of their adoption cannot 
fail to define more clearly the objects of association 
work. With the opportunity for stamping any prac- 
tice with the formal approval of the Transportation & 
Traffic Association, there will be not only an increased 
incentive for the investigations of committees, but also 
a definite aim toward which the committees' efforts 
may be directed — a condition which has not always 
obtained in the past. 

Certainly this difficulty has been patent in the actual 
operating methods existing at present. While the elec- 
trical, mechanical and way departments of electric rail- 
ways have evolved carefully elaborated standards for 
their own use, the transportation side of the railway 
organization has been handicapped because working 
largely without the assistance of standardized operation. 
Of course, no one doubts that time and effort are being 
intelligently put forth by railway managers and their 
subordinate officers in transportation work, but, in 
many cases, the idea that operating problems are largely 
susceptible of analytical study and precise definition by 
scientific methods has not been fully realized. 
However, a change is now taking place in this depart- 
ment of the industry, with a marked extension of so- 
called modern methods of operation. 

As an example. In the matter of service regulation 
and schedule construction it will be found that great ad- 
vances have been made by some of the representative 
companies. Standard routine for the assembling and 
compilation of data on which to base schedules, the use 
of graphs and the systematic comparison and study of 
such data with that obtained under identical conditions 
on previous occasions have enabled the production of 
operating time-tables that regulate the service furnished 
as nearly as practicable to the demands of traffic and to 
the economics of the situation. Standard units such as 
passengers carried per car-mile, average length of ride, 
capacity of intersections, rates of passenger inter- 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



9 



change and the like are now being developed and are 
beginning to be used with valuable results. On one 
city system, by the use of analyses made possible by the 
establishment of standard units, the car mileage has 
been cut down by more than 10 per cent, although the 
efficiency of the service has actually been increased. 
Other instances might be quoted were they needed to 
demonstrate the value of such operating practices. Suf- 
fice it to say that such companies as have applied 
modern methods would, under no conceivable circum- 
stances, go back to what are sometimes called the 
"horse-car ways" of conducting the transportation de- 
partment. 

PUBLIC RELATIONS 

The public function of an electric railway is twofold, 
mechanical and social. From the mechanical stand- 
point it is to move a passenger with a mass of one or 
two hundred pounds between two points in a reasonable 
time. From the social standpoint this mass is a per- 
son who must be treated as a guest and made to enjoy 
himself as much as possible. The mechanical part of 
the railway's function is a technical one, and it can be 
performed easily by compliance with well-understood 
laws. The social part is not so easy as it requires per- 
sonality to perform it and mine host in this case has 
to exert his hospitality by proxy. There is no doubt 
in the minds of any of us, however, that the success of 
a railway system depends partly upon the extent to 
which the passengers "enjoy themselves." 

Of all the problems now before the managements of 
electric railways that of turning the antagonism of the 
public into friendliness is one of the most pressing. 
The commonly accepted formula is "take care of the ser- 
vice and public relations will take care of themselves," 
but the application of the formula is not easy. There 
is no popularly accepted standard of good service, for 
what some riders would consider such could be supplied 
only at a ruinous cost. The railways must therefore 
take the initiative in showing what good service is in 
view of all the conditions involved. To give the best 
practicable service and to demonstrate conclusively that 
it is such are the two problems of public relations. What 
is needed is to develop a sense of pride in the railway 
system on the part of the local public so that "boosting" 
will be as common as "knocking" was formerly. 

The American Electric Railway Association, at the 
Atlantic City convention, promulgated a "code of prin- 
ciples" which is now officially a platform or creed of the 
members of the association and describes the duties 
which the railways owe to the public as well as those 
which the association thinks that the public owes to the 
railways. The work now to be done is twofold; first, to 
convince the public that the code is right and that the 
public should carry out its principles, and, second, that 
the railways themselves live up to their part of the con- 
tract. For example, the code makes certain statements 
in regard to service and publicity. Let each manager 
ask himself : "To what extent do I recognize the princi- 
ple that the first obligation of public utility companies 
is service?" and "To what extent am I following the 
practice of full and frank publicity?" Finally, let him 



ask himself : "What am I doing to improve the public- 
relations in my own community?" If these three ques- 
tions are conscientiously asked and answered and the 
precepts contained in the answers are put in force, we 
believe that the most serious part of the problem con- 
nected with the establishment of good public relations 
will disappear. At any rate, each manager will feel 
that he has done his part toward the establishment and 
maintenance of good public relations. 

THE BANNER YEAR IN ACCOUNTING PROGRESS 

Since the first thought of uniform action on the part 
of electric railway accountants found concrete expres- 
sion in 1897 in the formation of the Street Railway Ac- 
countants' Association of America, the advances made in 
electric railway accounting have been equalled only by 
the steady growth and improvements of the industry it- 
self. To speak of 1914 as the banner year in electric 
railway accounting in the face of such a fact may seem 
slightly presumptuous, but voluminous and important 
as the results of previous years have been, they must 
give precedence to the twofold work of this year, the 
adoption of an official standard accounting system for 
interstate electric railways and the successful institu- 
tion of a correspondence course for accountants. 

This combination of a more nearly perfected uniform 
system of accounts with the machinery for fixing its 
principles in the minds of those who must put its pro- 
visions into practice seems to us most auspicious. 
Through the educational course the mature electric rail- 
way accountant can secure a broader view of his field, 
while the younger man will not only become familiar at 
the outset with the technical procedure and practice of 
his chosen calling but will also get a grip on the funda- 
mental principles underlying its operations and a drill 
in the solution of many of the difficult problems with 
which he will be confronted. Of the real basis of the 
course as it specifically concerns electric railways — the 
official accounting system — little needs be said. The re- 
vision of the existing classifications of operating ex- 
penses, operating revenue, and road and equipment ac- 
counts, the adoption of standard classifications of in- 
come, profit and loss, and general balance sheet accounts, 
together with specific provisions for the depreciation of 
equipment and the segregation of power plant expenses 
— all were distinct advancements in electric railway ac- 
counting. Not the least satisfactory feature of the sys- 
tem, however, is the evidence it gives that electric rail- 
way accountants during the last two decades have been 
working on the right basis, for the changes made by the 
commission from the results embodied in old classifica- 
tions of the Accountants' Association are simply the 
logical outcome of the industry's growth. This in a way 
weakens our assertion that 1914, the year of the ac- 
complished accounting system, deserves the banner, for 
the basic work had been so largely and thoroughly laid 
in previous years by electric railway accountants. 

While the accounting system and the educational 
course represent the only two completed results of the 
year, there were many other movements worthy of in- 
vestigation that showed various stages of progress. 
Leading the list, probably, is the subject of cost ac- 



10 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



counting, the functions of which are every day becoming 
more and more widely recognized by carriers. The joint 
engineering and accounting report at Atlantic City dis- 
played a praiseworthy grasp of the theoretical principles 
of the subject, but electric railways have much to learn 
from manufacturing plants in regard to the accounting 
technique to be followed. The actual order requiring 
the separation of freight and passenger operating ex- 
penses on steam railroads and the growing necessity for 
a proper apportionment of costs between city and inter- 
urban service make it seem that the time is indeed here 
for electric railways to adopt a system of apportion- 
ment that will permit the accurate stating of costs for 
the various enterprises under one management. 

Then, of course, there is our old friend "uniform- 
ity." Unrealizable as this ideal may be, it may still be 
approximated more closely than in the past. Uniform- 
ity of terms, uniformity of accounting practice for de- 
preciation, uniformity of financial statements, uni- 
formity of holding company accounts — all these should 
be fruitful sources for investigation and action. We 
are particularly interested in the uniformity of finan- 
cial statements, both monthly and annual. Con- 
formity between the statements required by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission and by various state com- 
missions is eminently desirable, and the state commis- 
sion with the interests of the public properly at heart 
will surrender its small differences in favor of the na- 
tional system and not show unbecoming obstinacy 
because it happened to devise its system first. More- 
over, on the part of some interstate companies there 
seems to be an undercurrent of feeling that inasmuch as 
the Interstate Commerce Commission does not compel 
them to issue their annual report to stockholders in the 
official form, such reports may be modified at will to suit 
their whims. We believe that it would be more benefi- 
cial to the industry if all individual managements would 
sacrifice personal prejudices and follow the standard 
provisions in order to make all stockholders' reports 
readily comparable, as the steam railroads have done. 

In the matter of monthly reports, it seems to us un- 
fortunate that barely 5 per cent of the electric railways 
in the country make public such reports to indicate the 
trend of gross and net earnings. While most com- 
panies cannot afford to go to the expense of compiling 
and printing complete monthly statistics, practically 
all should be able by the end of the succeeding month 
to furnish totals for gross earnings, operating expenses 
and net earnings. The Electric Railway Journal 
feels that there is a need for such information on the 
part of commissions, investors and operators, and it 
would welcome the receipt of simply a monthly com- 
munication with such amounts from the auditor of each 
company, the data to be kept confidential and to be 
used only in compiling totals and percentages for the 
several classes of lines and territorial divisions, some- 
what similar to those published in the Financial Depart- 
ment in our issue of Nov. 28. This is one line of de- 
velopment where each accounting officer can do his part 
without waiting for any others, and we hope there will 
be a generous response. 



A. C. ELECTRIFICATION 

During the past twelvemonth more progress has been 
made in alternating-current traction than for some 
years past. Practically all of this development has oc- 
curred in this country, as the war abroad has naturally 
prevented much electric railway development there. 
One notable event of the year has been the completion 
for the Norfolk & Western Railroad of the split-phase 
locomotive, the contract for which was announced a 
year ago. Although only general descriptions of the 
locomotive have yet been made public, it is understood 
that the performances under test have been fully up to 
the calculations and in some points exceeded ex- 
pectations. The liquid rheostat used in the secondaries 
of the induction motors during acceleration gives a 
smoothness to the control of the locomotive which it 
would be impossible to obtain in any other way. The 
automatic regeneration on descending grades is very 
important on a line such as the Pocohontas Division of 
the Norfolk & Western, where long, heavy grades like 
the Elkhorn are encountered, as it greatly increases 
the safety of operation and the reliability of the equip- 
ment, besides effecting a material saving in energy con- 
sumption. A combination gear and side-rod drive is 
used on these machines and removes all dead motor 
weight from the driving axles. While a comparatively 
large amount of apparatus is required in the cab, the 
apparatus is simple and rugged in design and should be 
easy to maintain. The main driving motors have, of 
course, all of the characteristics of three-phase induc- 
tion motors with the wound secondary. Altogether 
these locomotives should give an excellent account of 
themselves in the heavy service in which they will be 
placed. 

Another event of importance in a.c. development 
during the year is the electrification of the main line 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Philadelphia, where, 
like the Norfolk & Western, the single-phase system 
with 11,000 volts at twenty-five cycles is used on the 
trolley. The Philadelphia electrification will, however, 
employ initially multiple-unit cars, as the service is a 
suburban one. The motors will be somewhat in excess 
of 225 hp each and of the series commutator type for a.c. 
operation only. Hence the complications necessary for 
combined operation on direct current will be avoided, 
and as good results as those obtained in the operation 
of the New York, Westchester & Boston equipments 
should be expected. The overhead construction on both 
the Pennsylvania and the Norfolk & Western Railroads 
possesses marked advances in simplicity over the orig- 
inal designs for single-phase lines. 

The experimental service obtained during the latter 
part of the year with mercury rectifier equipment has 
been notably successful, and a 1000-hp equipment in- 
stalled on one of the Pennsylvania Railroad combination 
cars and now in test service on the New Haven rail- 
way was recently described in these columns. It is 
manifestly too early yet to predict the exact place of 
the rectifier equipment in future traction work, but its 
successful development would simplify a number of 
electrification problems, notably the interchange of 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



11 



equipments on a.c.-d.c. lines. For such an equipment, 
it would only be necessary to add to a standard d.c. loco- 
motive a transformer and rectifier, which would change 
the alternating current to direct current at the desired 
voltage, to make an equipment capable of operating with 
equal facility and capacity on both systems. Where the 
equipment is designed for operation on alternating cur- 
rent only, it would be natural to use voltage control 
and thereby avoid rheostatic losses. As a whole, then, 
we may look back upon 1914 as a notable year in a.c. 
electrification and as presaging still more valuable de- 
velopment in the near future. 



CAR DESIGN IN 1914 

Unquestionably the most prominent feature of the 
past year's progress in surface car design has been the 
truly remarkable growth in the use of the fully-inclosed 
platform. Of course, it is no new idea to have cars 
completely inclosed while in motion, thus preventing 
ingress and egress of passengers with the consequent 
practical elimination of boarding and alighting acci- 
dents. In fact, several lines, notably the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company, have used it in modified form 
for many years. But the scheme has, until recently, 
met with scant favor throughout the country at large 
because of a widespread belief that it would involve a 
material decrease in schedule speed, and it is probable 
that the change in sentiment, such as has taken place 
within the past year, could only have been effected 
through the successful introduction some two years ago 
of the center-entrance car, which is, of necessity, com- 
pletely inclosed. Including center-entrance cars the 
fully-inclosed designs constitute a surprisingly large 
percentage of the year's output, the principle appearing 
indiscriminately among all types from the smallest one- 
man cars to the largest standard units for metropolitan 
service. 

The center-entrance idea, however, when considered 
alone has failed to grow in accordance with early ex- 
pectations. Numerically, the center-entrance has just 
about remained stationary during the past year, al- 
though the decreased output of cars of all types has no 
doubt affected this to a marked degree. In general, 
sentiment seems to be still very much divided over its 
merits. Nevertheless, it has provided an excellent solu- 
tion for many of the problems of trail-car design and 
also for the utilization of old equipments which, when 
operated alone, are too small for profitable use. Bos- 
ton's articulated car, a scheme which has recently also 
been adopted in Portland, is a successful example of 
this development, and in Pittsburgh old bodies have 
been spliced together in pairs to make thoroughly satis- 
factory, large-size units. In several cases, too, old- 
style open or California-type cars have been rebuilt as 
closed center-entrance cars, so that it is safe to say that 
the center-entrance car, even if it has not revolutionized 
the industry, has at least produced a well-defined dent 
in the smooth outlines of conservative practice. 

Of course, the center-entrance from the first has been 
associated with the low step, and this, in turn, has 
drawn a great deal of attention to the small wheel. 



During the past year the latter appears at last to have 
taken hold to an appreciable extent in places other than 
its birthplace, Pittsburgh. In San Francisco more than 
100 cars have been re-equipped with small wheels and 
motors, the old equipment being scrapped, and the 
replacement has been found to pay handsomely. A con- 
siderable number of new city cars also have been thus 
equipped, and for interurban service the small wheel 
has been successfully used in several cases, the Ohio 
Electric Railway having five cars and the Seattle, Ren- 
ton & Southern six cars with 22-in. wheels on the idler 
trucks. 

It is with the single-truck car, however, that the 
most spectacular installation of small wheels has been 
made, the Third Avenue Railway of New York having 
used this combination under practically standard car- 
bodies 35 ft. long and seating forty-five passengers. 
Owing to the use of radial-axle trucks a 10-ft. wheelbase 
is provided, and as the platforms are brought within 
12 in. of the rail the customary step is eliminated, the 
weight of the car complete being only 533 lb. per pas- 
senger. Much of the saving in weight is, of course, 
due to the single truck, and that this advantage, to- 
gether with the accompanying reduction in maintenance 
expense, has been recognized to a great extent during 
the year is indicated by the relatively large number of 
new single-truck cars that have been built. In fact, 
there has been quite a revival of interest in the single- 
truck principle, which has even involved a fairly ready 
acceptance of the complication of radial axles. For the 
future it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the 
single-truck car, in combination with the fully-inclosed 
principle, is going to play an important part in the 
design of equipment for city service. 



CONDITIONS IN THE LABOR FIELD 

While there have been several strikes during the past 
year and wide publicity has been given to certain arbi- 
tration proceedings between electric railways and their 
employees, 1914 has not been a year of labor discontent 
or unrest. In spite of the adverse business situation, 
few companies have followed the practice general in in- 
dustrial establishments of reducing wages, and the 
policy of both companies and men has seemed to be to 
let well enough alone. 

In welfare work and allied subjects there has been 
substantial progress. Of the many advances made in 
this direction those made in the extension of company 
loan bureaus, co-operative buying and group insurance 
have perhaps been the most conspicuous. The idea of 
establishing closer relations with the employees, espe- 
cially in larger cities, by lending money to them for 
legitimate purposes, as in time of serious illness or 
death, instead of forcing them to pay exorbitant rates 
to loan sharks, is well conceived. Progress in co-opera- 
tive buying for the benefit of the employee is necessarily 
slower, but the plans followed in New York and Phila- 
delphia, though essentially different from each other, 
have shown every evidence of success during the past 
year and are being extended. Finally, the plan of group 
insurance has been adopted by a number of companies 



12 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



as a very satisfactory means of testifying to the interest 
of the company in long-continued service of the train- 
men. 

The group insurance plans to which we refer are 
those of voluntary insurance, and have nothing to do 
with the mandatory insurance under compensation laws 
which have been passed by a number of states during 
the last twelve months, the New York law having gone 
- into effect last July. The rapidity with which such laws 
are superseding the old master-and-servant and fellow- 
servant liability laws as a method of dealing with in- 
dustrial accidents is indicated by the fact that, besides 
the national government, twenty-three states have 
enacted such legislation and the subject is being serious- 
ly considered in most of the other states. No electric 
railway will deny the innate justice of the general prin- 
ciple underlying such laws. Indeed, several of the 
railways in the states concerned had hardly estab- 
lished compensation systems for the benefit of their 
employees, similar in general scope to those covered by 
the various acts. As a whole, therefore, this new legis- 
lation has not changed the conditions on electric railway 
properties to so great an extent as it has in industrial 
enterprises, where, as a rule, no such provisions have 
heretofore existed. It has, however, like any entirely 
new legislation, introduced a number of new problems. 
Many of these acts were passed hastily and are crude, 
and these inconsistencies will have to be straightened 
out. Again, the questions of administration and best 
method of insurance remain to be solved. Many con- 
siderations govern this matter, but it seems as if a mu- 
tual association, acquainted with the problems of the 
industry concerned, or self-insurance, if the company is 
of sufficient size, offers the best solution. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting events of 
the year was the report submitted to the American Fed- 
eration of Labor last September on the subject of labor 
conditions on European municipally and privately owned 
railways. The conditions of railway employees abroad, 
especially on municipally owned lines, have been so often 
held up before the American laborer as exemplary that 
it must have come as a surprise to be told that the living 
standards here are only from 25 to 65 per cent higher 
than in Europe but that the maximum and minimum 
wages are twice as large respectively. But it is not only 
in the rates of pay that our car men are better off than 
their confreres abroad. Fines, ranging in size from a 
day's pay to eight days' pay, are enforced "for the slight- 
est error made by men on duty," and the retention of 
wages to pay for repairs to company property injured 
while in charge of an employee, forfeiture of bond for 
leaving the service without due notice, renouncement of 
the right of appeal, etc., are common. In short, when 
we consider the rewards of the last year to trainmen in 
America and this vivid portrayal of European condi- 
tions, there seem to be few matters of which serious 
complaint can be made here, and the halo which some of 
the advocates of municipal ownership here have tried to 
throw around the labor conditions on European tram- 
ways disappears. 



STATISTICS FOR 1914 

Statistics for the past year, which are published in 
accordance with our long-standing custom in the first 
issue of the year, show a decrease both in cars ordered 
and miles of track built during the past year as com- 
pared with 1913. The decrease is greater in cars than 
in mileage, which, on the face of the returns, is within 
approximately 10 per cent of the figures for 1913, but 
some 25 per cent of the miles of new electric track is 
made up of electrified steam railroads or gas-electric 
lines. Most of the electrified mileage for the year was 
that completed on the New Haven extension of its elec- 
tric zone, and this has given to Connecticut the leader- 
ship over the other states on the list. Outside of this 
electrical division, the mileage of new electric line con- 
structed in New England was less than 20, or con- 
siderably less than one-half of 1 per cent of the mile- 
age at the beginning of the year. 

The Eastern states, as a whole, show approximately 
the same percentage rate of growth, as do also the 
Southern states, if we exclude the completion of a long 
interurban line in North Carolina which forms a part 
of the extensive hydro-electric development in that 
state. The states which have shown the greatest ac- 
tivity in electric railway construction during the year 
have been Minnesota, Utah and Michigan, each having 
two new interurban lines which bring the mileage of 
track constructed in each of these states up to an aver- 
age of 75. All told, thirty-seven states are represented 
to some extent in this year's list, as against forty for 
last year, but in many of them the extensions con- 
structed, as will be seen from the table elsewhere in 
this issue, represent merely short spurs or extensions, 
and no great amount of new electric railway has been 
built. On the other hand, several important enterprises 
have been inaugurated or brought to a successful com- 
pletion. Outside of the New Haven electrification the 
most important have been a 50-mile line built in Michi- 
gan as part of the system of the Michigan Railway, two 
important interurban roads in Utah (one of which is 
described elsewhere in this issue), the gas-electric line 
in Minnesota and the Piedmont line in North Carolina, 
already mentioned. Proportionately, the interurban 
lines show much greater activity than the systems in 
larger cities, a situation that might be expected owing to 
the fact that an extension to an interurban line means 
additional fare, whereas on the city line it usually 
means simply a longer ride for the same fare. 

When we consider the car statistics we find that the 
total number of cars ordered or built during the year is 
less than half of that recorded in 1913. In this case 
the major part of the reduction is traceable to the ab- 
sence of a few large orders such as those made last 
year by Philadelphia and Chicago for more than 500 
cars apiece, the number of roads buying cars being 
only 7 per cent less than last year. However, the fact 
that the smaller, and presumably weaker, urban roads 
as well as the interurban lines are providing an appre- 
ciably increasing percentage of the orders can be taken 
only as an encouraging sign of inherent strength in the 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



13 



industry. Altogether the statistics confirm the previous 
general impression that the investment in electric rail- 
ways is not keeping pace with the growth and prosperity 
of the country just as it has not done for a number of 
years back, but there are some signs that this condition 
will not continue indefinitely. This subject is discussed 
at length in the editorial on the business situation. 

HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAY 
EQUIPMENTS 

Since the installation of the first 1200-volt equipment 
in 1907 on the lines of the Indianapolis & Louisville 
Traction Company, steady progress has been made in 
perfecting high-voltage car equipments and locomotives 
and extending their use. There are now in operation 
or under construction more than thirty roads in the 
United States and Canada using 1200 volts or higher 
on the trolley, and approximately 800 motor car or 
locomotive equipments are involved. The reliability 
and cost of maintaining such equipments compares very 
favorably with accepted 600-volt d.c. practice, and there 
is practically no disagreement among engineers as to 
the excellent qualifications of 1200-volt and 1500-volt 
d.c. equipments for interurban railway conditions. 

It early became evident that no new fundamental prin- 
ciples were involved in the development of the high- 
voltage d.c. equipment. Two standard 600-volt motors 
connected permanently in series were found to operate 
perfectly on 1200 volts, but the addition of a greater 
creepage distance and more insulation to ground were 
of course desirable. Otherwise the motors used with 
the 1200-volt trolley do not differ from the commu- 
tating-pole d.c. motors in extensive use. 

The control equipment at the higher voltage required 
some modification, but the construction of contactors, 
fuses, and auxiliary apparatus operating at higher volt- 
ages offered no difficulties, the only departure from 
regular 600-volt practice being the introduction of the 
dynamotors to reduce the line voltage to a safe operat- 
ing control voltage. 

The operation of 1200-volt and 1500-volt d.c. equip- 
ments has passed through so long a period of demon- 
stration as to leave no room for doubt of their success, 
and interest therefore centers in the use of still higher 
potentials for either interurban railways or to meet 
the larger demands of steam railroad electrification. 
While the costs of substations and distribution copper 
are both entirely reasonable in interurban systems oper- 
ating at a trolley potential of 1200 volts or 1500 volts, 
the need of a higher voltage was felt to take care econ- 
omically of the requirements of main-line electrification. 
Experimental equipments built at the factory showed 
conclusively that higher voltages were feasible, and this 
led to the placing of contracts for 2400-volt d.c. loco- 
motives and substation apparatus to operate the Butte, 
Anaconda & Pacific Railway. Here again no new de- 
parture was made in standard 600-volt d.c. practice 
except as to insulation and creepage distance, as al- 
ready described. This "installation has been in operation 
for about one and a half years and has not only been 
most successful from the standpoints of reliability and 



economy, but it has demonstrated the great advantages 
of electrification in general as compared with steam-en- 
gine operation on a road having the same traffic condi- 
tions in both instances. Contracts for similar appara- 
tus have been placed by the Canadian Northern Rail- 
way, and 2400-volt motor cars are now in operation 
upon the lines of the Michigan United Railway. In all 
but one installation, two motors are permanently con- 
nected in series and the same practice is followed with 
the power supply in the substations. 

The next step in advance appears to be the adoption 
of a still higher voltage under certain conditions. In- 
deed, this has already been specified in the very exten- 
sive work now under construction on the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railway in whose initial installation 
of 113 miles of main line electrification 3000 volts will 
be used, and this section will soon be followed by a 
change to electricity on three additional engine divi- 
sions, or a total of approximately 440 miles of main- 
line track. The adoption of 3000 volts in this in- 
stallation was undoubtedly largely influenced by the suc- 
cess of 2400-volt d.c. locomotives operating upon the 
Butte, Anaconda & Pacific, lying in the same territory 
as the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul tracks to be elec- 
trified. The plans of the St. Paul Railway contemplate 
a substation spacing of more than 30 miles apart, and 
factory tests indicate no difficulty in the construction 
of motor-generator sets, switchboard apparatus and 
locomotive equipments at this potential. The locomo- 
tives are to be equipped with regenerative control and 
are much larger than those on the Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific Railway. The results of this application of high- 
voltage direct current to heavy electric traction will 
certainly be watched with interest. 

Just how much higher d.c. potentials for railway 
work will be carried during the immediate future is 
still an open question. There have been published ac- 
counts of tests made by one manufacturing company of 
two 100-hp motors operating permanently in series from 
trolley voltages of 5000 and 7000. In this case mer- 
cury arc rectifiers were used to supply the voltage so 
that all difficulties of commutation in the substation were 
eliminated. Undoubtedly the reduction to be effected in 
feeder copper, or the wider spacing of substations pos- 
sible with this doubling of the voltage, constitutes an 
important saving, and the tests do not indicate that any 
serious difficulties are to be anticipated. On the other 
hand, any increase in voltage means necessarily a more 
expensive motor, and the higher cost in motor construc- 
tion and maintenance will have to be balanced against 
the saving in substations and feeder copper. What the 
ultimate results will be in this economic equation re- 
main to be seen. Certainly it has been proved that 
3000 volts are economically desirable, and a much 
higher voltage is electrically practicable. There have 
also been advances in the method of current collection, 
secured by a modified double-shoe pantograph which 
permits the collection of larger current at higher 
speeds than hitherto has been practicable. These facts 
alone are noteworthy events of the year and hold forth 
the greatest encouragement for electrification in 1915. 



14 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 1 

New Electric Railway Track Built in 1914 

Reports Received from the Different Railway Companies in the United States and Canada Show a New 

Mileage of 946.38 Constructed During the Past Year 



The new track built during 1914 by city systems and 
interurban lines is tabulated in the accompanying lists, 
the mileage of old steam railroad track electrified during 
the year being also included. The statistics are com- 
piled from reports received from the railway companies 
themselves, and the record is complete except in the 
case of a few of the small companies whose replies were 
not received in time for inclusion in the list. All items 
which appear are, of course, accurate. It is possible, 
however, that there may be some mileage that does not 
appear either because of the failure of the companies to 
report it, or because the construction was reported dur- 
ing 1913 and hence appeared in the statistical table pub- 
lished in the issue of this paper for January 3, 1913. 

The following summary shows the electric railway 
lines built or put in operation each year since 1907 in 
the United States and Canada: 



1907 1,880 miles 

1908 1,258.5 miles 

1909 887.1 miles 

1910 1,397.2 miles 

1911 1,191.5 miles 

1912 950.2 miles 

1913 1,018.9 miles 

1914 946.38 miles 



The total mileage of the year, 946.38, shows a de- 
crease of 7 per cent from that recorded last year. 
In this year's record Connecticut heads the list of states 
with 208.94 miles reported. This unusually high total 
for a state intensively equipped with electric railways is 
due to the 204.94 miles of steam line electrified by the 
New York, New Haven & Hudson River Railroad be- 
tween Stamford and New Haven. 



ALABAMA Miles 
Birmingham Railway Light & Power Co. — Between Baylis 

and Farrant City 1.29 

Birmingham — Tuscaloosa Railway 4.00 

Gadsden, Bellevue & Lookout Mountain Ry. — Between 

Noccalula Falls and Gadsden 1.00 

Mobile & Baldwin County R. R 5.00 



11.29 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix Railway 2.00 



2.00 

ARKANSAS 

Little Rock Ry. & Elec. Co 2.38 

Pine Bluffs Co .50 



2 88 

CALIFORNIA 

Crescent City Ry. — Between Bloomington and Rialto.... 3.47 
Fresno Interurban Railway — Connects Fresno with subur- 
ban properties, being portion of line under construc- 
tion from Fresno to Clovis 4.50 

Los Angeles Ry 2.00 

Municipal Railways of San Francisco — San Francisco.... 16.80 
Northwestern Pacific R. R. — Between San Anselmo and 

San Rafael 1.33 

Peninsula Railway — Santa Clara and vicinity 2.90 

United Railways of San Francisco — San Francisco, South 

San Francisco 3.56 

Vlsalia Electric Railroad 2.10 



36.66 

CONNECTICUT 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. — Electrification 
of steam line Stamford to New Haven, including 

yards and sidings 204.94 

Waterbury & Milldale Tramway — Between Cheshire, 

Wolcott and Southington 4.00 



208.94 

COLORADO 

Denver Tramway 100 



1.00 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
Washington Railway & Electric Co. — Washington 2.06 



2.06 

FLORIDA 

Central of Florida Railway — Between Daytona, Daytona 

Beach and Seabreeze 8.00 

Jacksonville Traction Co 3.29 

St. Petersburg & Gulf Ry 1.25 



Minnesota ranks second with 80.85 miles of track con- 
struction, 40 miles of which is contributed by the new 
gasoline electric line of the Electric Short Line Railway 
between Minneapolis, Wayzata, Watertown and Win- 
sted, a part of the line which will ultimately extend to 
Hutchinson. The Twin City Rapid Transit Company 
also built 23.10 miles, and 17.54 miles were constructed 
by the St. Paul Southern Railway. 

Utah is third with 77.55 miles. The Salt Lake & 
Utah Railroad built a 48.50-mile interurban line be- 
tween Salt Lake City and Provo, and the Ogden, Logan 
& Idaho Railway made a 26.50-mile extension from 
Wellsville to Lewiston which will eventually reach Pres- 
ton, Idaho. 

In Iowa, which has a total of 56.80 miles, the Center- 
ville, Albia & Southern Railway electrified 25 miles of 
its former steam line between Centerville, Moravia and 
Albia. The Waterloo, Cedar Falls and Northern Rail- 
way constructed 24 miles of new line between Center 
Point and Cedar Rapids. The greatest mileage built 
by any interurban railway in the United States during 
1914 was constructed in Michigan by the Michigan 
Railways. The new mileage, 49.30 miles, connects 
Bradley, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Martin, Moline, 
Plainwell, Shelbyville and Wayland. 

The total mileage of steam lines electrified is recorded 
at 229.94 miles, which includes the New Haven's electri- 
fication of 204.94 miles and that on the Centerville, 
Albia & Southern Railway, 25 miles. The electric rail- 
ways of Canada built 59.67 miles of track compared with 
147.86 in 1913, a decrease of 60 per cent. 



GEORGIA Miles 

Augusta & Aiken Ry 2.00 

Savannah Electric Co. — Savannah .57 



2.57 

ILLINOIS 

Chicago & Interurban Traction Co. — Between Blue Island 

and Harvey 1.25 

Chicago & West Towns Ry 2.20 

Chicago Surface Lines 19.00 

City Railway, Mt. Vernon Z.50 

Kankakee Elec. Railway 1.00 

Kankakee & Urbana Traction Co. — Between Rantoul and 

Ludlow 5.00 

Rockford City Traction Co 1.29 

Springfield Consolidated Ry 100 

Tri-City Railway Co. of Illinois .13 



33.37 

INDIANA 

Gary, Hobart & Eastern Traction Co. — Between Glen 

Park, New Chicago and Hobart 5.80 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co. — 

Richmond, Ind .60 



6.40 

IOWA 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Ry 1.70 

Centerville, Albia & Southern Railway — Electrification of 

former steam line between Centerville, Moravia and 

Albia 25.00 

Davenport & Muscatine Railway .80 

Iowa Railway & Light Co. — Between Mt. Vernon and 

Lisbon 2.50 

Keokuk Electric Co .69 

Mississippi Valley Electric Company .30 

Tri-City Railway Company of Iowa .74 

Union Electric Company 1.07 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. — Between Center 

Point and Cedar Rapids 24.00 



56.80 

KANSAS 

Choctaw Ry. & Lighting Co .83 

Joplin & Pittsburg Ry .50 

Manhattan City & Interurban Ry. — Between Eureka 

Lake, Ogden & Fort Riley 11.00 

Metropolitan Street Railway and Kansas City Elevated 

Ry r 2.94 

Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western Railway — Between 

Kansas City (Mo.), Kansas City (Kan.), Muncie, 

Edwardsville, Lake Forest and Bonner Springs.... 16.00 

Topeka Railway 2.00 



12.54 



33.27 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



15 



MAINE Miles 
Bangor Railway & Electric Co. — Between Bangor and 

Brewer .30 

Biddeford & Saco R.R .23 



.53 

MARYLAND 

United Railways & Electric Co 1.44 



1.44 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Bay State St. Railway 1.30 

Boston Elevated Ry 4.44 

Holyoke Street Railway — Holyoke .41 

Springfield St. Railway — Westfield .11 

• Worcester Consolidated St. Ry .12 



6.38 

MICHIGAN 

Detroit, Almont & Northern R. R 10.84 

Detroit United Ry. — Detroit 5.62 

Grand Rapids Ry 2.7S 

Michigan Railway — Between Bradley, Grand Rapids, 
Kalamazoo, Martin. Moline, Plainwell, Shelbyville 

and Wayland 49.30 

Michigan United Traction Co .75 



69.29 

MINNESOTA 

Electric Short Line Ry. (gas-electric line) — Between 

Minneanolis, Wayzata, Watertown and Winsted 40.00 

Mankato Electric Traction Co. — Mankato .21 

St. Paul, Southern Electric Ry. — Between Inver Grove, 

Pine Bend and Hastings 17.54 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 23.10 



80.85 

MONTANA 

Butte Electric Ry.— Butte .79 

Great Falls St. Ry.— Great Falls .67 

Missoula St. Ry. — Missoula .06 



1.52 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln Traction Co .50 

Omaha & Council Bluffs St. Ry 2.74 



3.24 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 
Springfield Electric Railway 2.00 



2.00 

NEW JERSEY 

Cape May, Delaware Bay & Sewell's Point R. R 2. 00 

Morris County Traction Co. — Millburn .75 

Public Service R. R. — Between Port Reading Junction 

and Sewaren Junction 1.68 

Public Service Railway — Ridgewood 3.31 



7.74 

NEW YORK 

Hornell Traction Co 1.00 

International Railway — Between . North Tonawanda and 

Lockport; Buffalo 12.80 

Manhattan & Queens Traction Corp. — Jamaica .25 

United Traction Co. — Troy 1.37 



15.42 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Southern Public Utilities Co 1.25 

Piedmont & Northern Railway — Between Greenville, Paris, 
Taylor. Chick Springs, Greer, Duncan, Tucapau and 
Spartanburg 33.00 



34.25 

OHIO 

Cleveland Ry 9.RR 

Gallipolis & Northern Traction Co .12 

Hocking-Sunday Creek Traction Co. — Between Chauncev 

and Athens 6.00 

Lake Shore Electric Ry 1.84 

Lancaster Tract ion & Power Co .85 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Co 2.75 

New Midland Power & Traction Co .75 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co 1.78 

Springfield Ry. — Springfield 5.76 

29.51 

OKLAHOMA 

Bartlesville Interurban Ry 2.40 

Sand Springs Ry. — Between Tulsa and Sand Springs.... 2.00 

Tulsa St. Ry.— Tulsa 1.50 



5.90 

OREGON 

Pacific Power & Light Co. — Astoria 1.00 

Portland Ry. Light & Power Co 3.13 

Southern Oregon Traction Co 2.37 

Willamette Valley Southern Ry.— Between Beaver Creek, 

Mulino, Liberal, Molalla and Monitor 32.00 



38.50 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co — Philadelphia .70 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & Newcastle Ry. — Between 

Koppel Park Gate, Home wood and Morada Park 6.50 

Pottstown & Phoenlxvllle Ry 4.00 

Scranton Ry .26 

Southern Cambria Ry 3.50 

West Penn Traction Co. — Between Leisenring and Uruon- 

town , 10.00 

West Side Electric Street Railway — Between Charleroi, 

Bentleyville and Ellsworth 6.00 

Wllke8-Barre Ry 4.50 

York Railways .67 



36.13 



RHODE ISLAND Miles 
Rhode Island Company 6.13 



6.13 

SOUTH DAKOTA 
South Dakota & Sioux Falls Traction System .25 



.25 

TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga Railway & Light Co .70 

Chattanooga Traction Co. — Between Chattanooga and 

Signal Mountain 10.63 

Jackson Railway & Light Co 2.00 

Knoxville Ry. & Light Co .38 

Memphis St. Ry .74 



14.45 

TEXAS 

Austin St. Ry .54 

Dallas Consolidated Elec. St. Ry 2.69 

El Paso Elec. Ry 1.78 

Houston Elec. Co 5.77 

Marshall Traction Co .33 

Northern Texas Traction Co 3.39 

San Antonio Traction Co 1.50 

Texas City St. Ry .85 

Tucson Rapid Transit Co .50 



17.35 

UTAH 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Ry. — Between Logan. Wellsville, 
Hyrun\ Millville, Providence, Greenville, Hyde Park, 
Smithfield. Richmond and Lewiston (23 miles): Idle- 
wild extension (1.75 miles): Ogden City (1.75 miles).. 26.50 

Salt Lake & Utah R. R.— Between Salt Lake City, 

American Fork, Lehi, Pleasant Grove and Prove... 48.50 

Utah Light & Traction Co 2.55 



77.55 

VIRGINIA 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Ry . .19 

Danville Traction & Power Co .83 

Lynchburg Traction & Light Co 2.84 

Roanoke Ry. & Elec. Co .42 

Virginia Ry. & Power Co 2.03 



6.31 

WASHINGTON 

Everett Railway Light & Water Co .90 

Gray's Harbor Ry. & Lighting Co 2.00' 

Municipal Line of Tacoma 1.51 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co. — (Bellingham 

Div.) .30 

Seattle Municipal St. Ry. — Seattle .14 



4.85 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Appalachian Power Co 1.25 

Charleston Interurban Railroad .75 

Monongahela Valley Traction Co. — Riverside 1.50 

Ohio Valley Elec. Ry. — Huntington 3.60 



7.10 

WISCONSIN 

Badqer Ry. & Light Co. — Connects Whitewater and Elk- 
horn 5.50 

Milwaukee Northern Railway .40 

Sheboygan Railway & Elec. Co 1.00 

Wisconsin, Minnesota Light & Power Co. — Between Eau 

Claire and Altoona 3.00 

Wisconsin Public Service Co .i>4 



10.24 

CANADA 

Brantford Municipal Ry .13 

Fort William Elec. Ry 5.50 

Guelph Radial Ry.— Guelph .57 

London St. Railway — London .27 

Montreal Tramways — Between Montreal and Pointe aux 

Trembles 6.35 

Moose Jaw Elec. Railway 1.00 

Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Ry. — Between St. 

Catharines, Port Weller, MacNab and Niagara-on-the- 

Lake 14.00 

Port Arthur Municipal Ry. — Port Arthur .50 

Regina Municipal Ry. — Regina 09 

St. John Ry.— St. John 3.75 

Sandwich, Winsor & Amherstburg Ry 1.50 

Saskatoon Municipal Ry. — Saskatoon 1.00 

Suburban Rapid Transit Co 1.37 

Toronto Civic Ry. — Toronto .74 

Toronto Suburban St. Ry. — Between Thistletown and 

Woodbridge Mountain 7.83 

Winnipeg Elec. Ry. — Winnipeg 7.57 

Winnipeg, Selkirk & Lake Winnipeg Ry. — Between Stony 

Mt. and Stonewall 7.50 



Total Mileage 59.67 

Grand Total. United States and Canada 946.38 



The Joplin & Pittsburg Railway, Joplin, Mo., and the 
Spring River Power Company have presented the city 
with a quit claim deed covering about $25,000 worth of 
improvements which they made in Schifferdecker Park, 
held by the companies under lease. When the owner of 
the park deeded it to the city to be used as a municipal 
resort the public service companies immediately signi- 
fied their willingness to present the city with these 
improvements. 



16 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 1 

Electric Rolling* Stock Ordered in 1914 

A Tabulation Showing the Number, Type, Car-Body Length and Character of Construction of All Cars 
Built During the Year — Compiled from Official Returns Made by the Railway Companies 



The tables below show in detail the number of cars 
of all kinds as well as electric locomotives which were 
either purchased by electric railways or else built in the 
companies' shops during the past year. The lists do not 
include freight trail cars for other than city or inter- 
urban lines, nor those used for interchange service. 
This differs from last year's procedure. The total num- 
ber of rolling equipments of all kinds is 3010, a decrease 
of approximately 45 per cent from the number listed for 
the previous year. The tables, in accordance with the 
usual procedure, have been made up from the orders 
noted from week to week in the rolling stock columns of 
the Electric Railway Journal and from returns made 
at the close of the year by the electric railways of the 
United States and Canada. These figures were 
checked against reports received from practically all of 
the car builders, and every effort has been made to make 
the record complete, although there may be some omis- 
sions of a minor character. 

The greatest number of cars ordered by any electric 
railway during 1914 was the 228-car order placed by the 
Chicago Surface Lines. The Cleveland Railway ranks 
second with a total of 223 cars ordered, including 200 
city passenger and 23 miscellaneous cars. The New 
York Municipal Railway stands third with 200 subway 
cars ordered. 



The number of electric locomotives ordered was 
seventy-eight as against sixty-eight in the preceding 
year. The chief orders of this kind were those of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad and the Nor- 
folk & Western Railway, each for twelve locomotives. 

The total number of cars of all types built in com- 
panies' shops was 228 as against 772 cars in 1913. 

The number of cars ordered by Canadian electric rail- 
ways during 1914 was ninety-seven, compared with 676 
in the preceding year. Certain of the manufacturers 
have contributed the information that electric railways 
in foreign countries, not including Canada, ordered a 
total of 50 cars from American car builders, of which 27 
cars were built for properties in South America, 7 for 
Panama, 8 for South America and 8 for other localities. 

The following summary shows the records in con- 
densed form for the past seven years, and gives the 
number of cars, classified in accordance to the service 
in which they are used, from 1907 to 1914. 







Interurban 


Freight & 




Year 


City Cars 


Cars 


Misc. Cars 


Total 


1907 


3483 


1327 


1406 


6216 


190S 


2208 


727 


176 


3111 


1909 


2537 


1245 


1175 


4957 


1910 


3571 


990 


820 


5381 


1911 


2884 


626 


505 


4015 


1912 


4531 


783 


687 


6001 


1913 


3820 


547 


1147 


5514 


1914 


2147 


384 


479 


3010 



Purchaser 



No. Gen'l Type 



Albany Southern R.R 2 Ps.Clsd. 

1 Express 
Allentown & Reading Trac. Co. 1 Car 
Altoona & Logan V'y El. Rv... 5 Ps.Clsd. 

4 Ps.Clsd. 

Androscoggin Elec. Co 1 Snow Plow 

Arkansas Northwestern R. R 1 Gasoline Mech. 

Drive 

Arkansas Valley Int. Ry 1 Ps. Clsd. 

Atlantic Shore Line Ry 2 Ps. Conv. 

Bartlesvillelnt.Ry 1 Ps.Clsd. 

Batavia Traction Co 2 Ps.Clsd. 

Bav State St. Ry 1 Ps.Conv. 

Biddeford&SacoR.R 1 Snow Plow 

Binghamton Ry 1 Ps.Conv. 

Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Rv. 1 El. Loco. 

Boston Elevated Rv 100 Pass. 

3 2-WayDump 
1 Snow Plow 

1 Snow Plow 

2 Sweeper 

Brantford Municipal Ry fi Ps. Clsd. 

1 Express 

Bridgeton& MillvilleTr. Co.. 1 Ps.Clsd. 

Brit. Columbia Elec. Rv 10 Ps.Clsd. 

1 Ps.Exp. 

Bryan & Cent. Tex. Int. R.R. 2 Gasoline 

Bryan & College Int. Ry 1 Ps.Clsd. 

Buffalo & Depew Ry 2 Snow Plow 

Buff. & Williamsville El. Ry . 2 Ps. Clsd. 
Butte, Anaconda & Pac. Rv . . 4 El. Loco. 

3 El. Loco. 

Butler County R. R 1 Gasoline Mech. 

Drive 

Butte Elec. Ry 6 Ps.Clsd. 

Calgary Municipal Ry 1 Sprinkler 

Cambria & Indiana Ry 1 St. Bat . 

Canadian Northern R. R. 

(Montreal Tunnel & Ter.i . . 8 Ps. Clsd. 

6 El. Loco. 

Carolina Trac. Co 2 St. Bat . 

Cedar Rap. & Marion C'y Rv. 10 Ps.Clsd. 
Centerville, Albia & So. Ry. 2 Ps.Clsd. 

1 Express 

Central III. Trac. Co 2 Ps.Clsd. 

Central of Florida Ry 2 St. Bat. 

1 Express 

Central N. Y. Southern R. R. 2 Gasoline, Mech. 

Drive 

Central Passenger Rv 3 Ps.Clsd. 

Charleston Inter. R.R 12 Ps.Clsd. 

Charlottesv'le & Albem'le Ry. 7 Ps.Clsd. 
Chattanooga Trac. Co 2 Ps.&Bag. 

5 Flat 

1 Work 

Chicago* Joliet Elec. Rv. .. . .5 Ps.Clsd. 
Chicago & West Towns Ry... 10 Ps.Clsd. 

Chicago Elevated Rys 62 Ps.Clsd. 

66 Ps.Clsd.- 
Chicago Great Western R. R.. 1 Gasoline Mech. 

Drive 



Motor 
or 

Trailer 
Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Trail 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 

Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Motor 

Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Trail 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Trail 



Length City 
of Car or 
Body Int. 
30- 6 Int. 
Int. 



28- 
32- 6 
30- 



City 
Int. 
Int. 



55- Int. 

41-10 City 
City 

44- 4 Int. 

67- 7 Sub. 

83-Ton Sub. 

18- City 



44- 8 

47- 
41- 

48- 
32- 



70- 
21- 
30- 
21- 
44- 4 
32- 

35- 

36- 
44- 6 

37- 10 
37-10 



City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 



Int. 

City 
Citv 
City 
Int. 



Int. 
Citv 
City 
City 

Int. 



All-steel, 
Semi-steel 

or Wood 
Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 

Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 



70- Int. All-steel 

30- City Wood 

30- 8 City Semi-steel 

21- City Semi-steel 

21- City Semi-steel 

30- City Semi-steel 

..v. city :::::: 

30- 

City Semi-steel 

24-10 J City Steel 

31- 61 City Wood 
30- Citv Wood 
27- Citv Wood 
21-0 City Semi-steel 
45- City Wood 
29- 6 Citv Semi-steel 

City 

Int 

52- 4 Int. All-steel 

45- Int. Semi-steel 

41-10 Citv Semi-steel 

80-Ton Int. ...... 

40-Ton Int 



All-steel 
All-steel 
Steel 

Semi-steel 
All-steel 



Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 



All-steel 

Wood 

All-steel 

Semi-steel 

Semi-steel 

Steel ' 

Semi-steel 

Semi-steel 

All-steel 

All-steel 

All-steel 



Purchaser 

Chicago, Mil. & St. Paul R.R. 

Chicago Surface Lines 

Cleve., Painesv'le & Ea. R. R 
Cleveland Ry 



Clevel'd, Southw. & Col. Ry. 
Conestoga Traction Co 



No. Gen'l Type 



1 

Columbus, Del. & Marion Ry. 1 
1 

Columbus Ry.,Lt,&Pwr. Co 1 

2 

Connecticut Co 10 

10 

2 

Corpus Christi St. & Int. Rv.. . 2 
Cumb. & Westernport El. Ry. 2 

Cushing Traction Co 1 

Dallas Consol. St. Ry 15 

Danville Trac. & Pwr. Co ... . 2 

Dayton & Troy Elec. Ry 4 

Day., Springfi'd & Xenia Ry. 3 

Dayton Street Ry 5 

Denver Tramway 6 

Des Moines City Rv 1 

Detroit United Rv 5 

1 

E. Liverpool Trac. & Lt. Co. . 4 

Easton Transit Co 1 

9 
1 
1 

El Paso Elec. Ry fi 

Elec. Short Line Ry 14 

2 
28 

Elmira Water, Lt. & R. R. Co. 1 



Empire United Rys . 



EphrataA Lebanon St. Ry. 



Escanaba Trac. Co 

Evanston Ry 

Evansville Sub. & Newb. Ry. 
Fargo & Moorhead St. Ry . . . . 
Fitchb'g & Leominster St. Ry. 
Florence & Huntsv'le Int. Ry. 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & 

Southern R.R 

Fort William Elec. Ry 



El. Loco. 

Ps.Clsd. 

Pass. 

Ps. Clsd. 

Sweeper 

Dump 

Crane 

Yd. Loco. 

Dump 

Ps. Clsd. 

Ps. Clsd. 

Work 

Flat 

Work 

Snow Plow 

Sweeper 

3- Comp. Dump 

4- Comp. Dump 
El. Loco. 

Ps. Clsd. 
Ps.Clsd. 
El. Loco. 
Ps.Clsd. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Box Ft. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Ps.Clsd. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Sweeper 
Sweeper 
Express 
Sw. Loco. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Ps. Conv. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Sweeper 
Work 
Ps. Clsd. 
Pass. 

Gas-electric 
Flat 

Ps. Conv. 
Gondola 
Work 
El. Loco. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Ps.Clsd. 
Freight 
Ps. Clsd. 
Ps. & Bag. 
Bag. & Ex. 
Ps.Clsd. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Gondola 
Ps. Clsd. 
Ps. Conv. 
Pass. 
Pass. 

Ps.Clsd. 

Work & Sn. Plow 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 

Motor 
Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Trail 



Trail 

Motor 

Motor 

Motor 

Motor 



Motor 

Trail 

Motor 

Motor 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Trail 
Motor 

Motor 



33- 6 City 
28- City 



32- 
32- 
40- 
40- 

39- 9 
25- 8} 

25- Ton 
21- 6 
34- 3 
50-Ton 

26- 6 
43- 
47- 6 
29- 

29- 

40- 8 

28- 3 
39- 2 
50- 

31- H 

32- 

30- 8 
20- 8 
23- 8 

41- 8 

29- 
60- 
71- 



22- 
26^0 



41- 6 
43- 

40- 
31- 6 
28- 
36- 
33- 
30- 8 



Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 

Both 

Both 

Int. 
Int. 
Int 
City 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
City 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
Both 
City 
Int. 
Int. 

Int.' 



City 
City 
Int. 
Sub. 
Sub. 

City 
City 

City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 



Motor 


Length 


City 


All-steel. 


or 


of Car 


or 


Semi-steel 


Trailer 


Body 


Int. 


or Wood 


Motor 


260-Ton 






Motor 


32- 8 


City 


Semi-steel 




37-101 


Int. 


Wood 


Motor 


51- 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 






Steel 



Wood 

Semi-steel 

Semi-steel 



Wood 

Wood 

Wood 

Wood 

Semi-steel 

Semi-steel 



Semi-steel 



Semi-steel 

All-steel 

Wood 

Steel 

All-steel 

Wood 

Semi-steel 

Semi -steel 

Semi-steel 



Steel 
Steel 

Semi-steel 

Wood 

Steel 

Semi-steel 



All-steel 



Steel 
Wood 
Semi-steel 



Semi-steel 



Wood 

All-steel 

All-steel 

Wood 

Semi-steel 

All-steel 

Wood 

Wood 

Semi-steel 



32- City 
30- City 



Senai-stee 
Wood 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



17 



Purchaser 

Freeport Ry.&U. Co. . . 
Gadsden, Bellevue & Lookout 
Mountain Rv 2 

2 

Gary, Hobart &Ea. Trac. Co. 2 



No. Gen'] Type 



Motor Length City All-steel, 



1 Ps.Clsd. 

2 Ps.Open 
Pass. 
Ps. Open 
Ps. Conv. 
Ps.Clsd. 



1 

Geneva, Seneca Falls & Au- 
burn R.R 2 Ps.Clsd. 

Goldsboro St. Ry 2 Ps.Clsd. 

Grafton Lt. & Pwr. Co 3 Pass. 

Greeley & Denver R. R 2 Ps.Clsd. 

Guelph Radial Ry 2 Ps.Clsd. 

Hagerstown & Frederick Ry. . 3 Ps.Conv. 
Harrisburg Rys 6 Ps.Conv. 

4 Ps.Conv. 
Hershey Transit Co 3 Flat 

1 Snow Plow 
Hocking-SundayOreekTracOo. 3 Pass. 
Homestead & Mifflin St. Ry . 1 Ps. Clsd. 

Houston Elec. Co 10 Ps.Conv. 

Hutchinson Inter. Ry 1 Ps.Conv. 

Idaho Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co .... 1 Work 

Illinois Central R.R 4 Gas-electric 

Illinois Traction System . . 30 Hopper Bot. 
Indian. & Louisville Trac. Co. 1 Pass. 
Interborough Rap. Tran. Co.. 10 Side Dump 
Ithaca Traction Corp 5 Ps.Open 

5 Ps.Clsd. 

Jackson Rv. & Lt. Co 4 Ps. Clsd. 

1 Work 

Jacksonville Trac. Co 15 Ps.Clsd. 

Jamestown, Westfield & 
Northwestern R. R 



JanesvilleTrac.Co 

Jefferson Tract. Co 

Jersey Central Traction Co. . . 

Kansas City, Clay County & 
St. Joseph Ry 

Kansas City. Kaw Valley & 
Western Ry 



Kansas City, Lawrence & To- 

peka Elec. R.R 

Kansas-Oklahoma Trac. Co. . 

Keokuk Elec. Co 

Kingston Consol. R.R 

Lackawanna & Wyo. Vy.B. B. 
Lancaster Trac. & Power Co . . 

Lawton Ry. & Lt. Co 

Lebanon & Campbelltown Ry. 
Lehigh Valley Tract. Co 



Lewisburg & Rouceverte Ry 
Lincoln Trac. Co 



London & Port Stanley Ry 

London St. Ry 

Long Island R.R 

Los Ang. & San Diego B'h Ry. 

Los Angeles Ry 

Macon Ry. & Lt. Co 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & 
Lt.Co 

Manhattan Bridge Three- 
Cent Line 

Manhattan & Queens Trac. 
Corp 

Mansfield Ry.. Lt. & Pwr. Co. 

Memphis St. Ry 



Mesaba Railway 

Miami Trac. Co 

Michigan Central R. R. (De- 
troit River Tunnel Co.) 

Michigan Railway 



Michigan United Trac. Co . 

Milford&UxbridgeSt.Ry 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & 
SaultSte. Marie Ry 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Roch- 
ester *. Dubuque El. Tr. Co. 

Minnesota & Northwestern 
Elec. By 

Missouri & Kansas Inter. Ry . 

Missouri & N. Arkansas R. H. 

Mobile & Baldwin Co. B. B . . . 



Ps.Clsd. 
Bagg. 
Sweeper 
Work 
El. Loco. 
Pass. 
Ps. Clsd. 
Ps.Clsd. 
Flat 

Line Car 

Ps.Clsd. 

Ps.& Bag. 

Express 

Gondola 

Flat 

Work 

Express 

Ps.&Bag. 

Ps. Clsd. 

Snow Plow 

Steel Hop. 

Ps. Clsd. 

Ps. Open 

Ps.Conv. 

Freight 

Work 

Work 

Line 

Private 

El. Loco. 

Ps.Clsd. 

Pass. 

El. Loco. 

Ps.Clsd. 

Ps.Clsd. 

Ps. Calif. Type 

Ps. Calif. Type 

Ps.Clsd. 

Pass. 



20 Pass. 
6 Ps.Conv. 



Sprinkler 

Pass. 

Ps.Clsd. 

Pass. 

Sprinkler 

Ps.Clsd. 

St. Bat. 



El. Loco. 

Wreck Crane 

Ps.Clsd. 

Ps. Clsd. 

Express 

Ps.Clsd. 

Pass. 

Snow Plow 

1 Gasoline, Mech. 
Drive 

5 Gas-elec. 



Montreal & So. Counties Ry 
Morris County Trac. Co. . 



Motley County R.R. 



Mt. Mansfield Elec. Ry. 1 

Mun.Rys. of San Francisco 125 



Gas-clcc. 

Pass. 

Gas-clec. 

Pass. 

Gasoline 

Service 

Flat 

Flat 

Ps.Clsd. 
Sweeper 
Gasoline, Meeh. 

Drive 
Express 
Ps. Calif. Type 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Motor 

Trail 

Motor 



Motor 
Trail 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Trailer 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Trail 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 120-Ton 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Trail 



Motor 

Motor 

Trail 

Motor 

Motor 



Motor 



Motor 
Motor 



or 


of Car 


or 


Semi-steel 


Trailer 


Body. 


Int. 


or Wood 


Motor 


30- 





City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 






Int. 




Trail 






Int. 




Motor 






City 


Wood 


Motor 


42- 


6 


Int. 


Wood 


Motor 






City 


Wood 


Motor 


34- 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 






City 






21- 





Citv 


Wood 


Motor 


28- 





City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


32- 





City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


30- 


6| 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


25- 





City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


31- 


8 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


32- 


6 


Int. 


All-steel 


Motor 


21- 





City 


Wood 


Motor 


26- 


6 


Cit'y 


Steel 


Motor 


30- 





City 


All-steel 




28- 









Motor 


71- 





Int.' 


All-steel 


Trail 


42- 





Int. 


Wood 




33- 







Steel 


Motor 


28- 


8 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


20- 


8 


Citv 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


32- 





City 


Semi-steel 




26- 


City 


Wood 


Motor 


26- 


6 


City 


Semi-stel 


Motor 


53- 


6 


Int. 


All-steel 


Motor 


43- 





Int 


Semi-stepl 




28- 


3 


Citv 


Semi-steel 




45- 





Citv 


:\I1-M.tcl 




45-Ton 




Motor 


30- 





City 


All-steel 


Motor 


33- 


10 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


42- 


2 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


34- 







Steel 




40- 





Int. 


Wood 


Motor 


50- 





Int. 


All-steel 


Trail 


48- 





Int. 


Wood 


Motor 


48- 





Int. 


Wood 



30- 




W'd & St'l 


40- 





Int. 


Wood 


50- 


5 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


21- 





Citv 


Semi-steel 


26- 





City 


Wood 


31- 


24 


All-steel 


18- 





Citv 


All-steel 


34- 





City 


Wood 


30- 


8 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


45- 





Both 


Wood 


40- 





Both 


Wood 


30- 





Both 


Wood 


33- 





Both 


Wood 


50- 


2 


Both 


Wood 


25-Ton 






41- 





City 


Semi-steel 


39- 





City 


Semi-steel 


60-Ton 






21- 





City 


Semi-steel 


22- 


7 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


50- 





City 


Semi-steel 


50- 





City 


Semi-steel 


46- 





City 


Compos. 


20-0 


City 


Semi-steel 


45- 





City 


All-steel 


33- 


3 


City 


Semi-steel 


33- 





City 


Wood 


19- 


6J 


City 


Semi-steel 


31- 


6 


City 


SflUn.Fr. 


30- 


3 


Citv 


St'l tin. Fr. 






City 


Steel 


49- 





Int. 


Steel 






City 


Wood 



67- 





Int. 


All-steel 


61- 





Int. 


Ul-slecl 


61- 





Int. 


All-steel 


61- 





Int. 


All-steel 


56- 


8 


Int. 


All-steel 


70- 





Int. 


All-steel 






Int. 


Steel 






Int. 




35- 


10 


Int. 


Wood' 


70- 





Int. 


Steel 


22- 





City 








Int. 




34- 







Wood 


36- 





Int.' 


All-steel 


28- 


3 


City 


Semi-stee 


70- 





Int. 


All-steel 


35- 





Int. 


Semi-steel 


32- 


4 


Citv 





Purchaser 

New Bedford & Onset St. Ry . 
New Jersey & Penna. Tr. Co 

New Orleans Ry. & Lt. Co . 
N.Y. Central &H.R.R.R.. 
New York Municipal Ry . . . 
New York, New Haven & 

Hartford R.R 

Newport News & Hampton 

Ry. Gas* Elec. Co 

Niagara, St. Catherines & 

Toronto Ry 



Nipissing Central Rv 

Norfolk & Western Ry. 

Northern Elec. Ry 

Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co . 

North Carolina Pub. Ser. Co. 
Northern Texas Trac. Co . . . 
Ohio Elec. Ry 



( Igden, Logan & Idaho Ry 

Ogdensburg St. Ry 

Ohio Elec. Ry 



Oklahoma Ry 

Orleans-Kenner Ry ..... . 

Otsego & Herkimer R. R . . 



Pacific Elec. Ry 

Pacific Gas. & Elec. Co 

Pacific Great. Eastern Ry . . . . 
Parkersburg, Marietta & Int. 

Ry 



Peninsular Ry 

Pennsylvania & Ohio Ry 

Pennsylvania R. R 

(also 84 pass, coaches 
equipped with motors) 

Peterborough Radial Ry 

Phila. * Garretsford St. Ry . . 

Piedmont & Northern Ry . . . . 

Piedmont Ry. & Elec. Co ... . 
Pittsburgh. Harmony, Butler 
& New Castle Ry 



No. Gen'I Type 

1 Flat 

4 Ps.Clsd. 

2 Bagg. 
50 Ps.Clsd. 

1 Wreck. Crane 
200 Ps.Clsd. 

1 El. Loco. 



Motor 

or 
Trailer 

Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Length 
of Car 
Body 

40- 

52- 

45- 

47- 8 



City 

or 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 



All-steel, 
Se n : -steel 

or Wood 
Semi-steel 
All-steel 
Steel 

Semi-steel 



66- 2\ Sub.&El.All-steel 



1 Express 

6 Ps.Clsd. 
6 Ps.Clsd. 

2 El. Loco. 
2 Ps.Clsd. 

12 El. Loco. 
1 Ft, Loco. 

1 Ft. Loco. 
16 Ps.Clsd. 

5 Ps. Smok. 

2 Ps.Conv. 
20 Ps.Clsd. 

5 Ps.Clsd. 

4 Express 
14 Box Ft. 

3 Ps.Clsd. 
1 Ps.Clsd. 

5 Ps.Clsd. 

4 Express 
14 Freight 

1 Box. Ft. 

4 Ps. & Smoking 

1 Express 

2 Gondola 
8 Dump 

24 Ps.Clsd. 

6 Ps. Calif. Type 
2 Gasoline 



Motor 130-Ton 
Motor 45- 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Int. 
City 



55- 6 
45- 
34-Ton 
51- 
270-Ton Int. 



Int. 



Motor 

Motor 33- 9 

Motor 50- 3 

Motor 50- 

38-6 

Motor 60- 

Motor 20- 8 

Motor 50- 2 

Motor 50- 

Trail 38- 6 

36-0 

Motor 54- 8 

Motor 45- 

Motor 58- 1 
Motor 38- 
65-0 



35- 5h City 
42- If Int. 
26- City 



City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int.. 



Int. 
Citv 
Int. 



Pittsburgh Rys . 



Port Arthur Municipal Ry . . . 

Port Arthur Traction Co 

Portland, Eugene & Ea. Ry . . . 

Portland Ry.. Lt.&Pwr. Co.. 



Pottstown&PhocnixvilleRy. 3 Ps.Clsd. 

Princeton Power Co 4 Ps. Clsd. 

Public Service Rv 15 Ps.Clsd: 

10 Ps.Clsd. 
1 Sweeper 

6 Side Dump 
1 Line Car 

Puget Sound Traction, Light 

& Power Co. (Bellingham 

Div.) 1 Ps.Conv. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light 

& Power Co. (Seattle Div.) . 12 Ps. Clsd. 

Regina Municipal By 1 Flat 

Reno Traction Co I Ps.Clsd. 

Rhode Island Co 50 Ps.Conv. 

Richmond Light &R.R. Co.. 32 Ps.Clsd. 
Rockford & InterurbanRy. . . 4 Ps.Clsd. 
Rockland, Thomaston&Cam- 

den St. By 1 Bagg. 

Saginaw Bay City Ry 1 Sprinkler 

St. John Ry 12 Ps.Clsd. 

St. Joseph Rv. Lt. Ht. & 

Pow. Co 2 Pass 

1 Work 

St, Joseph Valley Ry 1 Gasoline 

St. Louis Southwestern By. . . s Gas-elec. 
St. Louis Water Works By. . . 2 Pass. 
St. Paul Southern Ry 2 Ps.Clsd. 

2 Bag. & Pass. 
St, Petersburg & ( lulf Ry 2 Ps. Open 

2 Ps.Conv. 
2 Ps.Conv. 

1 Express 

2 Flat. 

Salt Lake* I'tah R.R 2 Ps.Clsd. 

5 Ps. Clsd. 
2 Ps.Clsd. 
2 Ft. 

1 El. Loco. 
San Antonio Trac. Co , . ... 3 Work 

11 Flat 

San Diego Elec. By 11 Ps. Calif. Type 

Santa Barbara 4 Sub. By..., 2 Ps.Clsd. 

1 Express 
I flat 

Scranton Ry 10 Ps.Clsd. 

Seattle Municipal Ry I Box Ft, 

Shamokin * Mt. Cannel 

Transit Co 1 Sweeper. 

Sheboygan Ry.* Elec. Co 2 Ps.Clsd. 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 

Trail' ' 



Motor 
Motor 



34- 

32- 
28- 

33- 
18- 



Int. 
Int. 
Int. 

City 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



38- 
21- 
34- 
29- 
28- 



30- 



Motor 31- 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



65- 



39- 
51- 
51- 
36- 

40- 
46- 
40- 

20-0 

Motor 31- 8 
Motor 59- 8 
Trail 58- 7J- 
Motor 50- II 
Motor 50- 

Motor 50- 

Motor 39- 4 

Motor 35- 

34-0 

Motor 311- ti 
42-0 

Motor 24- 
Motor 49- I) 



Wood 

Semi-steel 
Semi-steel 
Steel 

Semi-steel 



All-steel 
W'd & St'l 
Semi-steel 
Wood 
Steel 

Semi-steel 

Steel 

Wood 

Wood 

All-steel 

Semi-steel 

Steel 



Wood 

Semi-steel 

Semi-steel 



All-steel 

Semi-steel 

All-steel 



2 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


50- 





Int. 


All-steel 


4 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


38- 





City 


Semi-steel 


4 Ps.Clsd. 
1 


Motor 


22- 





City 


Semi-steel 


1 Pass.* Smok. 


Motor 


3i- 


8 


Int.' 


Wood 


9 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


54- 


6 


Sub. 


All-steel 


2 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


30- 





City 


Wood 


5 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


44- 


6 


Int. 


Semi-stee 


8 Ps.Clsd. 


Trail 


62- 





Int. 


All-steel 


2 Parlor 




62- 





Int. 


All-steel 


1 Ft. Loco. 




25- 







Wood 


5 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


54- 





Int. 


Wood 


1 Express 


Motor 


35- 





Int. 


Wood 


50 Ps. Clsd. 


Motor 


45- 


2 


City 


Steel 


50 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


45- 


2 


City 


Steel 


1 Ps.Conv. 


Motor 


26- 





City 


Wood 


3 Ps.Conv. 


Motor 


26- 


City 


Semi-steel 


4 Ps.Clsd. 


Motor 


32- 





City 


Semi-Ueel 


4 Ps.Conv. 


Motor 


21- 





City 


Semi-steel 


3 Bagg. & Mail 


Motor 


47- 





Int. 


Steel 


3 Ps. Clsd. 


Motor 


50- 





Int. 


Semi-steel 


3 Ps.Clsd. 


Trail 


50- 





Int. 


Semi-steel 


1 El. Loco. 


Motor 


50-Ton 




Steel 



Wood 

Wood 
Steel 
Wood 



50- City Semi-steel. 



City Semi-steel 

City Wood 

City Semi-steel 

City Semi-steel 

Citv All-steel 

City 

Int. Semi-steel 

City 

City Wood 

City 

Int. All-steel 

Int. All-steel 

Sub. Serai-steel 

Int. Semi-steel 

Int. Semi-steel 

Both Wood 

Both Semi-steel 

Both Semi-steel 

Both Semi-steel 

Both Wood 

City All-steel 

Int. All-steel 

Int. All-steel 

Int. All-steel 

Int 

City Semi-steel 

City Semi-steel 
Wood 
Wood 

< lity Semi-steel 

City Wood 

.... Wood 

Int. Semi-steel 



18 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Purchaser No. GenTjType 



Shreveport Traction Co 1 Sprinkler 

Sioux Citv Service Co 8 Ps.Clsd. 

Slate Belt Elec. St. Ry 2 Ps.Conv. 

Southern Cambria Rv 1 Express 

Southern Public Utilities Co.. 6 Ps.Clsd. 
Southern Tr. Co. of Illinois... 6 Ps.Clsd. 

Southern Trac. Co 11 Ps.Clsd. 

Southwestern Trac. Co 1 Pass. 

Spokane, Portland & Seattle . . 1 Gas-elec. 

Springfield Consol.Ry 12 Ps.Open 

Springfield Rv 10 Ps.Clsd. 

Springfield Street Ry 10 Ps.Conv. 

Stark Electric R.R 2 Pass. 

1 Snow Plow 

Steubenville & East Liver- 
pool Rv. & LightCo 4 Ps. Clsd. 

Stroudsburg Pass. Ry 1 Ps.Clsd. 

Sunbury & Susquehanna Ry . . 4 Ps.Clsd. 

Sunset Central R. R 3 Gasoline, Mech. 

Drive 

Tacoma Ry. & Power Co 5 Ps. Clsd. 

Tennessee, Kentucky & Nor. 

R.R 1 Gasoline, Mich. 

Drive 

Terre Haute, Indianap. & 

Eastern Trac. Co 1 Express 

Texas Traction Co 1 Ps.Clsd. 

Third Ave. Ry 50 Ps.Conv. 

2 Snow Plow 
12 Sweeper 

2 Scrapers 
1 Wing Car 

Tidewater Power Co 3 Ps.Conv. 

Toledo & Western R. R 2 Cars 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlav 

Ry 2 Ps.Clsd. 

TopekaRy 6 Pass. 

Toronto Suburban Ry 2 Ps.Clsd. 

1 Sweeper 

Transit Development Co 26 Air Dump 

2 Rail Trucks 

Trenton & Mercer County 

Trac. Corp 10 Ps.Clsd. 

Trenton, Bristol & Philadel- 
phia St. Ry 5 Ps.Clsd. 



Twin City Rapid Transit Co.. 60 Ps.Conv. 



Motor 


Length 


City 


All-steel, 


or 


of Car 


or 


Semi-steel 


Trailer 


Body 


Int. 


or Wood 












Motor 


38^ 


City 




Motor 


30— 1 


int. 


Semi -steel 


Motor 


51— 


Tut 

int. 


W OOQ 


Motor 


39— 


L lt> 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


oo— u 


Int 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


oq n 

Z£r— U 


V.11V 


Aii-steei 




46- 8 


Int. 




Motor 


Int. 


Steel 


Motor 


38-io 


City 


Wood 


Motor 


28- 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


30- 


City 


Semi-steel 




55- 


Int. 


Steel 






Int. 


Wood 




33- 2 


Citv 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


28- 


City 




Motor 


41- 


Int. 






10- 


Int. 


All-steel 


Motor 


34- 5 


City 


Semi-steel 




70- 


Int. 


All-steel 


Trail 


45- 


Int 


oemi-steel 


Motor 


28- 


City 


All-steel 


Motor 


24- 


City 


Semi-steel 




40- 


City 


Wood 




26- 


city 


wood 




2Q_ q 


city 


M OOO 




on n 


Lily 


W 000. 


it' I" 
Motor 




Pitlr 

city 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


51- 


Int. 


Steel 


Trail 


45- 


Park 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


46- 


Int. 


Semi-steel 




28- 3 


City 


Semi-steel 


Trail 


26- 




Wood 




53- 




All-steel 


Motor 


32- 8 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


30- 6 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


48- 


City 


Semi-steel 



Purchaser No. Gen'l Type 

Union Electric Co 6 Ps.Clsd. 

Union St. Ry 6 Ps.Clsd. 

1 Snow Plow 
1 Air Sander 

Union Pacific R.R 5 Gasoline, Mech. 

Drive 

United Rys. & Elec. Co 85 Ps.Conv. 

United Rys. of St. Louis ... 68 Posa. 

Utah Light & Trac. Co 18 Ps.Clsd. 

6 Ps.Clsd. 

Vicksburg Lt. & Trac. Co ... . 2 Ps. Clsd. 

Walla Walla Valley Ry 1 Express 

Washington, Baltimore & 
Annapolis Electric R.R. . 10 Ps. Clsd. 

3 Ps.&Bag. 

Washington-Virginia Ry 5 Ps.Clsd. 

Washington Ry. & Elec. Co... 3 Work 

1 El. Loco. 

Waterbury & Milldale Tram- 
way 2 Ps.Conv. 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Nor. 
Ry 5 El. Loco. 

4 Com.Ps. 

3 Observ. 

Wellsburg, Bethany & Wash- 
ington R.R 1 Ps. Motor 

West Penn. Trac. Co 2 Ps.Clsd. 

4 Ps. Clsd. 

Western New York & Pa. 

Trac. Co 1 Flat Car 

Western Ohio R. R 1 El. Loco. 

Westmoreland County Ry .. . 3 Ps.Clsd. 

Wichita Falls Trac. Co 3 Ps.Clsd. 

Wilkesbarre Ry 6 Ps.Clsd. 

Willamette-Pacific Ry 1 Gasoline, Mech. 

Drive 

Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore 

Ry 2 Ps.Clsd. 

Winnipeg Electric Ry 20 Pass. 

Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & 

Pwt.Co 1 Ps.Clsd. 

Wisconsin Public Serv. Co ... . 4 Ps. Clsd. 

Worcester Consol. St. Ry 10 Ps.Conv. 

Yakima Valley Transp. Co . . . 4 

York Rys 1 Pass. 

Yuma Valley Ry 1 Gasoline, Mech. 

Drive 



Motor Length City All-steel, 



or 


of Car 


or 


Semi-steel 


Trailer 


Body 


Int. 


or Wood 


Motor 


27- 4 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


.5,3— U 


int. 


Wood 




.il- 2 


Both 


Wood 




•I z n 
OD — U 


p;t, r 

i~ity 


Semi-steel 


• •■ ■ • ■ 


70- 


Int. 


All-steel 


Motor 


on o 
oU— o 


City 


Semi-steel 




'■" * 


City 




Motor 


.50— 


Citv 


St'iiii-sti-cl 


Motor 


36- 


city 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


21- 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


41- 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


51- 


Int. 


All-steel 




01— 1 


int. 


A 11 „*„„! 

All-steel 


Motor 


50— ^ 


Tni 

int. 


All-steel 




21- 9 




Wood 


Motor 


30- 




Semi-steel 


Motor 


on o 
ov— o 


int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


60-Ton 


Int. 


All-steel 




58— 


Int. 


All-steel 




61— 


Int. 


All-steel 


Motor 


oo— o 


int. 


_. 

Wood 


Motor 


56- 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


46- 


Sub. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


36- 


Both 


Wood 


Motor 


35-Ton 






Motor 


40- 


int. 


Steel 


Motor 


27- 


City 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


47- 


City 


Semi-steel 




oo- U 


uity 


All-steel 


Motor 




Int 






33-0 


City 




Motor 


34- 


Int. 


Semi-steel 


Motor 


28- 


City 


All-steel 


Motor 


30- 


City 


Semi-steel 


Trail 


46- 


Int. 


Wood 


Trail 


46- 


Int. 


St I. frame 



55- ll Int. All-steel 



Electric Railway Signals 

The accompanying list of signals installed by the 
electric railways during 1914 has been prepared from 
reports made by the various signal manufacturers, all 
of whom furnished partial statements. The record is 
complete with regard to important installations. In the 
list, under the heading "Remarks," a brief description 
of each installation has been given, and in this all instal- 
lations not otherwise classified are of the trolley-con- 
tact type. In all cases the number of signals, not the 
number of blocks, has been shown, together with mile- 
age where that is known. As might be expected from 
the depressed conditions affecting industrial activities 
the list shows a material decrease from last year, al- 
though the reduction is not so noticeable as it has been 
in the case of the electric railways' orders for rolling 
stock. 

The number of roads purchasing signals during 
the year was just half of that recorded in 1913, but if 
allowance is made for the equivalent in signals of the 
speed-control system ordered by the New York Munici- 
pal Railways the number of signals ordered during the 
past year is more than 80 per cent of the number pur- 
chased during the previous year. 



Name of Road No. Sig. 

Altoona & Logan V'y. • • ■ 2 

Auburn & Syracuse 10 

Auburn & Syracuse 2 

Aurora, Elgin & Chi . . . . 3 

Bangor (Me.) Ry 10 

Bay State St. Ry 12 

Birmingham Ry. & Lt. . . . 9 

Boston Elevated 10 

Chautauqua Trac 2 

Chi. & Milwaukee 2 

Chi., So. Bend & N. I. T 6 
Cleveland, S. W. & Col. . 4 

Connecticut Co 18 

Cumberland C'y (Me.) Ry. 16 

Dallas Trac 2 

East St. Louis & Sub 2 

Fitchburg & Leominster 2 
Fonda, Johnst'n & G'vTe . 3 

Holyoke St. Ry 2 

Hudson V'y Ry 6 

111. Trac. System 116 

Jamestown St. Ry 6 

Jefferson County Trae 4 



Mil.- 



Manufacturer 

St. Ry. Sig 

U.S. EI. Sig 

U.S. El. Sig 

U.S. El. Sig 

C. N. Wood 

U.S. El. Sig 

U.S. El. Sig 

U.S. El. Sig 

U.S. El. Sig 

Nachod 

Nachod 

Union S. & S. . . 



U.S. El. Sig. . 
C. N. Wood . 
St. Ry. Sig. . 
C. N. Wood. 
U. S. El. Sig. 

Nachod 

C. N. Wood. 

Nachod 

41.8 UnionS. &S. 

... C.N.Wood. 
. . . U.S. El. Sig. . 



Remarks 

.S.T. Reg. 

.S.T. Reg. 

. S.T. Non-reg. J 

.S.T. Non-reg. 

.S.T. Reg. 

.S.T. Reg. 

. S.T. Non-reg. 

.S.T. Reg. 

.S.T. Reg. 

.S.T. Reg. 

.S.T. Reg. 

. S.T. Track Circ. 

Light Sig. 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
. S.T. Non-reg. 
. D.T. Rear-prot'n 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Non-reg. 
S.T. 89 Sema. 

27 Light 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Non-reg. 



Name of Road No. Sig 

K. C, Clay C'y & St. J.. .. 100 

Lehigh V'y Transit 34 

Lehigh V'y Transit 1 

Mass.-Northeast'n 6 

Middlesex & Boston 1 

Michigan Ry. ... . 2 

Monongahela V'y Trac. . . 2 

N. Y. Municipal" Rys 103 



Miles 
71.4 



N. Y. Municipal Rys 



Cab 
Sigs. 



N. Y. & Queens Co 14 

Norfolk South'n 2 

North'n Ohio T. & L 3 

North'n Ohio T. & L. . . 2 

Norwich & Westerly 2 

Ogden Rapid Transit 4 

Ogden Rapid Transit 12 

Ogden Rapid Transit 1 

Ottawa Elect. Ry 1 

Philadelphia R. T 9 

Philadelphia R. T 1 

Phila. & West. Trac 2 

Port Arthur Trac 4 

Rhode Island Co 2 

Richmond Lt. & Ry 24 

San Fran.-Oakl'd Ter . . . 5 

Sand Springs Ry 2 

Schenectady Ry 2 

Scranton & Bing't'n 36 



Terre H'te, Ind. & East. .. 2 

Union Trac. of I nd 20 

Union Ry., New Bedford. 6 

Westchester El. Ry 4 

Wheeling Trac 2 

Wilkesbarre St. Ry 2 

Yakima V'y Trans 4 

Youngstown So. Trac .... 2 



12 



Manufacturer 
U/nion S. & S . . . 



Nachod . . . . 
Nachod . . . . 
U.S. El. Sig. 
U.S. El. Sig. 
Nachod . . . . 
Nachod . . . . 
Federal Sig . 



103 Gen'l Ry. Sig. . 



St. Rv. Sig. . . 
U.S. El. Sig.. 

Nachod 

Nachod 

U.S. El. Sig.. 
U.S. El. Sig.. 
U.S. El. Sig.. 

Nachod 

U.S. El. Sig.. 

Nachod 

Nachod 

St. Ry. Sig . . 
U.S. El. Sig. . 
C. N. Wood. 
U.S. El. Sig.. 
U.S. El. Sig. . 
C. N. Wood. . 
Nachod 



Union S. & S. 



St. Rv. Sig. . 

13.8 Gen'l Ry. Sig 



C. N. Wood. 
U.S. El. Sig. 

Nachod 

St. Ry. Sig . . 
C. N. Wood. 
St. Ry. Sig . . 



Remarks 
S.T. Track Circ. 
50 L't., 50 Sema 
.S.T. Reg. 
Spur protection 
. S.T. Non-reg. 
. Spur protection 
. S.T. Subway 
.S.T. Reg. 
. D.T. Track Circ. 

Light Sigs. 

Subway Auto 

Stops 
. D. T. Subway 

Track Circ. 

Auto speed 

control 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Non-reg. 
. D.T. Rear prot'n 
. Gauntlet track 
.S.T. Reg. 
. S.T. Reg. 
. S.T. Non-rcg. 
. Special 
. S.T. Non-reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
. Repeater signal 
. S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Non-reg 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 

preliminary 
S.T. Track Circ. 

18 Sema., 

18 L't. 
.S.T. Reg. 
. S.T. Track Circ. 

Light Sigs. 
.S.T. Reg. 
.S.T. Reg. 
. S.T. Non-reg. 
S.T. Reg. 
S.T. Reg. 
Headway Rec. 



With 



In connection with the Durban (South Africa) Mu- 
nicipal Tramways, two very handsome tourist gasoline- 
electric chars-a-bancs (sightseeing cars) have been put 
into service. The vehicles are of 40 hp and carry 
eighteen passengers. The chars-a-bancs at present run 
excursions within the town limits for sightseers, at a 
cost of 25 cents per tour, which lasts half an hour. 
Night tours of forty-five minutes are also made for 
which the charge is 35 cents. It is the intention of the 
tramways department to obtain power to operate these 
machines outside the town, thus opening up to visitors 
the magnificent country districts around Durban. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



19 



Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales in 1914 

In Spite of Depression Tendency Is Shown Toward a 
Decline in Number of Receiverships and Forced Sales 
The records of electric railways undergoing receiver- 
ship during 1914 indicate that the number of com- 
panies whose finances were involved to such a degree, 
was, in spite of the current financial depression, only 
one-half as large as in the preceding year and the 
smallest in the last five years. Owing to the fact, how- 
ever, that two companies, having more than 100 miles 
of single track, were placed under receivers, the mileage 
total affected for 1914 was only slightly less than in 
1913. The amount of outstanding stock was greater 
for the last year on account of the $25,000,000 issue of 
the Northern Electric Railway, but this company's 
funded debt of $12,127,000 was far too small to bring 
the total up to last year's figures, in which were included 
the outstanding guaranteed funded debt of American 
Water Works & Guarantee Company subsidiaries. The 
record of receiverships for 1913 compares with the pre- 
ceding four years as follows: 

Number of Miles of Outstanding Outstanding 

Companies Track Stock Funded Debt 

1910 11 696.61 $12,629,400 $75,490,735 

1911 19 518.90 29,533,450 38,973,293 

1912 26 373.58 20,410,700 11,133,800 

1913 18 342.84 31,006,900 47,272,200 

1914 9 332.39 34,812,550 18,745,460 

The totals for 1913 in the above table do not include 
any figures for the Idaho Railway, Light & Power 
Company, which went into receivers' hands at almost 
the close of that year. The trackage of this company 
amounted to 85 miles, its outstanding stock $30,000,000. 
and its funded indebtedness, $11,266,000. If these 
amounts are included for 1913, so as to give mileage 
of 427.84, outstanding stock of $61,006,900 and out- 
standing debt of $58,538,200, the year just passed shows 
up better in all these respects. It may be noted, how- 
ever, that the electric railway lines owned by this com- 
pany are operated by the Idaho Traction Company 
under lease and are not under the direct supervision of 
the receiver. 

A few of the companies placed under receivership had 
not reached the stage of operation as completed systems, 
and the mileage given is for the number of miles in 
actual operation, wherever ascertainable. An attempt 
was made in all cases to take the figures from the most 
up-to-date sources, but in the case of some companies, 
especially those newly or only partly constructed and 
those not publishing yearly reports, the information 
secured has been lamentably meager. It will be 
noticed from a glance at the accompanying list that 
most of the companies under receivership in 1914 oper- 
ated a small mileage. The receivership of one of the 
larger companies, the Interurban Railway & Terminal 
Company, was a direct result of the severe floods in the 
Ohio valley in 1913 and drastic fare regulations over 
city lines in Cincinnati. During the year a receiver 
was appointed in Indiana for the Cincinnati, Lawrence- 
burg & Aurora Electric Street Railroad, but this was 
merely the formal appointment in that State of the 
receiver who had formerly been chosen to handle the 
more extensive Ohio interests of the company, as shown 
for the company as a whole in the 1913 table. 

Although, as before stated, the number of companies 
placed under receivership during the year was small in 
consideration of the general condition of business, it 
must be admitted that this very depression kept the 
figure from being slightly larger. The resale of one 
large company was repeatedly postponed in the hope of 
obtaining more favorable selling conditions, while two 
smaller companies were three times offered for sale 
without bids being received. With a return to normal 



conditions the sale of these railways will undoubtedly 
be consummated. 

Electric Railway Receiverships in 1914 

Outstanding Outstanding 

Mileage Stock Funded Debt 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer 

Railroad 36 $4,050,000 $2,650,000 

Interurban Railway & Terminal 

Company 101.24 3,500,000 1,650,000 

Lincoln Railway & Light Com- 
pany 8 

Minneapolis & Northern Rail- 
way 18 

Northern Electric Railway ... . 138.5 25,000,000 12,127,000 

Washington Interurban Railway 8.45 500,000 232,000 

Washington-Oregon Corporation 1,552,500 2,018,500 

Waukegan, Rockford & Elgin 

Traction Company 15 210,050 67,960 

Waycross Street & Suburban 

Railway 7.2 



Total 332.39 $34,812,550 



f 18,745,460 



Although there were eighteen electric railway fore- 
closure sales in 1913, only eleven took place in 1914, 
and the mileage directly affected was little more than 
half as much. Most of the companies had low out- 
standing stock and funded debt issues, but the inclusion 
of the American Waterworks & Guarantee Company, a 
holding company, gives a material inflation to these 
totals for 1914. The following table shows the com- 
parative figures for the last five years: 

Outstanding 
Funded Debt 
$26,374,065 
115,092,750 
10,685,250 
19,526,000 
44,094,241 





Number of 


Miles of 


Outstanding 




Companies 


Track 


Stock 


1910 


22 


724.36 


$19,106,613 


1911 


25 


660.72 


91,354,800 


1912 


18 


267.18 


14,197,300 


1913 


18 


311.28 


15,743,700 


1914 


11 


181.26 


26,239,700 



As in previous years, it has been found that some 
electric railways for which receivers had been ap- 
pointed and against which foreclosure suits had been 
brought, were able to carry out reorganization plans 
without offering the property at public sale. All the 
various forms of reorganizations, readjustments and 
change in ownership without formal receivership or 
foreclosure sales have been passed over. For example, 
the Columbus, Urbana & Western Electric Railway, 
Columbus, Ohio, was offered for sale, but no bids were 
received. Subsequently, through the State banking de- 
partment the interest held by the Columbus Savings & 
Trust Company was sold by the State bank superin- 
tendent, but the remaining interests were held by the 
original owners. All claims against the property were 
later adjusted and the receiver discharged. In another 
case the receiver of the Grand Valley Railway System 
had control of the Grand Valley Railway and its owned 
lines, the Brantford Street Railway and the Woodstock, 
Thames Valley & Ingersoll Railway. The first two 
lines were sold to the municipality of Brantford, but the 
last, located in Woodstock, was taken over by a trustee 
under a mortgage prior to that giving rise to the 
receivership. The list of individual companies under- 
going formal sales during the year is shown in the 
accompanying table. 

Electric Railway Foreclosure Sales in 1914 

Outstanding Outstanding 

Mileage Stock Funded Debt 

Alton, Jacksonville & Peoria 

Railway 21.5 $514,700 $600,000 

American Waterworks & Guar- 
antee Company 20,000,000 37,589,000* 

Brantford Street Railway 9.75 200,000 125,000 

Grand Valley Railway 40.83 1,100,000 6SS.800 

Ithaca Street Railway 9.56 325,000 788,041 

Joliet & Southern Traction 

Company 47 1,500,000 1, 60S, 400 

New York, Auburn & Lansing 

Railroad 7f 1,000,000 1,095,000 

Northern Illinois Electric Rail- 
way 12 

Pekin & Petersburg Interurban 

Railway 7 50,000t 50,000 

Richmond & Henrico Railway 9.12 1,250,000 1,250,000 

Titusvillc Electric Traction 

Company 17.5 300,000 300,000 



Total 181.26 $26,239,700 $14,094,241 



•Holding company had no bond issues: figures represent sum- 
mary of funded debt of subsidiaries. 

fElectrlc mileage; company also has 33 miles of steam mileage. 
^Authorized amount; outstanding amount not known. 



Public-Be-Pleased Policy in Practice 

SOME OPERATING PROBLEMS THAT AFFECT THE PUBLIC ATTITUDE 



A Review of Current Electric Railway Practice in Such Matters as Courtesy of Platform Men, 
Complaint Bureaus, Public Referendums, Handling Lost Articles, 
Way Stations and Shelters, and the Like 



THE interest that has been accorded of late to the 
establishment of mutually satisfactory relations 
between the electric railways and the public that 
they serve has focused attention during the past year 
upon those phases of operation in which the public is 
directly interested, and an issue in which the statistics 
of the year are published seems an appropriate place for 
the presentation of information of this kind. In most 
of these problems, of which a few are outlined in the fol- 
lowing paragraphs, the interests of the public and the 
railways are largely identical. Indeed, a divergence of 
interest seems to occur in no case. Even in such matters 
as the development of a courteous attitude on the part 
of platform men and the use of public referendums to 
determine directly the wishes of the public, the efforts 
of the railway companies are not altogether without in- 
direct benefit to themselves, and it is somewhat sur- 
prising to find that this important fact is not recognized 
in all cases. 



COURTESY OF PLATFORM MEN 

In the following pages no attempt is made to cover 
the practice of all companies, or even of all of those 
which have been conspicuous in each of the subjects 
covered. The purpose has been to describe the method 
rather than the company, and the examples selected were 
chosen with this object in mind. 

Some months ago Thomas Duncan, chairman of the 
Public Service Commission of Indiana, was reported to 
have said : "Of all complaints that come to the commis- 
sion, few are aimed against the conduct of the managers. 
The chief complaints arise from the insolence of em- 
ployees." The point is obvious, yet, comparatively 
speaking, surprisingly little attention seems to have 
been afforded to this most important factor in establish- 
ing cordial relations with the public. Generally the ef- 
forts of the railway companies have been confined to the 
personal efforts of the officials of the transportation 
department. Nevertheless, a number of companies 
have supplemented these efforts by the conduct of defi- 
nite and regular campaigns toward the end of developing 
courteous conduct on the part of the platform men. It 
has been thought that an account of a few of these 
special campaigns would be interesting. 

Among the lines which have grasped, along with the 
doctrine of "The Public Be Pleased," the necessity for 
developing an invariably courteous attitude toward the 
public on the part of the employees, the Hudson & Man- 
hattan Railroad possesses perhaps the greatest interest, 
for this company stands unique on having raised its. 
short-haul fare from 5 cents to 7 cents without even 
.involving itself in complaints from its patrons, let alone 
the opposition that might have been expected to result 
from such action. It is true that the enormous cost of 
tunneling the Hudson River, under which this line runs, 
involved such heavy fixed charges as to make the in- 
creased fare obviously just, but, even so, it is admitted 
that the cordial relations existing between the company 
and the public permitted the management to explain its 
case in places other than the courts. 



The truly remarkable degree of popularity that is 
enjoyed by this company is, in the opinion of Wilbur C. 
Fisk, president, largely due to the trainmen, among 
whom a courtesy campaign is consistently carried on at 
all times. This policy, in fact, had its inception in an 
address that was delivered to the trainmen, when the 
line was opened for traffic, by W. G. McAdoo, then presi- 
dent of the company, and a copy of the address in 
pamphlet form is still issued to every new employee 
before he goes to work. The following is abstracted 
from it: 

"I want to impress upon you the fact that this rail- 
road is operated primarily for the convenience of the 
public. Safety and efficiency of the service are, of 
course, the first considerations, but among the things of 
the highest importance are civility and courtesy in your 
dealings with the public. It requires a great deal of 
patience to be courteous to people who may be rude and 
offensive to you, and it is human nature not to be, but, 
at the same time, you must learn to take such things in 
good temper ; it is a part of your job. You must treat 
people courteously no matter how they treat you. You 
must not engage in unnecessary conversation with pas- 
sengers, and you must not address passengers before 
they enter into conversation with you. You are not 
there for the purpose of entertaining the public ; you are 
there for the purpose of seeing that the road is safely 
and properly operated. Attend strictly to your duties, 
answering questions when they are addressed to you. 
No matter if questions seem to be foolish, give civil 
replies. I want to caution all conductors, guards and 
platform men against telling passengers to 'step lively.' 
It does no good; people step as lively as they can any 
way, and to order them to do so in a loud and command- 
ing tone is irritating and objectionable. The amount of 
courtesy you display is going to have an important bear- 
ing upon the popularity of this road. The day of 'the 
public be damned' policy is forever gone. It always was 
an objectionable and indefensible policy, and it will not 
be tolerated on this road under any conditions." 

In brief, this covers the policy of the railroad, and 
the advice is driven home to each new employee by a 
personal talk with the superintendent of transportation, 
during which it is explained that, while Marshall Field's 
epigram that the "customer is always right" may not 
be literally true, the presumption is that passengers do 
not complain without grievances, and that any dis- 
courtesy will involve discipline. 

New employees are taken only on a ninety-day pro- 
bationary period. During this time they are watched 
carefully. Should complaints be made against any of 
them the first case involves a personal talk with the 
superintendent of transportation, as it is believed that 
the vast majority of men can be educated, but if a second 
complaint of any serious nature is received during a 
new employee's probation, he is dropped forthwith. 
The principle is that the trainman is paid to take knocks 
and that the mere fact of his getting into a dispute with 
a patron establishes a preponderance of evidence against 
his becoming a satisfactory employee. 

In the case of older trainmen, however, such a drastic 



January 2, 1915] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL | 9- ^ 3 3 21 



procedure is not followed. Alleged infractions of the 
rule of courteous treatment for all passengers are in- 
vestigated, and when it is found that the trainman has 
been goaded into making a retort by a disagreeable 
passenger, he is disciplined only to the extent of being 
given demerits on his record, a system based upon the 
Brown system of discipline being used. Of course, should 
such disputes occur several times, there is evidence 
that the trainman is not living up to the spirit of the 
rule and he is dropped, a bulletin being issued to that 
effect. When old employees are found to have wilfully 
entered into disputes with passengers the discipline is, 
of course, made proportionately severe, and involves dis- 
charge for serious offences, such as striking a patron. 

In addition to the matter of complaints from the 
public, the conduct of trainmen is checked up by an 
efficiency system wherein trainmen are observed at in- 
tervals averaging about one week in length with regard 
to the performance of their work. These observations 
are made by the trainmaster, the motorman's instructor 
and the despatchers who ride the trains and fill out 
cards on which there is space for the identification of 
the trainman and a "test number" which refers to a 
printed list of 102 tests covering all branches of the 
service. Among these are included such items as treat- 
ment of passengers, neat appearance and the like. 

Summed up, the maintenance of courteous deportment 
among this company's trainmen is due, according to 
John O'Rourke, superintendent of transportation, to a 
thorough drilling of new men in the "public be pleased" 
policy of the company and their education by personal 
contact with officials; to the rigid elimination of men 
who cannot get along with the public; to frequent and 
regular observation of the actions of platform men ; 
and to considerate treatment and good wages for all 
employees. The feeling of confidence in the company 
on the part of the men is reflected in their attitude 
toward the public, and the spirit of co-operation between 
the men and the company makes for the popularity of 
the organization as a whole. 

Procedure in Rochester 

On the Rochester lines of the New York State Rail- 
ways, also, results of a most satisfactory nature have 
been accomplished. It has been the practice to consider 
that employees during the first six months of service 
make mistakes rather through lack of knowledge of 
the correct manner of doing their work than through 
wilful action. For this reason new employees who are 
guilty of violations of rules or orders are sent to the 
company's instruction department for a talk, the 
assumption being that they have not been sufficiently 
instructed. The result has been that a new employee, 
instead of getting through his first six months' service 
with a record bearing many black marks, reaches the 
end of his probation with a much better working knowl- 
edge of railroading and with good-will toward the 
company. 

Since 1906 the company has used the merit and de- 
merit system of discipline. Published in the rule book 
is a schedule of credits for meritorious acts, as well as 
demerits for various violations of rules. Under this 
system it is necessary only to establish the fact that a 
rule has been violated and the discipline is automatic. 
On the other hand, a man who performs a meritorious 
act receives credit marks upon turning in a card request- 
ing them, as the company believes that this plan of 
recognizing the meritorious acts of men is far superior 
to the other systems of discipline under which only 
delinquencies are entered on the records. It is not alto- 
gether necessary that a man should turn in a request for 
credits, as any official noting that a trainman has per- 



formed some act which would entitle him to credit, 
reports it, and the credits are given. 

Under this plan ten credit marks are allowed for the 
first six months without demerit marks, and fifteen 
credit marks for each succeeding six months without 
demerit marks. Ten credit marks are allowed also for 
tying up trolley wire, or removing same to allow car to 
move; for making exceptionally good stop, thereby 
preventing accident, or using good judgment in pre- 
venting accident; for holding broken trolley pole on 
wire, and for securing names of witnesses or informa- 
tion valuable to claim department when off duty. 

Five credit marks are allowed for removing obstruc- 
tions from track or wire; for removing broken trolley 
wire from track; for placing or assisting to place cars 
on track; for tying up guy or span wire; for watching 
broken wire when off duty; for reporting defective cars 
or trouble on line when off duty; for protecting com- 
pany's property, and for six months' neatness in appear- 
ance of person and car. 

Three credit marks are given for recovering and turn- 
ing in lost pass books and badges ; for using good 



Form 17O-S00Q-1- 



r York Statk Railway* 

ROCn FSTKHM N E» 



Date 

Train No. 



Time.. 
Car No. 





NEW YORK STATE RAILWAYS 

ROCHESTER LINES 

INSTRUCTOR'S REPORT 


N 










r*. 








j 










1 










1 Bell to' Sun 1 






1 Error in tripaheet 








Bell) at end of line 2 






2 Miipunched 








Before passengers are 
safcly on or ofi 3 


l 




3 Announcing 








2 Belli before car 














Correct 






5 Protecting rear 








Failure [d register 






6 Position on car 








Register fares in 
bunches 2 






7 Backing car Irom 
inudc 








Register out of 
order 3 


8 




8 Dirty steps and 
platform 








Calling fares please 4 






9 Ventilators 








RcRHten readinj ^ 






10 Stoves 








Failing to turn 
register 6 






11 Fiilmg to get 








Cotrect 




















Luuuedu 



PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — TWO FORM 
BLANKS USED ON THE NEW YORK STATE RAILWAYS 

judgment in preventing blockades; for repairing parts 
of car, preventing it from being turned in or avoiding a 
blockade ; and for finding and returning company's prop- 
erty, such as signs, train numbers and parts of car. 
From five to twenty credits are allowed for special cases 
of politeness or courtesy to passengers and also for 
using good judgment in avoiding controversy with a 
passenger who has real or imaginary grievances. 

In the discipline of new men, unless an act is of a 
distinctly wilful nature, no demerits are applied. E. E. 
Strong, superintendent of city lines, who developed this 
system, has stated that he has found that most men 
entering the employ of a railroad company are inex- 
perienced in dealing with the public. As a result they 
are apt to be hasty in act or in speech and to have 
altercations with their passengers. Nothing is gained 
by immediately dismissing such a man from the service, 
as the chances are that another man employed in his 
stead would be equally liable to commit the offence, so 
that it is considered much better to keep the first man, 
providing that under proper training he can be taught 
to govern himself, thus assisting the company to secure 
proper relations between itself and its patrons. From 
the beginning every trainman should be given to under- 



22 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



stand that while on duty no act of his will be considered 
as an individual act but as an act of the company. He 
should fully realize that he is a representative of the 
company, so designated by his uniform and badge, and 
that he is authorized to do business for the company 
he represents. If these men can be brought to realize 
the bigness of the work they are performing and how 
much depends upon their treatment of the public they 
■vill, by virtue of the consciousness of responsibility, do 
far better work than if they believed themselves to be 
mere machines. The company finds that recognition of 
meritorious acts never "spoils" the recipients and no 
difficulty is experienced in having men apply for credits. 

In the case of men who have been in the service for 
some time and who are assumed on account of their 
long service to be able to avoid entering into con- 
troversies with passengers, discipline is invariably ap- 
plied when disputes involving insolence occur. Twenty 
demerits are given in cases of insolence that may be 
classed as serious, a net total of sixty demerits being 
required for dismissal. The use of such expressions as 
"step lively" are, however, not considered as objection- 
able conduct. 

During the first six months of a man's service he re- 
ports to the superintendent of the instruction depart- 
ment and is not disciplined by the superintendent of 
transportation. There are traveling uniformed instruc- 
tors whose duties are to follow up new men on the road 
and to correct any wrong tendencies. Each instructor 
carries printed lists of the more usual failures on the 
part of the men, and failures are checked off on these. 
The company reserves the right under the merit and 
demerit system to dismiss a man for general lack of 
ability at any time during his first six months of serv- 
ice, or for failure to respond to instructions. All em- 
ployees are advised regarding their balance of credits 
and demerits at six-month intervals, and they are noti- 
fied every time when their credits or demerits are 
entered on their records to provide opportunity for an 
appeal when the employee desires this. 

In cases where it is found that a trainman has been 
nagged by a passenger to such a point as to make a 
retort only natural, the matter of discipline is left to 
the disinterested judgment of the head of the service 
improvement department. In cases where the com- 
plainant demands discipline for an employee when the 
company believes it is not deserved, the service im- 
provement department settles the matter by personal 
calls or by having a meeting between the employee and 
the complainant. 

Courtesy Cards 

To improve the department of platform men several 
lines have made use of the so-called "courtesy card" 
with considerable success. The Twin City Rapid Tran- 
sit Company has posted in all stations, clubrooms and 
other places where employees gather, a placard calling 
attention to the necessity of a courteous and cheerful 
attitude toward the public, especially with regard to 
the answering of questions by the passengers. The 
Federal Light & Traction Company has followed the 
same plan for all of its properties, a reproduction of 
its courtesy card having been shown in a recent issue. 
This is reported to have produced excellent results 
largely through showing the public that the company 
was anxious that its employees should accord every 
courtesy to its patrons. As a matter of fact the public 
press of every town in which this operating company 
has a property gave space to a notice regarding the use 
of the card. One of the editorial comments made at 
the time of the production of this card emphasized the 
fact that the company, by endeavoring to obtain cour- 
teous treatment of the traveling public, conferred a 



benefit on the town because visitors would be favorably 
impressed with the actions of the street railway em- 
ployees. 

Courtesy Watch Fobs in Columbus 

In Columbus a regular campaign was begun about a 
year ago. Prior to the inauguration of this campaign 
it had always been the policy of the company to take 
every precaution possible in the selection of its plat- 
form men, and upon their entering the service an en- 
deavor was made to develop in them a proper sense of 
the attitude which should be taken toward the patrons 
of the company. This policy was so continuously fol- 
lowed up that it resulted in the general comment from 
the traveling public to the effect that the platform men 
of Columbus were exceptionally courteous. In the early 
part of 1913, however, with a view still further to im- 
prove the general attitude of the platform men toward 
the public a vigorous "courtesy campaign" was insti- 
tuted as a part of the "safety first" movement. As a 
first step in this campaign, pamphlets on the subject 
of courtesy were distributed to all the employees by 




PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — WATCH FOB DIS- 
TRIBUTED TO COLUMBUS EMPLOYEES 

S. G. McMeen, president Columbus Railway & Light 
Company. Each employee was also presented with a 
bronze watch fob with a leather strap, as shown in 
the accompanying illustration. The distribution of 
these pamphlets and fobs is continuous, and all of the 
new employees entering the service since the campaign 
was inaugurated receive them. 

Another part of the campaign consists in weekly 
meetings between the operating officials and the traffic 
inspectors and transportation foremen. At these the 
superintendent of transportation, the claim agent, and 
the general superintendent take part in the discussions 
which cover the company's policy of "Safety first and 
service next," which the management is perpetually 
endeavoring to instill in the minds of its employees. 

It is stated by Harold W. Clapp, general superintend- 
ent Columbus Railway & Light Company, that the cam- 
paign has produced a distinct improvement in conditions 
in the territory involved. This is noticed in the daily 
course of routine business by the operating officials of 
the company. In fact, the civility of the platform men 
receives very favorable comment from time to time by 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



23 



the traveling public as well as by the daily press of 
the city. 

Courtesy Bulletins 

Several railways are making use of employees' bulle- 
tins for the same purpose. In May, 1914, the New 
York Railways Company began to issue a bulletin for 
distribution among its 8000 employees. This is similar 
in character to the Interborough Bulletin, which has 
been published for some years for the benefit of the 
employees of the subway and elevated lines of New 
York. A feature on both the bulletins is a page, 
"Pleasing the Public," in which are entered such mat- 
ters as letters from patrons praising the action of the 
Interborough employees, acknowledging the receipt of 
lost articles and the like. Where a correspondent does 
not know the name of the employee about whom he 
writes, the man in question is traced and his name 
published in a note beneath the letter. 

The Texas Traction Company has issued to trainmen 
a pamphlet containing numerous epigrammatic clauses 
pointing out the desirability of maintaining at all times 
cordial relations with the public. In the Memphis 
Street Railway the opportunity provided by the "safety 
first" organization has been used to advance the prin- 
ciples of courteous treatment of the public. This is 
accomplished by addresses from officials before the large 
safety committee that is formed among the employees. 
The Detroit United Railway distributes a pamphlet 
entitled "Courtesy" among the men, and also utilizes 
the columns of a trainman's magazine for the same 
purpose. 

The United Railways Company of Baltimore depends 
largely upon the selection and training of its employees 
to attain the same result. To quote William A. House, 
president: "In the selection and training of motormen 
and conductors the method pursued by this company 
is thorough, and has for its object the highest possible 
standard of efficiency. Applicants are required to pre- 
sent a letter in their own handwriting, together with 
two letters of endorsement, one of which must be from 
the last employer. Accepted applicants, after a course 
of instruction and prior to being regularly assigned, 
are given a lecture by the superintendent on the rules, 
regulations and requirements with respect to deport- 
ment. Great care is taken to impress upon applicants 
the responsibility of their position, and they are in- 
formed that the wearing of a uniform stamps them as 
the duly accredited representative of the company who 
comes in direct contact with the public, and that, as such 
representative, they are expected to treat patrons with 
unfailing courtesy under all conditions. It is pointed 
out to them that proper deportment and consideration 
for the rights of passengers will in the majority of cases 
tend to make one who is disposed to be antagonistic to 
the company change his attitude, and, in the course of 
time, become one of its warmest friends." 



COMPLAINT BUREAUS 

The formal organization of a distinct bureau for re- 
ceiving and investigating complaints is another matter 
of direct interest to the public of which the importance 
seems to be by no means generally recognized. In 
Rochester, however, such a bureau has been organized 
and has given remarkable satisfaction. This is called 
the service improvement department, already mentioned, 
and to it is assigned all the work of handling com- 
plaints, returning excess fares, settling transfer dis- 
putes, talking with vehicle owners about delays due to 
trucks on the company's tracks and similar matters. 
One of its cardinal principles is that no complaint must 
ever be dropped until it is either settled satisfactorily 



or else has reached an impasse. All complaints are 
immediately acknowledged and an investigation is 
started in the department involved. At the close of the 
investigation a personal call is made upon the com- 
plainant and the situation is explained to him with 
perfect frankness, no attempt being made to settle the 
matter by letters, as these are always open to miscon- 
struction. Chronic kickers are followed with perfect 
patience and their complaints, under this gentle treat- 
ment, are reported to have become greatly reduced in 
number. 

The service improvement department was first estab- 
lished by E. J. Cook, vice-president New York State 
Railways, on Feb. 1, 1911, as a complaint department, 
and the work was handled by the chief clerk to the vice- 
president. After Oct. 1, 1911, the work was handled 
in conjunction with that of the claim department on 
account of the many complaints which developed into 
claims. In August, 1912, the name was changed to 
"service improvement department" but the work was 
still handled in conjunction with that of the claim de- 
partment. On April 1, 1913, the organization became 
a separate department, whose head was placed in charge 
also of the land and tax, insurance and special service 
departments. 

Organization of Service Improvement Department 
in Rochester 

The department consists of the head of department 
who devotes part of his time to the work, a stenog- 
rapher and two outside men who call upon patrons, 
either for the purpose of receiving complaints or for 
satisfying complainants after investigation. The out- 
side men also interview any witnesses furnished by the 
patrons or employees against whom complaint is made. 
Employees are encouraged in case of any controversy 
on a car to secure the names of witnesses to protect 
themselves just as they would do in case of accidents. 

Complaints or suggestions for the betterment of the 
service are received by letter, by telephone or by per- 
sonal calls. In addition patrons may notify the tele- 
phone operator after office hours when they have com- 
plaints or suggestions to make. The telephone operator 
takes the name and address of the complainant, and a 
member of the service improvement department makes 
a personal call on the following day to get the de- 
tails. Thus provision is made so that patrons can reach 
the service improvement department for twenty-four 
hours in the day and for 365 days in the year. 

In whatever one of the above ways a complaint is 
made, all receive investigation as promptly as possible 
and patrons are notified of the outcome in a personal 
interview by the outside members of the department. 
No case is considered complete until the complainant 
expresses himself as being satisfied. The number of 
cases where this assurance is not finally received is 
negligible. Originally it was found that the cost of in- 
vestigating complaints was from $3 to $5 each. How- 
ever, some changes have been made in the method of 
procedure which have reduced the cost without affect- 
ing the results. 

The number of cases handled has increased each year 
over the preceding year. The number in 1911 was 1017 ; 
in 1912, 1631; and in 1913, 1947. For the first eight 
months of the year 1914 the number was 1401. The 
steady increase can be attributed to the work of the de- 
partment and the co-operation of the public in the im- 
provement of the service. It has been noted in cases 
where a patron has made a complaint and has been sat 
isfied, and then has occasion to make a second complaint, 
that it is made in an altogether different spirit. More- 
over, the attitude of the public toward the company 
has become more kindly by reason of the fact that 



24 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



patrons call the company's attention to little grievances 
immediately after their occurrence instead of allowing 
a number of them to accumulate in their minds, thus 
embittering them in their relations with the company 
and its employees. In other words, if grievances can 
be satisfied as rapidly as they occur, each one is treated 
more as if it were an isolated case, whereas if complaint 
is not made, each individual annoyance recalls all that 
have previously occurred. 

Handling Complaints on the New York Railways 

The New York Railways Company has no special de- 
partment for handling complaints, but it has estab- 
lished, with excellent results, a very thorough system 
under the immediate supervision of the vice-president 
and general manager for the receipt and utilization of 
complaints or statements that may be received from 
patrons or from the general public. In the case of tele- 
phone communications it is the rule to request the com- 
plainant for a confirmation in writing, the obvious rea- 
son for this being that a written communication tends 
to establish the fact that the report is made in good 
faith. 

In the case of oral complaints that are made by per- 
sonal calls at the company's offices, the statements of 
the complainant are copied in typewriting. The major- 
ity of such complaints are received at the division 
offices of the company located in the various carhouses. 
Therefore, a copy of each complaint is sent immediately 
from the division office to the office of the vice-president 
and general manager. There its receipt is at once 
acknowledged by means of a courteous letter to the 
complainant. Following this an investigation is made 
by the transportation department and a report of the 
investigation, together with a statement as to the ac- 
tion taken by the division superintendent, is sent to 
the executive office. In case the circumstances warrant 
a statement covering the investigation and outlining 
the action taken by the company is sent to the com- 
plainant. 

Complaints that are made by mail are acknowledged 
in the same way, and a copy of the complaint, together 
with a copy of the acknowledgement, is sent to the divi- 
sion office for investigation and report. From this point 
the procedure is the same as that outlined in the case 
of oral complaints. In general, it is the custom to answer 
all complaints over the signature of the vice-president 
and general manager. Every case is investigated and 
in many cases the complainant is advised regarding the 
action that is taken by the company as a result of his 
complaint. 

The organization by which this procedure is carried 
on consists of a single complaint clerk who devotes 
his whole time to the work and who is thoroughly 
experienced in dealing with the public. Several 
transportation department employees also devote part 
of their time to making personal calls upon com- 
plainants when this is necessary to adjust discrep- 
ancies that sometimes exist between the testimony 
of the complainant and that of the employees involved. 
In addition to the above, one of the assistants in the 
office of the vice-president and general manager de- 
votes a large part of his time to this work. 

All complaints are received at the general office by 
the complaint clerk, whether they come in the form 
of a letter or as transcriptions of statements made at 
division offices, and he writes the letters of acknowl- 
edgment. Each of these letters is passed to the 
assistant above mentioned, for check and criticism. 
When a report of the investigation is received it is 
handled in the same manner, the complaint clerk pre- 
paring statements regarding the action taken, if such 
a course seems necessary. 



Each month all of the complaints received on each 
division are tabulated and thus a competitive system 
is set up between the various divisions. In these 
tabulations the complaints are classified under a series 
of headings such as "insolence," "short change," 
"transfer dispute," "erroneous information," "neglect 
of duty," "premature starting," etc., and the result of 
the investigation is given. For the month of October, 
for example, there were about 200 complaints received 
on the whole system; in approximately 42 per cent 
of these cases the employee was found to be at fault 
and was disciplined; in about 27 per cent of the cases 
the employee was found not to be at fault, and in the 
remaining cases the information which was furnished 
by the complainant was not sufficiently definite to 
determine the identity of the employee or whether or 
not he was at fault. A notation of the facts in each 
case is entered in the record of the employee involved 
and this record constitutes' an important bearing on 
the continuance of his employment. Commendations 
as well as criticisms are invariably entered. During 
October, 1914, it should be stated that 33,950,000 pas- 
sengers were carried, including transfer riders. 

Another angle of this work covers the matter of 
fare box and transfer disputes. If a passenger inad- 
vertently drops more money in the fare box than is 
required by the number of fares which he wishes to 
pay, the conductor makes out a card with the passen- 
ger's name and address and the amount involved, as 
the conductor is not authorized to make refunds, for 
obvious reasons. A report with the card attached is 
turned in to the receiver or cashier and from there 
sent to the division superintendent. In case the pas- 
senger is found to be entitled to a refund, a memo- 
randum of the facts in the case is sent to the office 
of the vice-president and general manager and the 
refund, in stamps, accompanied by a letter, is sent to 
the person involved, the matter being handled in the 
same manner as previously outlined in the case of 
oral or written complaints. Many very commendatory 
letters are continually being received owing to the 
establishment of this system, as many patrons who 
receive refunds acknowledge their receipt. About 
four hundred such cases are handled each month. 

In cases where passengers inadvertently place cash 
fare in the fare box, and subsequently tender valid 
transfers the same procedure is followed. A card with 
the passenger's name and address and a statement of the 
circumstances is sent, through the cashier to the di- 
vision superintendent for investigation and then sent to 
the office of the vice-president and general manager. In 
general, in transfer disputes, the practice is followed 
of making a refund on a transfer whenever there is 
reasonably good evidence that the passenger is acting 
in good faith. 

A typical letter from the company in regard to a 
refund is as follows : "Under recent date a conductor of 
the Broadway line of this company reported that you 
boarded his car and by mistake deposited 10 cents in 
the fare box in payment of your fare. I take pleasure 
in returning to you herewith, in the form of stamps, 
the equivalent of the excess amount which you paid." 
To this letter the following acknowledgment was re- 
ceived: "Gentlemen: Your letter received with the 
enclosure of 5 cents ($0.05) for excess fare dropped in 
the slot of a Broadway car. I take this opportunity 
to thank you for the same and to express my admira- 
tion for your system. While I am expressing these 
thoughts I am spending 2 cents ($0.02) out of my 5 
cents ($0.05)." 

Another reply to a similar letter said: "Yours of 
the 29th instant containing 10 cents refund has been 
received, for which please accept my thanks. It was 



January 2, 1915] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



25 



a mistake on my part in depositing 25 cents in change 
for three persons, but your conductor was very 
gentlemanly about it and insisted upon my giving 
him my name and address, which I did. It only shows 
that your company is conducted under good business 
principles in taking note of so small a matter as this. 
Hoping the next time I visit New York I shall not 
put you to this trouble again, I remain, etc." A re- 
fund to a resident of Cincinnati brought the following: 
"Gentlemen: I wish to thank you for the promptness 
of your remittance and would say also that I don't 
think the matter could have been taken care of as 
quickly without my writing you and explaining the 
circumstances in any other city but New York. Thank- 
ing you, I remain, etc." Still another acknowledg- 
ment said : "Permit me to thank you for the return 
of excess fare paid on the Sixth Avenue line and con- 
tained in your letter of June 30, and permit me also 
to congratulate you on the civility of your conductor 
and the efficiency of your organization shown by such 
prompt attention to a small detail. I, for one, appre- 
ciate the service given to the public by the surface 
lines and I am glad to have this opportunity of say- 
ing so." 

The following statement also is enlightening: "Ac- 
cept my sincere thanks for the efficient system which 
permits of the return of money which may be dropped 
into the box of your pay-as-you-enter cars by mistake. 
I may add here that I did not think at the time that 
the conductor had told me that my money would be 
returned to me that he was telling the truth, but I 
gladly apologize. Again thanking you, I am, etc." 

A third section of the work of handling complaints 
on the New York Railways is that involved in cases 
of collisions with vehicles. Of course, when such col- 
lisions are serious in character the whole matter is re- 
ferred to the claim department, but where the damage 
to equipment amounts to not more than a few dollars, 
a letter is written to the owner of the vehicle giving 
details of the collision and stating the number of the 
automobile or wagon that caused the accident. The 
object of sending these letters is to acquaint the owner 
of the vehicle with the actual conditions even though no 
claim for damages is made, because in this way it is 
believed that careless drivers can be located and eventu- 
ally eliminated. The following letters taken at random 
from the correspondence indicate how this practice is 
working out: 

"In reply to your letter of Oct. 29 regarding the care- 
less driving of one of our drivers named , we 

beg to say, that, as it costs us hundreds of dollars yearly 
to settle claims arising from the carelessness of our 
employees, you can readily see we are very grateful to 
receive the result of your investigation. Thanking you 
for calling our attention to this matter, we are, etc." 

"Accept my thanks for your courteous note of Nov. 
20. Since I do not employ a chauffeur I suspect that 
my car was taken out of the garage on the occasion In 
question without my sanction, and in order to investi- 
gate this I would be glad to have a statement of the 
time of day at which the accident occurred, and whether 
there was any injury to my car during the occurrence. 
I found one of the fenders severely damaged at about 
that time, though I am not sure of the date, and was 
told that it had happened in the garage. If you can 
supply me with these further details you would aid me 
very much in running the matter down. Thanking you, 
I am, etc." 

In another recent case a wagon driver called at the 
railway company's office and stated that upon receipt 
of the company's letter regarding a collision between 
his wagon and a car his employer had reprimanded him 
severely for his carelessness, had handed to him a set of 



traffic rules to study, and had instructed him to call 
upon the vice-president of the railway company and 
offer to pay for the damage done to the car. The 
driver stated that his earnings were not large and that 
he hoped the company would not be too severe with him. 
He admitted his responsibility for the accident and said 
that, although he had been driving for his present em- 
ployer three years, this was his first collision. He was 
told that the company did not want to inflict any hard- 
ship on him and would not require him to pay for the 
damage done. He departed stating that in the future 
he would take no chances with street cars and expressed 
his gratitude for the consideration shown him, adding 
that hereafter the company would have no cause for 
complaint regarding him. 

In cases such as these, whenever further information 
is requested, it is the policy of the company to furnish 
the facts. As a rule it has been found that the owners 
of the vehicles involved are glad to have these matters 
brought to their attention. They realize that it is to 
their advantage, as well as to the advantage of the 
general public and the street car company that occur- 
rences of this character should be promptly investi- 
gated, in order to eliminate as far as possible the care- 
less operation of vehicles in the streets of New York. 
Obviously all of this correspondence entails consider- 
able work, but the results have been gratifying and 
tend to create a favorable sentiment toward the com- 
pany on the part of the public. 

Procedure in Denver 

Complainants are treated by the Denver Tramway 
Company on the assumption that they are always right, 
which, as a matter of fact, is correct from their point 
of view, otherwise the efforts extended by them in 
making reports would not have been exerted. 

Grievances received by mail are sent at once to the 
various divisions for thorough investigation, while those 
registered in person or by telephone are taken down 
verbatim, typewritten and treated in the same manner. 
After each investigation has been completed, complain- 
ant is advised by mail as to the results obtained. In 
cases where trainmen are found in the right, the com- 
plainant is so advised in the most courteous and in- 
offensive terms at the company's command, thereby 
giving assurance that the investigation is at all times 
very thorough. Such methods are adopted in order to 
discourage exaggerated or false statements. Where 
fault is attributed to the actions of trainman, a letter 
of regret is forwarded to the complainant with an 
assurance that the matter has been effectively taken 
up with the offending employee. 

In cases embodying charges of a serious nature, the 
names of witnesses are required from trainmen. The 
importance of this procedure is so well known through- 
out the entire system that such names are invariably 
procured at the time difficulties of this type occur. 
These are promptly forwarded to headquarters, to- 
gether with the reports of trainmen. Written state- 
ments are then requested from such witnesses, in order 
that the company may have, along with the assertions 
of complainant and employee, the additional informa- 
tion available from disinterested parties. 

All complaints are noted upon the records of em- 
ployees, with added statements covering the result of 
each investigation. Every trainman is aware of the in- 
advisability of having very many such notations upon 
his record. Even though in all cases he might have 
acted within his rights, it is assumed that his manner 
and bearing must have been offensive to some extent 
if complaint is inspired against him. Such notations 
carry considerable weight in determining a man's fit- 
ness to deal with the company's patrons, since courtesy 



26 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



toward and accommodation of passengers are considered 
two very important features of up-to-date operation. 
W. M. Casey, superintendent of transportation Denver 
Tramways Company, states that this system has brought 
about a very marked decrease in the number of com- 
plaints received by the company. 

Procedure in Brooklyn 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company maintains a 
special department to deal with the general matter of 
complaints. This department, which is in charge of 
one of the executive officers of the company, handles all 
work of this class and it is so well known that about 95 
per cent of all communications from the traveling public 
are addressed direct to it. All complaints are acknowl- 
edged by the vice-president in charge of the depart- 
ment, the reply being made sometimes at once and some- 
times after an investigation, according to the nature of 
the complaint. In serious cases both an acknowledg- 
ment and a second letter are written, the latter giving 
in brief the outcome of the investigation. All complaints 
are handled by clerks, but all letters addressed to patrons 
are read and signed personally by the vice-president. 

Investigations are made by the several departments, 
the department of complaints requesting them where 
necessary. Personal calls upon complainants are, how- 
ever, made in certain cases by the complaint clerk, who 
is thoroughly informed as to details of the service on all 
lines of the system. These personal calls are considered 
to be of great value in cases where the complainant 
feels so much aggrieved as to extend the correspond- 
ence unduly. 

All commendations as well as complaints about any 
employee are filed with his record. In cases where an 
employee is reprimanded, a standard form is made out 
and signed by the employee as evidence of his having 
read it. In cases where an employee is commended 
he is also advised of this fact by having the letter of 
commendation handed to him to read before it is filed 
with his record. 

Transfer disputes and cases of overpayment of fare 
are also handled by this department, refunds being 
made by sending 5-cent tickets good for a ride on any 
of the company's elevated or surface lines. In all such 
cases the passenger is given the benefit of any doubt, 
but as a matter of principle refunds are not made upon 
a mere complaint but only after investigation has es- 
tablished a strong probability that the complainant is 
entitled to a refund. 

Personal Discussions Encouraged in Boston 

The Boston Elevated Railway receives about 250 
complaints per month at its general offices, either by 
mail or personal calls. The former are promptly 
acknowledged by letters written either from the office 
of the superintendent of surface lines or by the division 
superintendent in whose territory the occurrence at 
issue happened. In case the complainant is found to be 
considerably exercised he is given full opportunity to 
discuss his views in person with the superintendent of 
surface lines, his assistant, or the division superin- 
tendent concerned. All complaints are consecutively 
numbered, and are indexed on cards, which furnish a 
means of making monthly comparisons of troubles, 
localities concerned, etc. Complaints received at the 
main office are forwarded to the division superintendent 
for investigation and report, followed by a review of 
the case by the superintendent of surface lines. If the 
affair is complicated it is usually brought before the 
company's discipline committee for consideration and 
action. This committee consists of four operating 
officials who meet daily at the headquarters of the 
company. If it is necessary to bring the employee and 



the complainant together to clear up the case, the com- 
mittee frequently endeavors to do this. Anonymous 
complaints are considered by the company, but these 
do not furnish as satisfactory a basis for action as those 
which are signed. 

Plan Followed by the Hudson & Manhattan 
Railroad 

On the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad complaints are 
very few in number, and these are handled personally by 
the president of the company. About fifty complaints 
are received during the course of the year, and of these 
about 10 per cent relate to details of the service, the 
balance being aimed against employees. The sources 
of most of the latter are failures of car doors to open 
and the calling back of passengers by ticket choppers 
at the platform entrances. About half of these com- 
plaints are found to be without justification. 

Upon receipt of a complaint it is at once acknowl- 
edged, and if opportunity exists a full explanation is 
made to the complainant. Often where employees are 
involved an extended investigation may have to be made, 
and in such cases the acknowledgment states only that 
fact. Investigations of complaints are made by the head 
of the department — equipment or operating — that is 
involved, and if necessary an investigator is sent to talk 
to the complainant. The complainant, however, is not 
advised regarding the final action of the company. Com- 
plaints about the service are discussed with the super- 
intendent of transportation, and if they contain prac- 
tical suggestions for the benefit of the service these are 
at once tried out. Complaints about any employee in 
the transportation or station department are noted on 
his record, and when the nature of the offense warrants 
strong corrective measures, demerits in accordance with 
a system which is based on the Brown system of dis- 
cipline are entered in addition. 

Card Form for Utica Complainants 

In connection with fare and transfer disputes on the 
Utica lines of the New York State Railways, a novel 
procedure is followed. The conductors are furnished 
with three small blank books containing slips which 
can be torn out and handed to the complaining patron. 
Two of these provide for overpayments of fare and for 
other classes of complaints. The third slip provides 
for statements of conductors who are involved in dis- 
putes. This system was adopted about five years ago 
and was reported at that time to have been most favor- 
ably received by the public. The records of the com- 
pany showed that more than 50 per cent of the slips 
issued by conductors were never returned, indicating 
that the complainants in half the cases concluded after 
thinking them over that their complaints were un- 
justified. At the present time the use of these blanks 
has diminished very considerably, as the public has 
become thoroughly acquainted with the local conditions 
and therefore the number of fare and transfer disputes 
and other causes of difficulty has been materially 
reduced. 

Practice in Chicago 

No regular complaint bureau is maintained on the 
Chicago Surface Lines. All complainants, however, are 
advised by a notice to the public that is posted in the 
cars to file any complaints about the service with L. A. 
Busby, president of the company. Mr. Busby has an 
assistant secretary who receives and classifies all com- 
plaints of this kind, devoting his entire time to the 
work. When the complaint is of a serious nature it is 
referred to Mr. Busby personally, and he writes a per- 
sonal letter to the complainant. If the complaint is of 
such a nature as to require investigation it is referred 
to the department that is affected for a report to the 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



27 



president. The company makes it a rule to write a 
courteous acknowledgment for every written complaint, 
but in no case is the complainant advised as to the 
nature of the action that is taken by the company after 
its investigation. The employee regarding whom the 
complaint is made is never informed as to the source of 
the complaint. Acknowledgments are generally made 
after the investigation has been concluded, and if the 
company or employee was found to be at fault a plain 
statement to this effect is included, as well as one to the, 
effect that proper steps will be taken to prevent 
repetition of the occurrence. 

On the Detroit United Railway the complaint bureau 
is included in the publicity department, and one man 
devotes practically his entire time to the work of 
receiving, acknowledging and answering complaints, of 
which about 250 are made each month. The practice 
of the company is to investigate practically all com- 
plaints and to advise the complainant of the results 
of the investigation. 



PERIODICAL TRAFFIC COUNTS 

Naturally, many complaints received by street rail- 
ways deal with matters pertaining to sufficiency of 
service, and the use of frequent traffic counts has been 
introduced by several roads with a view to providing 
definite answers for them. 

In the development of such a system, in which the 
results are generally expressed by means of curves, 
it has been advocated by C. M. Larson of the Wis- 
consin Railroad Commission that a characteristic 
curve for each line of any system should be obtained 
by counting the passengers on each car as it passes 
each one of a series of observation points. This 
scheme locates the point of maximum load for each 
line, and as this point is usually approximately sta- 
tionary it is sufficient for all future counts to have 
two checkers stationed at it to count the passengers 
on all the cars as they pass. From the results thus 
obtained a traffic curve may be developed for each 
route in which each car is indicated by a vertical line 
located according to its time of arrival at the point of 
maximum load, the length of the line being propor- 
tionate to the number of passengers on the car. By 
averaging results on a half-hourly basis for several 
days and by plotting also the number of seats pro- 
vided in which curve should be considered the volun- 
tary standees, the relation of the traffic to the service 
may be accurately demonstrated in graphical form 
and a means is given for knowing at all times how to 
regulate the service to the needs of the public. 

A different scheme is used in Pittsburgh, where a 
traffic bureau employing eight investigators has been 
permanently organized, the investigators devoting 
their entire time to the work of making traffic- 
counts. Here the characteristic curve for each line 
is obtained by having observers ride separate 
cars during the rush hour, the average of the 
several observations being considered to give the 
average results for the line in question. From 
these characteristic curves half-hourly load curves 
are plotted, as outlined in the previously mentioned 
scheme, but in addition combined characteristic 
curves are made up for lines in which several 
routes converge in order to show the points at which 
the total load is discharged from all the cars during 
a given rush-hour period. In Pittsburgh there has 
also been introduced the so called time-load curve 
which shows the position of each car with regard to 
the schedule as well as its load, thus indicating any 
tendencies toward the bunching of cars. 



In Boston also there is maintained a permanent 
traffic bureau, although its methods differ somewhat 
from the foregoing. The traffic counts are supple- 
mented by tabulations of conductors, trip reports and 
by reports from street inspectors, although the latter, 
of course, are of only indefinite value as they are 
based on personal opinion only. Temporary changes 
in accordance with the varying needs of the traffic 
are provided for by information from the street in- 
spectors, but permanent changes which are imbodied 
in the time-tables are made only upon the results of 
regular traffic investigations. These are made by 
traffic counts taken at seventy-six points on the 472 
miles of track that is operated by the Boston Elevated 
Railway. A schedule of dates upon which traffic- 
counts are to be made is drawn up for each division, 
every point being checked at. approximately fifteen- 
day intervals. Thus, about five points are checked 
each day. The observers at the checking points re- 
port, for each car that passes them, the car number, 
the time of arrival and the number of passengers. 
The latter figures are totaled and averaged every half 
hour, and from these figures the service is regulated 
directly without the use of traffic curves. The method 
of utilizing these traffic counts was described in a 
contributed article in the last issue. 

In Kansas City the railway has introduced the novel 
scheme of having all attaches of the general offices 
make out statements regarding the traffic as they 
travel to and from work on the company's cars. These 
statements are made out on cards which are provided 
with spaces to show route, car number, direction, the 
points where the employee boards and alights from the 
car, the number of passengers on the car and such 
additional- remarks as the employee considers of suffi- 
cient importance. 



PUBLIC REFERENDUMS 

The public referendum or popular vote constitutes in- 
directly a method of handling complaints en masse that 
seems to have been treated rather gingerly thus far by 
the electric railway industry as a whole. Apparently, 
referendums have been held in only four cities, but of 
these Brooklyn has had two, one relating to the near- 
side stop and the other to a proposed new route. 

In both of the Brooklyn referendums ballots 5 in. x 
3 in. in size, which provided space for the name and 
address of the voter as well as his decision as to the 
matter at issue, were distributed by all conductors. 
Voting was carried on for two days in the first referen- 
dum, but only for one day in the second one. Ballots 
were collected by conductors, inspectors or ticket agents, 
or received by mail at the general offices of the com- 
pany. The ballots called for the name and address of 
the voter, and all those which were not signed were 
rejected in the count. The public was prepared for 
the vote by advertisements in the daily papers setting 
forth the details of the proposal, as well as by posters 
which were located conspicuously in the cars. Both of 
these referendums are considered to have expressed 
definitely the wishes of the majority of riders, the result 
of the vote on the near-side stop constituting, in all 
probability, the main reason for the recent adoption of 
this scheme in Greater New York. It should be said 
that the total count of the vote was equal to 11 per cent 
of the total traffic for one day, or say 22 per cent of the 
total number of one-way riders. Duplication of votes 
was probably eliminated largely by the signature and 
address required on each ballot. 

The popular vote conducted in Kansas City, Mo., was 
on the question of smoking on the cars. This matter 



28 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



had been agitated for some time prior to June, 1912, 
and in view of this fact the company conducted a refer- 
endum for a whole week, passengers receiving ballots 
upon payment of fare. These ballots contained the 
printed words "yes" or "no," and one of these was 
marked by each voter and the ballot deposited in boxes, 
which were located one at the exit and the other at the 
entrance of the car. The interest with which the refer- 
endum was received was indicated by the fact that 
more than 1,500,000 votes were received during the 
week. This constituted more than 60 per cent of the 
riders during that period. About 60 per cent of the 
voters were against the permission of smoking on cars, 
and as a result of the referendum the City Council 
repealed the existing ordinance that covered the mat- 
ter. Notwithstanding considerable opposition, which 
was reported to be encouraged by the manufacturers 
and dealers in tobacco, the "no smoking" rule was main- 
tained and is now in force. It is generally considered 
that the referendum demonstrated accurately the wishes 
of the public, the cost of conducting the referendum in- 
volving an expenditure on the part of the company of 
about $3,000. 

A popular referendum was held in Denver on the 
question of maintaining the skip-stop on one of the 
railway companies' lines. This was conducted by means 
of return postcards which were mailed to some 9600 
householders who used the routes in question. Of these 
about 5600 replied within a short period, the vote on a 
percentage basis showing 30 per cent against the skip- 
stop and 70 per cent in favor of it. The final action of 
the company on the question was, however, complicated 
by premature action of the local government, although 
since that time the skip-stop has been introduced on 
other of the company's lines. 

In Boston a referendum was held regarding the rela- 
tive desirability of two proposed locations for an east- 
erly terminal for a new subway. Notices outlining the 
various points in favor of each station were posted on 
all in-bound cars on the routes having passengers who 
would be affected by the station location, and upon the 
arrival of the cars at the downtown district they were 
boarded by uniformed employees who distributed printed 
ballots indicating a choice of route. The ballot was 
perforated across the middle so that either half could 
be used and the other half destroyed. Upon the arrival 
of the cars at the terminals ballot collectors in uniform 
on the platforms and stairways gathered the slips from 
alighting passengers. 

The balloting was continued for three days, about 
69,000 votes being cast during that time. Unfortun- 
ately, the opinion of the voters was almost evenly 
divided, and the result was considered indecisive. The 
company's officials were of the opinion that the oppor- 
tunity for repeating votes that was afforded by limiting, 
necessarily, the balloting to the business district ren- 
dered such a referendum less useful than it would have 
been in a residential section. In its decision the local 
railway commission recommended the temporary use of 
a location, subject to the final action of the State 
Legislature. 



HANDLING LOST ARTICLES 

The return of articles left by passengers on cars is, 
naturally, a matter of direct interest to the patrons of 
an electric railway. A number of surface lines have 
established organizations to take care of the matter, 
but the system in use on the New York Railways is 
especially notable because of its extreme simplicity. 
Under it, lost articles are turned over at the end of the 
trip on which they are found to the receiver, or cashier, 



at the depot that serves the line. The receiver then 
makes out a lost property coupon in triplicate, upon 
which is given the date, the line, the time of finding the 
article, the number and direction of the car in which it 
was found, the name of the employee who turns it in 
and a description of the article in question. These cou- 
pons are made up in book form and are consecutively 
numbered. The original and the duplicate are torn out 
of the book and sent with the article by the depot mes- 
senger or wagon, on the morning following the receipt 
of the lost article, to the lost property room. This is 
located at a central point on the system. Upon receipt 
at the lost property room the original of the coupon is 
retained with the lost article and the duplicate coupon 
is receipted by the lost property clerk and sent back to 
the depot where the article was first turned in. 

As soon as any lost property is received a search is 
made for any clew as to the ownership and if this is 
found the addressee is asked to call at the lost property 
room and identify the article, the request being made 
in printed form on the back of a postcard. When 
claimants call at the lost property room they are re- 
quired to give all information that is written on the 
coupon which is attached to the lost article. If this 
identification is satisfactorily given the claimant signs 
the coupon as a receipt and is given the article to which 
it is attached. All communications regarding lost prop- 
erty are answered immediately, and if full descriptions 
of lost articles are given by mail by claimants who live 
out of town the articles are forwarded in any way that 
the owner may desire. In the case of New York resi- 
dents, however, a personal call is required. 

All lost property is retained for a period of six 
months, after which it is sold in semi-annual allotments 
and the proceeds are applied to the employees' benefit 
association, this procedure being in accordance with the 
Railroad Law of the State of New York. The number 
of lost articles turned in daily for all lines of the New 
York Railways varies between twenty-five and 100, and 
approximately 75 per cent of the material that is re- 
ceived by the lost property department is called for 
within three months after its receipt. All the material 
held for the first three months is kept in a single room, 
approximately 30 ft. x 100 ft. in size, which is equipped 
with shelves and cupboards upon which the property is 
stored. The articles are classified according to the 
lines on which they are found. The lost property room 
is in charge of a single clerk, who maintains a register 
in which is entered a record of every lost article turned 
in. In this is reported the date upon which the article 
was found, the line upon which it was found, a brief 
description, the date upon which it was received, the 
date upon which it was turned over to a claimant, the 
name and address of the claimant and place for re- 
marks regarding the transaction. 

In some cases rewards are left by claimants and these 
are recorded in a separate book showing the date when 
the reward was offered and its amount, together with 
the coupon number of the lost article, the badge number 
and the name of conductor finding the article, the 
date when the reward was turned over to the con- 
ductor and the signature of the conductor receipting 
for the reward. In case rewards are given numbered 
letters are sent to the superintendent of transportation 
asking to have the conductor call for the reward. About 
one article in each forty or fifty involves a reward 
for the conductor finding it, the majority of lost articles 
being of little value. Roughly speaking, about 25 per 
cent of all claimants at the lost property room are able 
to get their property back. However, if umbrellas are 
excluded from consideration, the ratio runs to about 
50 per cent. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



29 



SCHEDULE SPEED IN CITY SERVICE 

Of all details of operation affecting the public di- 
rectly it is probable that schedule speed is the one that 
receives least attention from passengers. However, the 
value of the time that may be saved by high speed has 
been estimated at an average figure of 15 cents per 
hour per passenger, and, on this basis, the recently 
planned rapid transit scheme in Philadelphia was cal- 
culated to have a capitalized value, to the population 
of the districts affected, of $25,000,000. From the 
standpoint of the railway companies the importance 
of high schedule speed is generally given more atten- 
tion, as fixed charges on rolling stock and cost of plat- 
form labor are reduced almost in exact proportion to 
the rapidity with which the cars are moved, or, in other 
words, to the number of revenue-miles that are ob- 
tained daily from each car. 

An interesting case in connection with schedule speed 
occurred a year ago in Cleveland, where it was found, 
through an effort by the platform men to have the 
schedule rearranged, that the speed ordinance in the 
city had been repealed. The ordinance, which had lim- 
ited the running speed to 10 m.p.h. in the business dis- 
trict and to 15 m.p.h. in the residence district, had per- 
mitted claimants in damage suits to allege that cars 
were exceeding the speed limit as a basis for an unwar- 
ranted action. For this reason, the repeal of the ordi- 
nance was accomplished, and for the last year Cleveland 
cars have been operated without a speed limit, the av- 
erage non-rush hour schedule speed having reached the 
high figure of 10.51 m.p.h. 

The most prolific cause of reduced schedule speed is 
generally admitted to be the delays due to vehicular 
traffic. Various schemes have been tried to overcome 
this. At the present time the Chicago surface lines 
are endeavoring to have the local City Council pass an 
ordinance making it an offense subject to fine for 
vehicles to occupy the street railway right-of-way dur- 
ing the rush-hour periods. It has even been suggested 
in connection with this movement that vehicular traffic 
should be kept altogether from the congested loop dis- 
trict during the rush hours, the term vehicular traffic 
meaning teams and trucks that transport package 
freight and similar material. In Chicago all move- 
ments of this character must originate with the local 
transportation committee of the City Council and then, 
to be effective, must take the form of an ordinance. 
The company's campaign to educate drivers of commer- 
cial vehicles to keep off the surface railway tracks is, 
therefore, confined to getting such an ordinance passed. 
However, in the past the police department has afforded 
considerable assistance to the street railway companies 
in keeping trucks from occupying the tracks unneces- 
sarily, and in a large number of instances arrests have 
been made on the charge of obstructing traffic. Since 
that time teamsters have heeded the sound of the gong 
more rapidly, to the advantage of the patrons of the 
railway. 

The Public Service Railway of New Jersey has or- 
ganized a campaign with the same end in view as a part 
of its "safety first" movement. Placards requesting 
co-operation on the part of teamsters were submitted 
at personal interviews and then furnished free of charge 
to all owners of trucks in the cities through which the 
company's lines extend. After the cards had been posted 
the effort was followed up with talks before the truck 
drivers' social organizations and before meetings of 
the teamsters' unions. In addresses direct to the 
teamsters, generally, the attitude of the hearers was 
at first derisive, but later, when the object of the talk 
was fully disclosed, this changed completely. In the 
use of the pamphlet and in the talks, which are made by 
A. J. Van Brunt, director safety education Public- 



Service Railway, the idea is to avoid exerting any actual 
pressure upon the teamsters but to appeal to them to 
recognize the matter as being of mutual benefit to 
themselves, to the motormen and to the passengers in 
the cars. On the posted placard no mention is made 
of the Public Service Railway, the card bearing only 
the signature of the owner of the stable or garage in 
which it is posted. Excellent results in regard to re- 
duction of vehicular delays are reported from the cam- 
paign, a noticeable decrease having occurred during the 
year that the plan has been in operation. 

The Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company about 
eighteen months ago sent out letters asking for the co- 
operation on the part of truck drivers in keeping the 
tracks clear. These are reported to have been well re- 



PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — POSTER DIS- 
TRIBUTED AMONG GARAGE OWNERS BY PUBLIC 
SERVICE RAILWAY 

ceived and to have produced noticeably good results. 
The scheme has been followed up by letters sent to the 
actual offenders as they are found from time to time. 

In Rochester, the New York State Railways has also 
made efforts along these lines, having published an 
advertisement in the local official trades union paper 
which showed, for each month of the previous year, the 
duration of interruption to service caused by stalled 
or broken-down wagons, automobiles or trucks. The 
advertisement appealed for co-operation on the part of 
teamsters, and asked them not to drive on the tracks 
except when absolutely necessary. The vehicular de- 
lays, it might be said, averaged lost time of six and 
a half hours in each month. The effect of this plan 
was excellent as regards the establishment of good-will 
between the teamsters and motormen, the latter being 
advised by bulletin to consider that pulling clear of the 



ALWAYS THINK OF 
"SAFETY FIRST" 

We are having too many accidents with street cars Valuable time is lost, un- 
necessary suffering caused, and property wasted. 

"Accidents" can and must be avoided, they need not happen, the best drivers 
do not have them. To think "SAFETY FIRST" is becoming a habit in these 
United States, and the man who does not so think is- behind the times. 

When possible, drive on streets where there are no cars Drive between track 
and gutter whenever possible. When you must drive on tracks, do so for shortest 
distance possible, and pull out at once for cars. 

Cars cannot pull out, they are confined to the tracks, they must run faster than 
you do: they cannot stop as quickly. 

You are delayed only a short time by letting a car go by Driving on the 
track or pulling across in front of car is dangerous and delays many people. 

Don't pull on the track without being sure that no car is near; if it is LET IT 
GO BY FIRST. 

Motormen are human and working for a living too, they have to run by a time 
table, and if obliged to slow up or stop often, cannot run on time. 

Cars are seldom broken. Wagons often are 

Cars do not suffer pain, drivers and horses do Money ».annot pay for pain, 
and when an "accident' could hove been avoided by care on the part of our 
driver, there is no money due him Think of "SAFETY FIRST" 

Act as you would want the driver tn act if you were a motorman. 

Notice the kind of driver that does not help the other fellow. Notice the kind 
of a rig he- drives, he is not your kind, his rig is not as good as yours. He cannot 
think of "SAFETY FIRST Does he, can he. think at all? He is not good enough 
to hold your job. 

Keep off the tracks, pull up and let the car go by Save time, property, suffering, 
perhaps lite 

"SAFETY FIRST" 



30 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



track was an act of kindness rather than duty on the 
part of the teamster. 

To the same end the Detroit United Traction Com- 
pany takes up from time to time with the police de- 
partment the question of diverting traffic from certain 
streets to aid in the movement of cars, and motormen 
are instructed to take the numbers of vehicles which 
cause delays. Complaints are then made to the vehicle 
owners, and the experience has been that they take 
prompt action to co-operate with the traction company. 



RELIEVING TRAFFIC CONGESTION 

The general question of traffic congestion is, of 
course, influenced to a large degree by the length of 
time over which the rush-hour traffic extends. This 
is especially noticeable in the case of lines having the 
traffic from large factories, but notwithstanding the 




PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — LIMITED STOP 
SIGN ON BOSTON CAR 

attention that has been devoted to the possibility of es- 
tablishing variable factory closing hours, little success 
has been attained in this regard. However, in Detroit 
a novel scheme has been introduced for reducing con- 
gestion at the plant of the Ford Motor Company, where 
12,000 employees leave at the same hour. The Detroit 
United Railway sells seven tickets for 25 cents through- 
out the city of Detroit, and to avoid the necessity of 
making change on the cars a ticket booth has been pro- 
vided within the grounds of the Ford factory near the 
exit, tickets being sold to the employees as they leave 
at noon and night. It has been found that the sales 
average $75 daily, the Ford Motor Company having 
posted notices in the plant requesting employees to pur- 
chase tickets before boarding the cars. The operating 
department of the traction company reports a great im- 
provement in maintaining schedules since the introduc- 
tion of this scheme, which eliminates entirely the delays 



that originally took place. It should be added that the 
Ford Motor Company releases its employees at 3 p. m., 
4:30 p. m. and 11:40 p. m., the railway storing thirty- 
three cars for the 3 o'clock rush, and twenty-five and 
sixteen cars respectively for the other two. The tickets 
sold at the booth are not reduced in price, the sales 
being effected solely through the desire of the Ford 
company and its employees to co-operate with the 
railway. 

Another case of great difficulty exists at the Schenec- 
tady works of the General Electric Company, which em- 
ploys at the present time about 17,500 hands, including 
some 2500 office employees. At the main entrance to 
the works is located a trolley terminal, and the larger 
part of the traffic originates at this point, which is ad- 
jacent to a paved street having a double track. The 
terminal at the main entrance gate consists of a single- 
track loop of about 100-ft. radius where the different 
lines terminate, passengers being loaded and discharged 
around this loop, as well as on the main line during 
rush hours. Shunting from this loop and parallel with 
the main track is a 500-ft. siding where cars can be 
loaded or unloaded without interfering with the regular 
operation on the main tracks. The terminal is simply a 
continuation of this double track at the side of the 
public highway which runs adjacent to and parallel to 
the company's plant for about x /2 mile and includes a 
cross-over for terminal purposes only. 

Five of the eight regular scheduled lines in the city 
run to the main entrance of this plant on a headway 
of from twelve minutes to fifteen minutes. As the 
main entrance to this plant is only about x /± mile 
distant from the principal business street of the city it 
serves as a sort of terminal for cars operated through 
the business section. In fact, all of the lines mentioned 
pass through the main business street of the city going 
to and from the General Electric plant. 

About 20 per cent of the employees are classified as 
office help and go to work at 8 a. m., leaving between 
the hours of 5 p. m. and 5:15 p. m. The factory em- 
ployees go to work at 7 a. m. and leave at 5:30 p. m. 
The headways on regular lines which run to this plant 
are decreased about one-half at these rush hours. About 
twenty extra trippers leave between 5 p. m. and 5:15 
p. m., and about forty trippers immediately after 5:30 
p. m. In the morning before 7 a. m. 90 per cent of all 
regular and extra cars are routed to this plant and 
from that point assume their regular schedules on the 
respective lines and divisions. The records of the rail- 
way company show that about 1500 of these passengers 
come from the neighboring cities of Albany, Troy, Ball- 
ston Spa, Saratoga and Amsterdam, and extra service 
is provided for their accommodation. It may seem 
that these track and terminal facilities are very small 
in proportion to the magnitude of the plant, yet James 
F. Hamilton, general manager Schenectady Railway 
Company, has stated that 50 per cent more traffic could 
be handled in this way without creating much delay or 
congestion. 

One of the plans for relieving rush-hour congestion 
indirectly that is reported to have given successful re- 
sults is the so-called M. U. F. campaign which was 
originated by the Cleveland News. This campaign was 
inaugurated to get passengers to move forward in the 
cars and thus prevent congestion at the rear entrance. 
The Cleveland Railway followed up the movement by 
posting in the cars signs reading "Please move for- 
ward." The campaign included the formation of a 
voluntary organization in which the members agreed 
to move up forward and to encourage others to do the 
same, badges being furnished to all members. It proved 
thoroughly successful and was even supported strongly 
by the local labor organizations. The same plan was 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



31 



followed by the Pittsburgh Railways, but in this city 
the campaign was started by posting signs upon which 
were the letters "M. U. F." Considerable speculation 
as to the meaning of the signs was produced and this 
attracted a great deal of attention to them. 

"Car full" signs for the purpose of preventing over- 
crowding of a delayed car have been tried in several 
cities. The Metropolitan Street Railway in New York 
introduced the scheme a number of years ago, and it 
has been left in use to a greater or lesser extent since 
then. The sign is displayed by the motorman upon 
receipt of a four-bell signal from the conductor and 
the car then picks up no more passengers. A similar 
plan was tried in Boston in March, 1913, the car full 
signs being carried in the vestibule and turned up so 
as to come into sight at the order of the traffic inspec- 
tors on the street. Cars upon which the signs were 
shown made no stops to receive passengers until reach- 
ing their destinations. The plan was adopted only for 
lines on which the headway was about two minutes 
or less. 

Front-End Collectors for Congested Points 

As an aid to the handling of rush-hour traffic front- 
end collectors were introduced in Kansas City some 
three years ago. At the present time about thirty-five 
of them are used regularly for the evening rush, which 
lasts from 3 o'clock to 6:30. They are placed at busy 
transfer points, at department stores, and also in the 
packing house district. The collectors stand on the 
ground opposite the front platform of each car as it 
comes to a stop. Each one is provided with a register 
carried on a cord from his shoulders and each one keeps 
a trip sheet exactly as do the regular conductors. In 
one test the loading time was found to have been re- 
duced to 1.07 seconds per passenger, about 40 per cent 
of the passengers using the front door. Under similar 
conditions without the front-end collectors the loading 
time was found to be 2.23 seconds. It should be said 
that, while the public did not take kindly to the innova- 
tion at first, this sentiment was quickly overcome as 
soon as the results in faster schedule speed became 
apparent. 

A similar scheme has just been introduced in San 
Francisco, where the presence of large numbers of pas- 
sengers desiring to board cars at a few points in the 
heart of the business district complicates the handling 
of rush-hour traffic. Here a record of the front-end 
conductor's work is kept on a portable register, tickets 
being registered the same as cash. The trip sheet of the 
front-end conductor does not show the number of fares 
collected for any individual car, or for any particular 
line, but shows the collections made for the entire 
period. Receipts are credited to the several lines by the 
auditor in a proportion that is determined by a front- 
end conductor for each line passing the collection point 
for one week, after which the one conductor collects for 
all lines. 

The front-end conductors are recruited from the vari- 
ous divisions and in some cases are used at terminals to 
the extent that they make a day's work. In other cases 
where used only for an hour or so morning and evening 
they are given any special work that may occur in the 
remainder of the day. They are used in place of regular 
men who want to get off but who do not care to lose an 
entire day, and consequently do the morning and 
evening work. In other cases regular conductors, after 
completing a day's work on their own runs ask to be 
assigned to this work during the evening. 

Where front-end conductors are at work, all passen- 
gers desiring to leave the cars by the front exit are per- 
mitted to do so before intending passengers board the 
car. The front-exit door is of the standard small size, 



and, when at work, the conductor stands on the ground 
at its forward side collecting and issuing transfers as 
the intending passengers are ready to step upon the 
car. Where the conductor is collecting for one line only 
he issues the transfers at that line, but in cases 
where he is collecting for many lines, he issues 
a special conductor's transfer. The front-end con- 
ductor also assists materially in the moving of cars 
by signaling the motorman to proceed after having 
collected the fares and having seen that the rear end is 
clear. Sometimes the front-end conductor collects fares 
and issues a transfer before an approaching car has 
come to a stop ; however, this practice has not developed 
to any great extent. In large crowds the conductor sta- 
tions himself firmly against the car at the forward side 
of the exit gate so that only one passenger can pass at 
a time, and there has been experienced little or no diffi- 
culty in preventing people from slipping past the con- 
ductor. During periods of great congestion traffic 
officers are present to prevent jams and to regulate the 
crowd. This has been done frequently and with such 
success that many times the people voluntarily form a 
line in front of the door. 

No difficulty was experienced in San Francisco in 
getting the public to accept the innovation. In fact, 
after an experiment at two or three prominent points, 
the people were enthusiastic in their praise and their 
demand for the increased convenience. The result of 
loading by front-end conductors is an advantage in time 
both to the patron and to the company ; passengers are 
permitted to enter the front end where the car is the 
least crowded ; the congestion on the rear end is greatly 
reduced, and the load is more evenly distributed 
throughout the entire car. In short, it fills the for- 
ward section of the car, that part which the conductor 
on the rear end has so much difficulty in trying to per- 
suade passengers to occupy. 

Trailers in Regular City Service 

In many of the cities that have practically reached 
the physical maximum of service which can be handled 
owing to congestion the possibility of the use of trailers 
has been adopted. The important advantage is an in- 
crease in the size of the unit. The important 
disadvantage is the inevitable decrease in speed un- 
less the number of stops is fixed. In 1912 a London 
County Council Tramway official made an investigation 
on the subject of trailers, finding that these were used 
in large numbers in all of the capitals of continental 
Europe with the exception of St. Petersburg, and that 
Brussels and Marseilles even had three-car trains. In 
this country, out of approximately 1300 electric rail- 
roads 130 use two-car trains either for city or inter- 
urban service. For regular city operation, however, 
not including special traffic to parks, ball games and the 
like, trailers are used in comparatively few cases. A 
partial list is shown below : 

Partial Dist of Cities Regularly Using Two-Car Trains 
Birmingham, Ala. Memphis, Tenn. 



Boston, Mass. 
Charleston, N. C. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Denver, Col. 
Des Moines, la. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Port Wayne, Incl. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Montreal, Can. 



Muskogee, Mich. 
New Orleans, La. 
Newark, N. J. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
Savannah, Ga. 
St. Joseph, Mo. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Springfield, Mo. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Toronto, Can. 



The Near-Side Stop 



The near-side stop, owing to the general belief in 
its ability to decrease delay under certain conditions, 
is another feature of operation that possesses mutual 
interest for the railways and the public. However, 
the railway companies in general have much less at 



32 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



stake than their patrons. Except in the case of the 
larger cities, where traffic control is maintained, no 
increase in schedule speed can be effected by its in- 
troduction and its ability to reduce vehicular inter- 
ference and collisions is still sometimes questioned. 
That it is distinctly advantageous under traffic con- 
trol, however, can hardly be disputed, because of the 
saving in time which may be made by eliminating the 
double stop, one at the near side of the crossing for 
traffic and another at the far side for boarding and 
alighting passengers. For this reason, indeed, it has 
come into use in several of the smaller communities 
whose business districts suffer from badly congested 
traffic, and in order to avoid confusion on the part 
of waiting passengers its use has, in many cases, been 
extended to include all parts of such towns where 
the existence of paved streets make it no hardship 
to board a car at a distance from the cross-walk. 




PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — EXAMPLES OF 

NEWSSTAND PRIVILEGES AN 



change. The near-side stop was reintroduced in this 
city at a later date owing to its time-saving features 
under traffic control and at the present time it is in suc- 
cessful operation. 

In Newark, where it was abolished after a trial of 
less than four months, the railway company was abso- 
lutely non-partisan in the matter. The introduction 
was effected by city ordinance, as was also the abolish- 
ment, which was reported to be due to a few vigorous 
complainants who were lined up against the plan. 
Apparently the only case where the wishes of the 
majority of riders have been definitely ascertained on 
the question was that of the popular referendum in 
Brooklyn. Here the vote showed eleven to one in favor 
of the plan. This is undoubtedly one of the main rea- 
sons for its recent adoption in Greater New York. 

The saving in time due to the introduction of the 
near-side stop was reported in Rochester to be in 




K. C, C. C. & ST. J. STATIONS BUILT IN RETURN FOR 
PERCENTAGE OF RECEIPTS 



This tendency toward the use of the near-side stop 
in the business districts of smaller cities is shown 
in the following partial list of places where it has 
been adopted. 

Partial List of Cities with Near-Side Stop 



Atlanta, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Charleroi, Pa. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Chattanooga, Tenn 
Chico, Cal. 
Chicago, 111. 
Columbus, Ohio 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dubuque, Iowa 
Denver, Col. 
East St. Louis, 111. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Hanover, Pa. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kewanee, 111. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Lawrence, Kan. 
Leavenworth, Kan 
Louisville, Ky. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Monterey, Cal. 
Marysville, Cal. 



Minneapolis, Minn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
New York, N. Y. 
New Orleans, La. 
Norristown, Pa. 
Owensboro, Ky. 
Paducah, Ky. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Pontiac, Mich. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Sacramento, Cal. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Bernardino, Cal. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
San Diego, Cal. 
Scranton, Pa. 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Steubenville, Ohio 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Springfield, Ohio 
Tacoma, Wash. 
Toledo, Ohio 
Toronto, Can. 
Trenton, N. J. 
Vancouver, B. C. 
Waco, Texas 
Washington, D. C. 



That the near-side stop is growing in favor is 
shown by the fact that more than two-thirds of 
the cities on record have adopted it since 1910, 
although the dates of introduction extend back as far 
as 1891, when it was reported to have been adopted 
in Toronto, Can. In the United States, Knoxville, 
Tenn., is reported to have adopted it in 1896. 

In several cases the near-side stop has been tried 
and has failed to meet popular approval, but in others 
it has been tried and abolished and then introduced 
a second time with apparent success. This was the 
case in Rochester, where its temporary abolishment 
may be traced to the objections of individual mer- 
chants whose store locations were affected bv the 



excess of 20 per cent through the business district dur- 
ing the rush hours. In this city, prior to 1909, cars 
made two stops at each downtown intersection. Through 
checks it was found that the traffic stop at the near 
side was often as long as thirty-five seconds in addition 
to a twenty-five-second loading stop at the far side. 
Some of the delay at the near side was due to blockades 
of loading cars at the far side, so that the use of the 




PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — ORNAMENTAL 
SHELTER ON K. C, C. C. & ST. J. RY. 

near-side stop alone indicated a saving even greater 
than that effected through the elimination of the twenty- 
five-second stop at the far side of each crossing. On 
the first night when the near-side stop went into effect 
an increase of 20 per cent in speed was effected, and 
the headway in the business district was eventually 
reduced to twenty-five seconds, although later this was 
found to exceed the possibilities of traffic direction, 
which limited the average headway to twenty-eight 
seconds. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



33 



WAITING STATIONS AND SHELTERS 

The construction of suitable stations and shelters for 
waiting passengers is generally conceded to be a most 
important provision for the comfort of patrons, and to 
this end the Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 
Railway has developed the ingenious scheme of building 
its open shelters in the form of a cross, so that waiting 
passengers are enabled to avoid the wind regardless of 
the direction from which it blows. The illustration on 
page 32 shows the general arrangement. The same 
company also has recently adopted a novel policy for 
providing suitable waiting stations at the growing towns 
along its line. This consists in getting outside parties 
to stand the expense of the station building in return 
for store privileges, and the company has been success- 
ful in having a number of these stations built under 




PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — SHELTER BUILT 
BY CITY OF HARTFORD AT JUNCTION POINT 



the following agreement: The company gives the con- 
tractor the lease for five years on the ground. The 
contractor erects the station, which is built large enough 
so that he can live in the building and carry on a store. 
He also acts as the company's agent and is paid by the 
company by receiving free rent both for his family and 
for his store. In addition he receives 5 per cent of all 
outgoing business emanating from that station. This 
provides an inducement for the agent to get as many 
passengers as possible to purchase tickets, thus keep- 
ing cash out of the hands of conductors. The percent- 




PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — SHELTERS BUILT 
IN THE FORM OF A CROSS TO PROTECT AGAINST WIND 



age also provides an inducement to the agent to have 
as much grain shipped from his station as possible. 
There is a minimum compensation for the agent 
amounting to $10 per month in case his percentage falls 
below this figure. This line at present has an agree- 
ment with a parallel steam railroad to handle the grain 
originating at the electric railway's stations, and as 
most of the stations are located at switches, every car- 
load of freight loaded at that switch provides 5 per 
cent of the returns to the agent. 



On the Pacific Electric Railway the way stations have 
been erected very largely of reinforced concrete. A 
standard design with an overhanging roof, as shown in 
the illustration, has been adopted for important points. 
For the shelters at crossroads reinforced concrete has 
also been universally used, and the permanence and 
beauty of these small structures has been reported to 
have added greatly to the prestige of the line with the 
public. 

Shelters within city limits are, of course, somewhat 
unusual, but the accompanying cut shows an elaborate 
structure built in Hartford at a main loading point of 
the local lines of the Connecticut Company, which oper- 
ates in that city. The shelter, which cost $2,100, was 
built by the city of Hartford as a convenience for its 
citizens. Another novelty in shelters has been intro- 
duced on the Manila (P. I.) Electric Railroad. In the 
Philippines torrential rains are common, and the diffi- 




PUBLIC-BE-PLEASED POLICY IN PRACTICE — ORNAMENTAL 
STATION ON PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY 



culties of transferring passengers during the rainy 
season are, in consequence, acute. For this reason The 
J. G. White Management Corporation, which operates 
the property, has erected at five main transfer points 
in the city of Manila shelters that are located between 
double tracks or at turn-outs and have roofs extending 
over the tops of passing street cars. As the shelter 
roofs are carried out beyond the center lines of the 
cars there is no drip from the eaves upon boarding pas- 
sengers, and transfers can be made from one car to 
another without a wetting, no matter how severe the 
rain. The structures are of the simplest character, 
the roof sloping both ways from the center and being 
supported at intervals by posts on the center line. In 
general the length of each shelter is sufficient to serve 
two or more cars. The distance between tracks at each 
shelter is, of course, increased enough to provide ample 
standing room between cars on opposite tracks, and a 
platform that is raised enough above street level to 
insure a dry footing is provided. 

Electrical Smoke Recorder 

In a recent issue of Power there is described a novelty 
in smoke recorders for steam boiler plants. The actioii 
depends upon the variable conductivity of the flue gases 
accordingly as more or less smoke is present in them. 
When the smoke is dense the conductivity is small, 
whereas the transparent flue gases from a furnace are 
comparatively good conductors. In the smoke flue there 
is a gap in the high-tension circuit of a small trans- 
former, supplied from an a.c. lamp socket, and there are 
gaps in the circuit leading to a condenser; all are in 
parallel. When there is smoke the condenser is charged 
and this closes an electric circuit and operates a watch 
or recording clock. When there is no smoke the dis- 
charge occurs across the gap in the stack and nothing 
happens. By changing the length of the gaps the 
recorder may be made to record almost any density of 
smoke or fumes. 



The "Safety First" Movement 

HOW ELECTRIC RAILWAYS HAVE WORKED TO REDUCE ACCIDENTS 

A Review of the Work Done from the Inception of the "Safety First" Slogan, and a 
Description of the Practices of Different Properties to Maintain 
Interest in the Subject 



"Among the many objects to which a wise and free 
people find it necessary to direct their attention, that of 
providing for their Safety seems to be the First." — John 
Jay, in The Federalist, Nov. 3, 1787. 

THAT the safety of the lives and property in their 
charge has been the concern of operators from 
the early days of electric railroading is attested 
by the numerous convention papers on this subject and 
the still more numerous technical inventions and 
changes in operating rules. In fact, fully ten years ago 
the Street Railway Claim Agents' Association was or- 
ganized for the sole purpose of reducing the number and 
cost of electric railway accidents. The work of this 
body in co-operation with the engineering and transpor- 
tation men of the field had already borne good fruit, 
while the advent of the prepayment car had reduced 



STATEMENT SHOWING NUMBER OF 
RECOMMENDATIONS MADE BY SAFETY 
FIRST COMMITTEES IN 1912 AND 1913, 
ON WHICH ACTION WAS TAKEN. 



Division Committees . . . 


ADOPTED 

. 6480 


REJECTED 

291 




2180 


69 


Terminal Committees . . . 


744 


20 




180 


7 


Central Safety Committee 


188 




Total 


9772 


387 



SAFETY FIRST — STATEMENT POSTED BY CHICAGO & NORTH- 
WESTERN RAILWAY TO SHOW EFFECTIVENESS 
OF EMPLOYEE'S CO-OPERATION 

materially the number of accidents in car operation. 
Nevertheless it is now plain that the accident preven- 
tion movement could not realize its possibilities to the 
full until the public, always the chief source of acci- 
dents, could be made to appreciate that the efforts of 
the railways were more humanitarian than financial in 
purpose. Here and there an occasional talk to school 
children had supplemented the time-worn cautions 
of "Wait Until the Car Stops" and "Watch Your Step," 
but the spark of public enthusiasm remained unkindled 
until there arose the magic-working phrase of "Safety 
First." The event has proved that the use of a catch 
phrase was the one way to bring accident prevention 
from the restricted field of the operator into the wide 
domain of public co-operation. 

In an issue like this, which from its nature marks 
the progress of the industry, it seems especially appro- 
priate to review a movement in the transportation field 
which of late years has grown so rapidly and produced 
such excellent results in promoting co-operation with 
railway employees and the public. Necessarily the 
scope of the subject makes it impracticable to present 
all of the valuable ideas applied by the different electric 
railways or even to assert priority of invention for any 
of their users. 



The "safety first" movement was originated early in 
May, 1910, on the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 
under the general claim agent of the company, R. C. 
Richards. Curiously enough this pioneer movement 
did not take the form of a direct appeal to the public, 
but was conceived to insure heartier co-operation from 
the employees following a fiscal year during which in- 
juries to the men had increased 37 per cent. The work 
was organized by holding meetings of all the division 
officers and foremen of various division points on the 
system, and at these meetings the company explained 
what it wanted to do, and why. Meetings of the same 
kind were then held with all of the employees at acces- 
sible points throughout the system. As Mr. Richards 
could spend only a week or ten days of every month 
on this work, this initial organization required five 



SAFETY FIRST — STATEMENT POSTED BY CHICAGO & NORTH- 
WESTERN RAILWAY DEMONSTRATING BENEFICIAL 
EFFECT OF ITS SAFETY CAMPAIGN 

months. The next step was to organize "safety first'' 
committees of all the divisions in all the large shops, 
large terminals and points far distant from headquart- 
ers where any number of men were employed. A cen- 
tral safety committee was also organized to co-ordinate 
the work of the departmental committees. All commit- 
tees, including the central committee, meet once a 
month, and the committeemen are paid for their time 
and expenses due to attendance. Each committee passes 
on all safety matters within its territory, corresponding 
to the jurisdiction of the division, shop or terminal 
offices, but any recommended changes in standards, 
rules or customs which apply to the whole system are 
referred to the central safety committee for action. If 
approved by that committee these general changes are 
referred to the management and adopted. Out of 9772 
recommendations covering all phases of "safety" work, 
made in 1912 and 1913, a total of only 387 were found 
to be impracticable. 

Mr. Richards points out that all committeemen are 
on an equal footing, whether they come as firemen, 
engineers, brakemen or officers. In the opinion of the 
executive officers of the company nothing that the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway has ever done has 
brought about so much good feeling and so much co- 



Statement showing reduction in number of 
accidents for four years ending June 30th, 
1914, as compared with four years on same 
basis as year ending June 30th, 1910. 

PER CENT. 

137 fewer employes killed, a decrease of 32. 
9150 " " injured, " 26.5 
813 " passengers injured, " 21.8 
176 " outsiders killed, " 18.7 
150 " " injured, " 6.6 

Mileage June 30th, 1910 - 7951.34 
Mileage June 30th, 1914 - 8408.31 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



35 



operation on the part of the men as the organization of 
the "safety first" movement. 

The continuing value of this work is proved by the 
fact that for the four years ending June 30, 1914, the 
number of deaths as compared with the four preceding 
years was decreased by 310 and the number of injuries 
by 10,113. This reduction is all the more remarkable 
because the length of line operated for the same period 
increased from 7951 miles to 8408 miles, while the wage 
roll increased from $12,000,000 to $15,000,000 a year. 
News concerning recommendations, accidents, etc., is 
printed on 5%-in. x 8^-in. leaflets similar to those re- 
produced. It may be interesting to state in conclu- 
sion that at this time at least seventy-seven American 
steam railroads, with a combined trackage exceeding 
200,000 miles, have "safety first" organizations. The 
idea has even spread abroad, as appears from a splen- 
did "Safety Movement" booklet of the Great Western 
Railway, England, from which several typical illustra- 
tions on the right and wrong way of doing things are 
reproduced on pages 43 and 44. 

"Safety First" Work on Electric Railways 

The immediate success of the employees' committee 
plan on American railroads clearly has been due to the 



planted by the electric railways, and only some happy 
slogan like "Safety First" was needed to give a greater 
impetus to the work. 

On the Pacific Coast the talks to school children were 
accompanied or followed by appeals to vehicle owners 
to instruct their drivers or chauffeurs to exercise 
greater care in avoiding collisions with cars and run- 
downs of pedestrians. Then the movement expanded 
into public safety leagues, with central and subsidiary 
committees composed of representatives from every 
large civic and industrial class. As the interest most 
vitally affected by accidents, it is natural that electric 
railway managements should be found among the most 
active elements in safety promotion. At the same time 
their co-operation with the most influential people in 
the community has given a much higher sanction to 
their motives for accident prevention than was possible 
under previous conditions. 

The popularization of the safety campaign also has 
had the natural effect of developing specialists for this 
work who are available to those railway companies 
which feel that they have not within their own ranks 
men gifted as public lecturers or as inventors of at- 
tractive safety literature. The first comprehensive ef- 
fort to exhibit and encourage the use of safety devices 



The Beaver Valley 


Traction Company 


CONNECTING 
At Beaver with Tri-State Railways Cars for 

EAST LIVERPOOL 

AND 

STUEBENVILLE 


CONNECTING 

By Automobile Bus Line between Leetsdale and Sewicklev with 
Pittsburgh Railway Company's Cars for 

CORAOPOLIS 

AND 

PITTSBURGH 


SAFE RULES OF TRAVEL 

Never jump on or off a moving car. On Leaving a Car Step, face front and grasp the left handle. 
Never cross a busy street or track until you look both ways. When on a Car, ride in a safe place — not out the window or on 
Never go behind a car until you have looked both ways for an the steps. 

oncoming car from opposite directions. THE BEAVER VALLEY TRACTION CO. 



SAFETY FIRST — BLOTTER ADVERTISEMENT OF THE BEAVER VALLEY TRACTION COMPANY, NEW BRIGHTON, PA. 



gratification that the men felt in becoming so directly 
associated with the management in the operation of the 
property, and in gaining the assurance that the com- 
pany was ready to remove any avoidable risks that ac- 
companied their employment. In turn, the enthusiasm 
of a large number of employees could not fail to re- 
act favorably on the attitude of the public toward the 
railway. In 1911 the committee plan was introduced 
on electric railways by the Fort Dodge, Des Moines & 
Southern Railroad. Previous to this time a number 
of claim agents and transportation superintendents had 
instituted accident talks to trainmen, but without fol- 
lowing it up by committee organizations. 

In enlisting the interest of the general public, how- 
ever, the electric railways anticipated the steam rail- 
roads. In 1910 several electric railways on the Pacific 
Coast, notably those at Portland and Seattle, had be- 
gun a series of lectures to school children, while in the 
East the United Railways & Electric Company of Balti- 
more had inaugurated the distribution of accident pre- 
vention cards in schoolrooms with the approval of the 
Baltimore school board and in the Central states E. F. 
Schneider had begun an active campaign on the Cleve- 
land, Southwestern & Columbus Railway. Thus the 
seeds of a popular safety movement had already been 



for general purposes was the exhibit of the American 
Museum of Safety, made as early as 1908. In October, 
1913, a "safety first" exhibit was held in New York, 
and since then other conventions have been held. The 
safety medal for electric railways offered by the A. N. 
Brady Estate is another instance of the wide ramifi- 
cations of this movement. 

Talks to School Children, Parents and Teachers 

The precociousness of American children is great 
enough to justify the famous German aphorism — "Es 
giebt keine Kinder mehr" (There are no longer any 
children). This forward disposition makes it hard to 
secure obedience to any advice about playing in streets 
or using cars recklessly, unless certain attractive ele- 
ments like gifts, pictures and self-government are 
added. As to the last, the same principle that makes 
children willing to obey superiors when they are or- 
ganized as boy or girl scouts, or as auxiliary street 
cleaners in a sanitary brigade, may be utilized to create 
enthusiasm for safety purposes. In a number of cities 
public school safety leagues have been organized, the 
members of which take the pledge not only to avoid 
street and vehicle dangers themselves but also to keep 
their younger brothers and sisters out of trouble. 



36 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. l 



As stated, the first work for school children consisted 
of class talks which were given during school hours 
under the sanction of the local education boards or 
principals. At first the talks were made by the claim 
agents of the local electric railways, but as the work 
was extended, special lecturers were employed. In the 
pioneer work at Portland, Ore., particular stress was 
placed on using caution in crossing streets where cars 
were operated, in taking youngsters out of danger 
zones, in confining, all playing to trackless streets and in 
cultivating the habit of standing still until a car had 
gone by, instead of running in front of it. 



signature which can be returned by the children to their 
teachers as proof that the circulars have been given to 
their parents. Placards in the cars are also used to 
supplement such publications, an endeavor being made 
to vary the text and pictures at frequent intervals. 
Such changes are essential to secure and maintain the 
interest of the public. 

During August last year the Beaver Valley Trac- 
tion Company, New Brighton, Pa., took advantage of 
a convention of the Beaver County Teachers' Institute 
to present the teachers with a pamphlet containing a 
series of safety first pictures with appropriate text. 



I STOP-LOOK-LISTEN & 



2 


f 

< 

o 



After alighting from and pass- 
ing behind a car, look for 
oncoming automobiles or 
cars from opposite direction. 



NEVER STEP ON OR OFF 
ft CAR WHILE IN MOTION. 



b 

n NEVER FACE 16 REAR IN 

STEPPING OfF A CAR. 

| Beaver Valley Traction H 

1 r* Company 8/ 



SAFETY FIRST — ADVERTISEMENTS ON 



T^on't allow children to play in streets 
on which electric cars run. Tell 
them to keep their eyes open and 
listen while crossing the tracks. 
Don't allow children to steal 
rides on the rear ol a wagon or 
carriage- Their discovery by 
the driver often startles them 
Into running in front of a 
moving car. The motor- 
man may not see them 
in time to prevent an 
accident. Tell them 
it is extremely 
dangerous. 



Beaver Valley Traction 
Company. 



JOT DOWN 
Safety First 

For Yourself, Your Pupils 

AND 

The Beaver Valley 
Traction Company 



WATER CUP FOR CHILDREN, AND COVER OF FREE BLANK BOOK DISTRIBUTED 
AT A TEACHERS' CONVENTION 



Most of the companies which have adopted this plan 
keep their precepts fresh in the memories of the chil- 
dren by donating "safety first" buttons and blotters. 
The Beaver Valley Traction Company, New Brighton, 
Pa., combines sanitation and safety promotion by giving 
paper drinking cups to the children, while the Trenton 
(N. J.) & Mercer County Traction Company presents 
celluloid calendars, also with health and safety advice. 
The Oklahoma Railway presents lead pencils bearing 
the "Safety First" slogan. In Brooklyn, after listening 
to the lectures the children have written essays on acci- 
dent prevention and on accidents witnessed, some of 
these being printed in their school papers. In the im- 
migrant sections of Brooklyn the safety notices have 
been used also as a basis for language studies. 

In 1912 the Boston Elevated Railway offered prizes 
for verses on this topic, and out of 780 sets which were 
submitted in response to newspaper advertisements the 
company gave 208 prizes totaling $700. Two of these 
prizes were for $50 each. In June, 1914, the Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company followed a similar scheme 
through its safety bureau by offering $250 in prizes 
from $10 down for essays, verses and drawings. The 
response was so great that the company doubled its 
reward, offering a total of $500, comprising one $10, 
twenty $5, fifty $2 and 290 $1 prizes. The Kentucky 
Traction & Terminal Company, Lexington, Ky., has 
also reinforced its school campaign by giving prizes for 
essays on accidents. The Montreal Tramways has made 
"safety first" cards palatable to the youngsters by plac- 
ing them in boxes of chocolate for distribution at the 
company's annual picnic. 

The straight printed matter usually distributed by 
the lecturers or by the class teachers consists of read- 
able little pamphlets addressed directly to the children. 
Some companies, however, include material for the 
parents who are likely to need the advice as much as 
their children. To promote the delivery of such circu- 
lars, the Boston Elevated Railway attaches a receipt for 



In addition each teacher received a notebook with no 
other advertising than the cover-wording shown in an 
accompanying illustration. This notebook scheme was 
a very good one as the teachers found the books con- 
venient for making notes of the lectures and proceed- 
ings, so that the matter of caution was always before 
them. These books cost the company only $1 per gross. 

The Moving Picture 

In an editorial in the Aug. 3, 1912, issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal, it was suggested that the 




nth 




o- operation 

IW necessary 
to prevent 



accidents. 



TK I N I n A ]} 
HA I LWAY 



ELEC. TRANS. 
X CtAS CO. 



SAFETY FIRST — LANTERN SLIDE WITH MOVABLE CLOCK 
HANDS FOR DISPLAY BETWEEN REELS IN 
MOVING PICTURE HOUSES 

moving picture could be used for teaching accident pre- 
vention in a most attractive way. Shortly thereafter 
word came that pictures of this kind had already been 
displayed at Diisseldorf, Germany. In the following 
vear the first American story film entitled "The Price 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



37 



of Thoughtlessness," was used by the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit System. This film is now making the rounds 
of the United States and Canada, and others will fol- 
low. The Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company, 
Lexington, Ky., gives a free moving picture show from 
10 a. m. to 4 p. m. on Saturdays, comprising one acci- 
dent picture with two others as sugar coatings for the 
pill. Similar free exhibits are made by other com- 
panies. 

The usual type of film is made of inflammable cellu- 
loid and must be projected from a special booth, but a 
fireproof and narrower reel has been invented for use 
in schoolrooms, churches and other buildings which are 




SAFETY FIRST — MONTREAL TRAMWAYS DECALCOMANIA 

SIGNS 

not of fireproof construction. It requires no argument 
to see that this thoroughly modern device offers a 
splendid opportunity for safety education if the sce- 
nario does not make the accident prevention feature too 
obvious. Very recently one of the film companies has 
presented a splendid story of what happened to a work- 
man who ignored a safety device. 

An interesting novelty in connection with this work is 




SAFETY FIRST — MONTREAL TRAMWAYS' CAUTION SIGNS AT 
DOMINION PARK 

used by the Federal Light & Traction Company in the 
different cities where it operates public utilities. It 
displays in the moving-picture houses of these towns 
twenty-six colored slides, each of which bears some 
"safety first" advice. The novel feature of each slide, 
however, is the use of movable clock hands which are set 
for exact time by the picture operator and flashed be- 
tween reels. This scheme has attracted . the attention 



of other electric railways and it is possible that it will 
be adopted by several of them. 

Safety and the General Public 

Wider public interest in the safety movement began 
with campaigns among school children and vehicle 
owners. The Cleveland, Columbus & Southwestern 
Railway and the Portland and Seattle companies appear 
to have been the pioneers in both of these fields, and the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Boston 
Elevated Railway and Montreal Tramways are among 
those who have devoted much effort to the work among 
vehicle owners and users. The ordinary course in the 




SAFETY FIRST — MONTREAL TRAMWAYS WARNING SIGN AT 

CURVE 

latter work is to address personal letters to the owners 
of trucks and automobiles, but a variation introduced 
by the Montreal Tramways is to prepare a series of 
"Don't" cards for distribution among drivers and chauf- 
feurs. Furthermore, the Montreal company demon- 
strates its sincerity in trying to • protect the vehicle 
owner against car collisions by issuing to its men pre- 
cautions concerning the kind of accidents which must 




SAFETY FIRST — CAUTION SIGNS ON AUTOMOBILES AND 
WAGONS AT MONTREAL 

be guarded against more particularly during certain 
seasons. Thus, during the autumn stress is placed 
upon the danger of greasy rails, and during the house- 
hold moving days of spring precautions are issued con- 
cerning proper clearances with heavily-loaded furniture 
vans. The Montreal management has also pointed out 
to team owners that tail-lights are as indispensable to 
the security of a slow vehicle as they are to a pleasure 



38 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



rig. In Boston and vicinity during a recent "Safety 
Week," the co-operation of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce and of the local police and fire departments 
was secured to make a record of all vhicle operators who 
disobeyed the traffic regulations. The information was 
transmitted by the railway claim department to the 
Highway Safety League of Massachusetts, which in 
turn courteously took up the matter with the individual 
owners by correspondence. The Beaver Valley Trac- 
tion Company obtains the direct interest of teamsters 
by furnishing them horse-blanket safety pins at- 
tached to a card of suggestions on wagon operation in 
and about railway tracks. 

From these various forms of co-operation the safety 
movement inaugurated by many electric railways has 
expanded into a universal citizens movement to secure 
"safety first" in all industries as well as on the high- 
ways. In Brooklyn a public safety committee, whose 
membership includes many of the influential citizens of 
that borough, has been in existence for about a year, 
and early this year the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Sys- 
tem contributed $1,000 as a basis for a "safety first" 
exhibit. The chairman of the Ontario Safety League 



August a woman's committee was organized to act in 
conjunction with the general committee. 

Safety Leagues 

A most notable feature of modern "safety first" work 
is its dissociation from the old-time claim department. 
Thus the Chicago Surface Lines maintain a safety 
bureau ; the Georgia Railway & Electric Company 
backs the Atlanta Public Safety League, Denver has a 
Tramway Safety League and Louisville has a Safety 
First League. Another important feature in the or- 
ganization of safety work is in the co-operation of pub- 
lic utilities. A most conspicuous example of this kind is 
the Bureau of Safety, Chicago, which has supervision 
and direction of the safety work of the following public 
utility companies operating with general offices in Chi- 
cago: Commonwealth Edison Company, Public Serv- 
ice Company of Northern Illinois and the Middle West 
Utilities Company. This bureau devotes all of its at- 
tention to accident and fire prevention, sanitation and 
welfare and was organized primarily for the work out- 
lined. 

Believing that the chief factor in accident prevention 




SAFETY FIRST — CHICAGO BUREAU OF SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS, SHOWING TWO WRONG WAYS (FIRST AND SECOND ILLUS- 
TRATIONS) AND ONE RIGHT WAY (THIRD ILLUSTRATION) OF USING INSULATED STOOL IN OPENING OR 
CLOSING DISCONNECTS ON HIGH-TENSION OIL SWITCHES 



at Toronto is a member of the Toronto Railway & Mu- 
nicipal Board, and otherwise the organizers embrace 
prominent men from other walks of life. 

As the organization at Buffalo is one of the latest and 
most elaborate, it may be described in a little more de- 
tail. The Buffalo campaign was begun jointly by the 
mayor of the city and the International Railway. The 
general counsel of the railway is chairman of a gen- 
eral committee with thirteen standing committees as 
follows : school and playgrounds ; boy scouts ; church 
and civic bodies ; public institutions other than schools ; 
vehicular and pedestrian traffic ; structures and pave- 
ments ; street railways ; explosives ; fireworks and fire- 
arms; hazardous trades; legislation; publicity; finance 
and membership. Addresses are given by committee 
members and employees of the International Railway 
Safety Bureau. The week beginning May 3, 1914, was 
designated "Safety First" week, during which period a 
large number of lectures and safety exhibits were 
made; street banners with appropriate slogans were 
displayed and every automobile in the city carried 
"Safety First" streamers and pennants. Late in 



is the proper education and co-operation of the work- 
men, the safety organizations of the various com- 
panies under the auspices of this bureau are arranged 
to include each and every workman in proper groups, 
officered from among their own members. These re- 
spective groups hold periodic meetings, reports of which 
are transmitted by the respective secretaries to com- 
mittees of higher authority. Above these organizations 
of workmen are organizations of foremen designed as 
intermediate committees, and above these is a central 
committee composed of the active working heads of de- 
partments. The bureau maintains a staff of safety lec- 
turers who devote their time to the proper instruction of 
the various committees and organizations, and a corps 
of inspectors who look after the elimination of fire 
hazards and mechanical dangers. This system has been 
very thoroughly tried out and has been most effective 
in these properties. 

In bureaus and leagues like those mentioned, the 
financial aspect properly has been overshadowed by their 
humanitarian aspirations. It is also to be noted that 
these organizations maintain a permanent staff to keep 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



39 



up the interest in the campaign, especially in dissemi- 
nating safety hints. 

Publicity 

The newspapers have given most liberal space to the 
"safety first" campaigns, especially in Montreal, where 
all the dailies gave full pages gratis to reproduce the 
Montreal Tramways pictures and warnings. One of 
them even went to the additional expense of posing its 
own live models. Of course, regular advertisements 
have been used in great variety, and it is impracticable 
to reproduce even a fraction of them. Of those pre- 
sented, one is a stock advertisement which the Federal 
Light & Traction Company has placed in a number of 
newspapers in towns where it operates public utilities. 
Where possible this announcement is printed with red 
crosses in the corners. This particular advertisement 
begins with a reference to the Titanic to back up the 
warning of "Never take a chance." Another good news- 
paper advertisement is that of the Wichita Railway & 



SAFETY FIRST" 



NEVER TAKE A CHANCE!!! 

Ju»l a little over a year ago the greateit 
ihip of modern timei left the «hore> of Europe 
on her maiden voyage to thi* country. 

Aboard the giant vuiel were THREE 
THOUSAND SOULS, proud to be the fint 
paisengeri of the QUEEN OF THE SEAS, 
confident that the »hip carried every device 
for SAFETY 

Though far out at ica, pauing ihip« 
flaihed wirclen warnings to the liner, the tub- 
■tance wu "REDUCE SPEED— DANGER 
AHEAD!!!" 

Still the ocean greyhound iped on, on to 
DESTRUCTION ! ! I 

The sen, quiet as a mill-pond, appeared 
safe to everyone aboard. There was no 
thought of DANCER. There waa LIFE every- 
where, Joy reigned supreme. 

ALL OF A SUDDEN — WITHOUT 
WARNING-the TIT ANTIC STRUCK— AN 
ICEBERG— AND OVER 1600 HUMAN BE- 
INGS WENT TO THE BOTTOM OF THE 
SEA!!! 

WHY DID THE ACCIDENT HAPPEN7 

"SOME ONE TOOK A CHANCE" it 
was afterward said. 

AND THE SLOGAN "SAFETY FIRST" 
HAS SINCE BEEN RENEWED ON LAND 
AND SEA WITH INCREASED VIGOR. 

NEVER TAKE A CHANCE! 

STOP— LOOK— LISTEN. 

More people are killed and injured every 
year in the industries and city street* of this 



country THAN WERE KlbLED AND 
WOUNDED ON BOTH SIDES DURING 
THE GREAT CIVIL WAR. 

That is why YOU are urged to be CARE- 
FUL and IMPRESS IT UPON YOUR CHIL- 
DREN. 

NEVER touch a dangling or loose wire. 

It may be charged with elec- 
tricity. 

NEVER cross a street without looking 
on both sides for passing cars, 
automobiles, or other vehicle*. 
NEVER board or leave a moving car 
NEVER alight from a car backward., 
always step off facing the front 
with your right foot first. 
SEVER let your children PLAY IN 
THE STREETS where trolley 
car*, automobiles, and other 
vehicle* are constantly passing. 
ALWAYS wait until the car stops before 

getting off. 
ALWAYS THINK, ACT AND SET 
THE "SAFETY FIRST' EX AMPLE- 
DON' T TAKE A CHANCE. 

REMEMBER IT IS BETTER TO BE 
SAFE THAN SORRY. 

NO CAMPAIGN FOR "SAFETY 
FIRST" CAN SUCCEED WITHOUT THE 
SUPPORT OF THE PUBLIC. WE ASK 
YOUR CO-OPERATION FOR YOUR OWN 
SAKE, FOR YOUR FAMILY'S SAKE, FOR 
THE PUBLIC'S SAKE AND FOR THE 
SAKE OF "SAFETY FIRST." 



SAFETY FIRST — STANDARD FORM OF ADVERTISEMENT WITH 
■ SOCIETY FOR ELECTRICAL DEVELOPMENT AND 
FEDERAL LIGHT & TRACTION COMPANY 

Light Company. In this advertisement the "safety 
first" idea is combined with advice about stops that, if 
obeyed, will greatly simplify operation. 

Even more numerous than the newspaper advertise- 
ments have been the astonishing variety of placards, 
posters, folders, letters and other printed matter pre- 
pared by electric railways on safety matters. The 
Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., the 
Louisville (Ky.) Railway and the Montreal Tramways 
have prepared chains of car placards, several of which 
are reproduced. The Denver Tramways has issued 
illustrated posters showing possible accidents to wagons 
and automobiles respectively. A very effective scheme 
used by the Louisville company is to use colored back- 
grounds such as blue, orange, red, etc., thus presenting 
its cautions in a new dress at frequent intervals. 

The Glasgow Corporation Tramways, the first British 
company to adopt the "safety first" idea, has developed 
a series of car posters a novel feature of which, and one 
flattering to the average Scotchman's knowledge of the 



Bible, is the use of Scriptural references to book, chap- 
ter and verse. A variety of blotters for children was 
also prepared during the summer for distribution at the 
opening of the schools in September, 1914. Several of 
the blotters carry little stories about boys who were in- 
jured through carelessness in playing on the streets, 
etc., and others bear the usual warnings. The Glasgow 
management recently suggested to the Glasgow Pres- 



For the Benefit of the Public 

Don't attempt to get on or off while the car is in motion. It's danger- 
ous to life and limb. 

Don't make request of the conductor to stop the car in the middle of a 
block or slow up, for his instructions are to the contrary. He must refuse 
you, for we are looking after your safety when we issue orders. Wait until 
ihe car stops. 

Your welfare is uppermost in our minds, and under our "Safety First" 
system nothing can happen. 

It is the duty of the public also to assist in the "Safety First" plan by 
using every precaution themselves to prevent accidents. 

Safety First 

ia a "get-together movement that we suggest. Will you help us? If so 
the problem of safety and protection to us both is solved. 

Cars for Wonderland park will leave corner Main and Douglas at 8.50 
a. m. on Sundays for benefit of bathers. 

Wichita Railroad & Light Co. 



SAFETY 



FIRST — NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT, 
RAILROAD & LIGHT COMPANY 



WICHITA 



bytery that the ministers set aside one Sunday in the 
year for a sermon on "safety first." While the Presby- 
tery did not accept the suggestion in this form it did 
promise to take up the matter in a way that would lead 
to the most beneficial results. The management is very 
well pleased with the results of the campaign to date 
despite the fact that no elaborate plans have yet been 
worked out. 

The decalcomania car sign also has made its appear- 
ance on some roads, and that employed by the Chicago 



NOTHING 

Is Too Much Trouble 
That Will Save 
Your Life 



SAFETY FIRST 



ITS DANGEROUS 

to mm mi i i mm 

mm m m 
to ?U! m on m traces 

TO H M OE M I W 

nunun mi 



SAFETY FIRST 




SAFETY FIRST 



TAKE NO FOOLISH 

CHANCES 
STAY WHERE YOU ARE 
TILL THE CAR STOPS 
REMEMBER 



SAFETY FIRST 



SAFETY FIRST- 



-PART OF A SERIES OF KANSAS CITY CAR 
POSTERS 



Elevated Railways is typical. As this form of publicity 
is striking in outline as well as artistic in color, it can- 
not help but attract attention. The decalcomania 
shown in the accompanying illustration is printed in 
red and gold. The Montreal Tramways sign of this 
character is illustrated in the car on page 37. 



40 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



HELP 
PREVENT 
ACCIDENTS 



SAFETY FIRST 

LOUISVILLE - RAILWAY - SAFETY ~ LEAGUE J: 



SAFETY 
FIRST 



rvi 



MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS 

LOUISVILLE RAILWAY SAFETY LEAGUE 



SAFETY FIRST — PLACARD OF LOUISVILLE RAILWAY SAFETY FIRST — PLACARD OF LOUISVILLE RAILWAY 



AVOID 




STOP 
LOOK 
LISTEN 




PREVENT 




ACCIDENT 




DRIVE 

SLOWLY 
CAREFULLY 




INJURY 



SAFETY FIRST — A PLACARD OF DENVER TRAMWAYS, SHOWING SIX POSSIBLE KINDS OF ACCIDENTS TO 
AUTOMOBILES. A SIMILAR PLACARD IS ISSUED FOR WAGON DRIVERS 



PRENEZ GARDE 
ARRETEZ 





mm GARDE 

TRAVERSEZ 




SAFETY FIRST — MONTREAL TRAMWAYS WARNING SAFETY FIRST — MONTREAL TRAMWAYS WARNING 
MEANING "TAKE CARE," "STOP," "LOOK," "LISTEN" TO CROSS THE STREETS ONLY AT CROSSINGS 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



41 



In its advertisements, the Boston Elevated Railway 
has discussed one kind of accident at a time, while the 
International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y., has treated sepa- 
rately all accidents which have occurred during a given 
time at a given block or crossing. Both of these ways 
of segregating statistics have shown good results. The 
Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J., finds depart- 
ment stores effective distributors of those pamphlets 
which show women how to get on and off cars, particu- 
larly when they are carrying packages. During the 
summer the Montreal Tramways gave 50,000 "safety 
first" fans to the ladies at Montreal, the moving picture 




(Third Illustration) 
The Right Way 

Have oil switch in series open and ample light on disconnect. 
Have insulated stool or rubber mat placed directly in front of 
and at a convenient distance from the disconnect which is to be 
pulled or replaced. 

Stand firmly with both feet on insulated stool or rubber mat, 
and with the aid of properly tested rubber gloves and clip puller, 
remove or replace disconnect. Use particular care not to lose 
your balance. 

Perhaps the most elaborate form of publicity is the 
"safety first" instruction car of the Detroit United 
Railway and the "safety first" publicity car used by the 
Boston Elevated Railway. The Beaver Valley Traction 
Company, New Brighton, Pa., uses 5-ft. x 4-ft. spaces on 




DON'T GET HURT. GIVE THE TRAMCAR A CHANCE- ^» 

SAFETY FIRST — TWO OF THE BLOTTERS DISTRIBUTED AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN BY THE GLASGOW CORPORATION 

TRAMWAYS 



houses and the annual picnic being used for the distri- 
bution. 

Other forms of publicity include monthly publica- 
tions, such as those of the Detroit United Railway's 
Safety, the Chicago Bureau of Safety's Safety Bulletin 
and the United Gas Improvement Company's Safety 
News. Aside from advice and warnings the articles in 
these magazines contain many practical hints with illus- 
trations to show how certain kinds of accidents are 
caused, how they can be avoided and how first aid 
should be applied. Thus, a recent issue of the Safety 
Bulletin contained a series of pictures to teach the safe 



SAFETY 



IS 



FIRST AID 




FOR VEHICLE WORKERS 

k THESS. 
5th CHAP. 
6th VERSE 



its park theater curtain to convey this message: "Safety 
First Means— Wait Until the Car Stops." 

While the stenciling of the words "safety first" on all 
kinds of railroad property has become extremely com- 
mon, too much should not be expected from this kind of 
reminder, because its excessive use means that it will 
soon be read unthinkingly. Permanent success can 
come only by devising features which will continually 
renew the interest of the public and employees. How- 
ever, the fact that organizations like the Southwest- 
ern Gas & Electric Association and the New York State 
Electric Railwav Association last vear devoted en- 



GANG 




mini w [mm 




3rd 

23m 





E 



SAFETY FIRST — CAR PLACARDS OF THE GLASGOW CORPORATION TRAMWAYS 

,_. The , flrst Biblical reference reads : "Therefore let us not sleep as do others ; but let us watch and be sober." The second reads 
1 hen shalt thou walk in thy way safely, and thy foot shall not stumble." 



way of handling the disconnects of high-tension 
switches. The instructions which appeared under the 
illustrations on page 38 follow: 

(First Illustration) 
The Wrong Way 
The operator has neglected to move insulated stool after pulling 
disconnect from compartment directly in line with it. In this 
unsafe position he attempts to open or close an adjacent dis- 
connect and thoughtlessly allows one foot to rest on the concrete 
floor. 

This position is extremely hazardous. 

(Second Illustration) 
The Wrong Way 
Rubber mat directly in front of adjacent compartment, and not 
of compartment from which disconnect is to be pulled, because 
the workman did not place the rubber mat in front of the com- 
partment where he is working. He has thoughtlessly allowed 
one foot to rest on the concrete floor. 

The position illustrated is very hazardous. 



tire conventions to safety topics give good ground 
for belief that stagnation of ideas in this field is far 

away. 

Of course, the "safety first" campaign has not been 
merely a question of talking and advertising, for this 
kind of work would have little lasting effect if it were 
not backed by tangible evidence that the railway com- 
panies were anxious to do their share to eliminate dan- 
gerous conditions. So far as city railways are con- 
cerned, the effect of prepayment cars in reducing plat- 
form accidents is generally admitted, but such acci- 
dents are being reduced still further by the use of the 
fully vestibuled car, even in cities where temperatures 



42 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



are never low. Thus on the Jackson (Miss.) Light & 
Traction Company's lines fully-vestibuled cars are de- 
clared to have practically eliminated boarding and 
alighting accidents. Again, the Oklahoma Railway re- 
ports that the addition of folding doors and steps and 
the elimination of outside grab handles cut alighting ac- 
cidents 75 per cent during the first month. In fact, the 
aim for safety is evidenced still further by the use of 
doors which cannot be opened while the car is in motion. 




TAKE TH E 



SAFETY FIRST- 



-DECALCOMANIA SIGN, CHICAGO ELEVATED 
RAILWAYS 



The step heights of modern cars are also much more 
moderate through the use of ramped floors, wells, baby 
motors, etc. The Portland (Ore.) Railroad, Light & 
Power Company and the New York State Railways — 
Rochester Lines, have actually rebuilt open cars to the 
center-entrance low-step design for reasons of safety 
alone. 

The reduction of street-crossing accidents has been 
promoted by an extensive increase in the number of 
cities using the near-side stop. Thus the files of the 
Electric Railway Journal for the past three years 
record the change from far-side to near-side stops in 
about forty cities of all sizes and every part of the coun- 
try. One of the latest large cities to adopt the near- 
side stop is New York, where its use became effective 
Sept. 1, 1914. In the preceding year the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit System gave its patrons opportunity to 
express their preference in this matter, and of the votes 
received 181,764 were in favor of the near-side stop 
and only 17,128 votes were against it. In practically 
every case the chief reason offered for the change to the 
near-side stop, whether made voluntarily by the rail- 
way or arbitrarily by local ordinance, was the reduction 
of crossing accidents. In but one recorded case, that 
of the Tri-City Railway, which operates at Rock Island, 
111., was the far-side stop resumed after a trial of near- 
side operation. The agitation by citizens' safety com- 
mittees concerning crossing stops has frequently dis- 
closed and led to the cure of bad paving and lighting 
conditions, thereby absolving the electric railways from 
blame for accidents that had hitherto been ascribed to 
them. 

Interurban railways are giving more thought than 
ever to signal systems, as is evident from the great 
increase in trolley contact and track signal installa- 
tions. Reports from employees' safety committees have 
been largely instrumental in calling attention to danger 
points along the right-of-way, such as depressions along 
the road and obstructive trees at curves. Thus on the 
Beaver Valley Traction Company, New Brighton, Pa., 
the following improvements were made at the sugges- 
tion of the trainmen: 

Removal of poles too close to the track; changing 



the location of derailing switches at railroad crossings; 
requiring the motorman to give two bells to the rear 
platform on the conductor's signal bell before proceed- 
ing over a railroad crossing, when the conductor is in 
front of the car and flagging the same over the 
crossing; the painting of an 8-ft. deep white strip on 
the third trolley pole approaching all railroad cross- 
ings, sharp curves and other dangerous places where 
during fogs the motorman might have trouble in locat- 
ing his whereabouts ; installation of hand-operated sand 
levers instead of foot pins; relocation of arc headlight 
buttons so that these lights can be switched off when 
approaching other cars or automobiles; the installa- 
tion of warning signs at road crossings and the reloca- 
tion of signal light boxes. 

An important contribution to safety rules is that 
prepared lately by the bureau of standards, Department 
of Commerce, as Circular No. 49. The present rules, 
which are open to suggestions from operators, include 
all portions of work on or about power and signal lines 
and the electric equipment of central stations, substa- 
tions, mines and testing departments. The first two 
parts consist of general rules which apply to the em- 
ployer and employee respectively, and the third part 
consists of special rules which apply particularly to 
employees. Rules for employees in general are subdi- 
vided into six groups. The first enumerates those gen- 
eral precautions the necessity for which seems obvious 
but non-compliance with which is nevertheless responsi- 
ble for many injuries. The second presents general 
operating rules, defining the duties and relations of 
those employees who direct others and the operating 
methods by which safety is secured. The third group 
prescribes the precautions for handling live parts un- 
der varying conditions of voltage and location. The 
fourth and fifth deal with the procedure for assuring 
the continued safety of work about normally live or 
moving parts respectively by avoiding all possible 
sources of misunderstanding in killing parts. The sixth 
group covers in some detail the procedure for making 
protective grounds and short circuits. 

Special rules for employees cover separately the spe- 
cial hazards of work about electrical equipment in sta- 
tions, at switchboards, about overhead lines, in arc- 
lamp attendance, on underground lines, meter setting, 



Tramway Safety League 
Central Safety Committee 




IS APPOINTED A MEMBER OF_ 



Safety Committee 



TOR A PERIOD OF. 



-MONTHS, ENDING 



CKAIRUAN. CENTRAL SAFETY COMMITTEE 



SAFETY FIRST — SAFETY LEAGUE COMMITTEE APPOINTMENT 
BLANK 

testing and in tunnel work. Each class of worker is 
directed to familiarize himself also with the preceding 
general rules which apply to all classes of electrical 
employment. By this arrangement, a more adequate 
and convenient treatment has been realized without un- 
necessary repetition. In an appendix the value of or- 
ganized accident prevention work through safety com- 
mittees is emphasized as a means for reinforcing the 
effectiveness of safety rules. The report on this sub- 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



43 



ject by the accident prevention committee of the Na- 
tional Electric Light Association is briefly abstracted, 
and citations are made from the reported organizations 
and methods of several large and some small electrical 
utilities. 

Safety Co-operation with Employees 

The Cleveland, Columbus & Southwestern Railway 
gave accident talks to trainmen as early as 1908, but 
the employees' committee plan is a later development 



permanent member of each committee, and the mem- 
bers, numbering fourteen to fifteen per committee, are 
appointed for six months each. 

Since Nov. 1, 1913, the former discipline board of 
the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, New York, has 
been converted to a sub-safety committee. The latter 
committee, reporting to the general safety committee, 
is composed of one motorman, one switchman, one con- 
ductor and one station agent. It meets with the gen- 
eral safety committee on Thursday of each week. Any 




SAFETY first — GREAT western railway — SHOWING 
DANGER OF LOOSE SLEEVES 




SAFETY FIRST- 



-GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY — TIGHT SLEEVES 
AVOID ACCIDENT 



which has met with very gratifying results. Among 
the companies which have organized such committees 
are the Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 
Traction Company, where the title of the committee is 
"Safety and Efficiency." On the San Francisco-Oakland 
Terminal Railways the executive and advisory commit- 
tees are permanent in order to maintain the continuity 
of the work, but the divisional and departmental corn- 




employee may offer safety suggestions through the sub- 
safety committee member in his department. For each 
safety suggestion which is subsequently adopted, the 
employee receives appropriate merit marks and a 
safety pin or button. 

On the Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 
Railway the work was organized in August, 1912. The 
committee as a whole meets at the office of the general 




SAFETY FIRST — GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY — DANGEROUS 
TO PICK UP STEEL CHIPPINGS BY HAND 



SAFETY FIRST — GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY — USE OF BRUSH 
TO CLEAN UP STEEL CHIPPINGS 



mittees are appointed for terms of four months only, 
so that a large number of employees get a taste of ex- 
ecutive responsibility in the course of the year. The 
executive committee meets once a month and the re- 
maining committees twice a month. Monthly meetings 
are also in vogue on the Pacific Electric Railway, Los 
Angeles, Cal., with moving pictures as a feature in ed- 
ucating the trainmen. On the Union Traction Com- 
pany of Indiana there is a general safety board and 
five local safety committees. The department head is a 



manager the second Monday of each month, at which 
time reports of defects are gone over and checked up 
and such questions as are brought up in the matter 
of efficiency or further protection are discussed and 
settled. During the first six months of this commit- 
tee's life 101 cases were brought up and disposed of. 
During the second six months ninety-two cases were 
handled. During the third, sixty-eight cases, and 
during the fourth six months fifty-three. The manage- 
ment feels that the movement has been extremely 



44 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



profitable. It has not as yet gone into any expensive 
or extensive general campaigns, although it expects to 
inaugurate poster work during the present winter. On 
the Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company's system at 
Lexington the claim agent is chairman of an employees' 
safety committee numbering ten men. In Denver mem- 
bers of the departmental safety committees are fur- 
nished with cards like that on page 42. The Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit System is probably the largest electric 
railway in the world numbering platform men on its 
depot safety committees. 

The work of the general safety board and publicity 
campaign has produced on the Detroit United Railway 
a decrease in collisions of 25 per cent during the first 
six months of the safety campaign. Again, on the lines 
of the Northern Ohio Traction Company, Akron, Ohio, 
intensive employees' committee work reduced fatal ac- 
cidents from eighteen during the first seven months 
of 1913 to nine during the corresponding part of 1914, 



that conditions were made more safe and the men were 
urged to use greater care in the performance of their 
duties. Comparison of accidents occurring during the 
year ending June 30, 1914, with the previous year shows 
a considerable reduction in the number of serious acci- 
dents, and it is believed that in a great measure this 
was due to the campaign for "safety first." 

Recently a change has been made in the safety 
organization by abolishing general and division com- 
mittees. The work is now being handled by the 
bureau of safety and efficiency, in charge of the 
general claim agent. Suggestions made by the employ- 
ees are sent to and handled by the superintendent of the 
division or shop, and after being acted upon are for- 
warded to the general claim agent's office with recom- 
mendation or advice of action taken. All accidents are 
investigated to determine the cause and apply a pre- 
ventative remedy, and it is expected that by this method 
they will get better and quicker results. 




SAFETY FIRST — GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY — SAFE WAY SAFETY FIRST — GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY — DANGEROUS 
BECAUSE THE BAGGING WILL CATCH BECAUSE THE BOLT HEAD MAY FLY 

THE BOLT HEAD AND HIT SOMEONE 



while the injuries decreased from 131 to forty-seven. 
The latter company makes it a point to analyze every 
accident in circular letters to all employees interested. 

The "safety first" organization on the Spokane & 
Inland Empire Railroad at Spokane and Oregon Elec- 
tric Railway and United Railways at Portland is a part 
of the general organization on the Spokane, Portland & 
Seattle Railway and affiliated lines which was started 
in January, 1913. The organization consisted of a 
general committee of seven general officers and two 
division committees of employees from each branch of 
the service, one at Portland and one at Spokane. These 
committees met once each month and considered sug- 
gestions made by the employees for the prevention of 
accidents. These suggestions were first considered by 
the division committee and referred to the officer in 
charge of the division or shop for investigation and 
action, or to the general committee if the suggestion 
called for a change in standards or rules. Consider- 
able interest in the movement was shown by the men 
and it is believed that much good was accomplished in 



Quite a variety of "Safety First" insignia has been 
developed in the form of enameled or gold plate but- 
tons and watch fobs. In Atlanta employees of the 
Georgia Railway & Electric Company carry fobs marked 
"Atlanta Public Safety League," but ordinarily the 
wording on the buttons or the fob is "Safety First" 
or "Safety League." The Beaver Valley Traction 
Company's button made in red, white and blue is so 
popular with the trainmen that they 
want two, one for their uniform and 
one for citizen's dress. 

Of course, co-operation with the 
men has not been confined entirely to 
safety committee work. A good plan 
seems to be that of the Union Trac- 
tion Company of Indiana which sus- 
tains the interest of the trainmen in other ways by 
offering them prizes up to $15 for suggestions or essays 
on accident and prevention. The granting of prizes is 
made the occasion of a banquet where company matters 
can be discussed informally. 



SAFETY BUTTON 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



45 



The Louisville (Ky.) Railway has set aside a safety 
fund of approximately $35,000 which is distributed by 
giving each motorman and conductor 1 cent an hour in 
addition to the regular platform rate. The distribu- 
tion of this fund is to be operative during the year 
commencing June 1, 1914, and terminating May 31, 
1915. Aside from this stimulus the company has em- 
ployees' committees consisting of one conductor or 
motorman from each carhouse to constitute a commit- 
tee of eleven which meets every two weeks with the 
heads of all departments to discuss methods of acci- 
dent prevention. Every committeeman serves one 
month. Blanks on which safety suggestions may be 
written are distributed also among all the men. 

The chauffeurs of the General Omnibus Company, 




SAFETY FIRST — TRIPPING HAZARD, SHARP CLEAVER FOUND 
IN PASSAGEWAY 




SAFETY FIRST — TAKING OFF CRACKED MOTOR SUPPORT, 
MOTOR NOT BLOCKED TO PREVENT INJURING MEN 




SAFETY FIRST — COMMUTATOR GUARDS WHICH ARE USED 
ON EXCITERS FOR FREQUENCY CHANGERS 



Paris, also share in a safety fund. They are paid a 
monthly premium of 16 francs 65 centimes, or about 
$3.33, for a good accident record. If a chauffeur suc- 
ceeds in obtaining this premium for three consecutive 
months he is entitled to another premium of $3.33 so 
that it is possible in a year for one man to obtain six- 
teen premiums of $3.33 on account of his accident 
record. London bus drivers are also rewarded for 
avoiding accidents. 

The Boston, San Francisco-Oakland and other rail- 




SAFETY FIRST — GUARD MADE FOR STOKER DRIVING MECH- 
ANISM, TO PREVENT INJURY 




SAFETY FIRST — GUARDS FOR EMERY WHEELS, WHICH WERE 
MADE BY THE EMPLOYEES 




SAFETY FIRST — TRIPPING HAZARD, A PIPE PLACED DIRECTLY 
IN FRONT OF STAIRWAY TO BOILER ROOM 



4b 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



ways have made use of safety charts or bogie boards. 
These are analyses of the number and kind of accidents 
occurring during given periods on each division and the 
object in displaying them is to encourage competition 
for their reduction. 

Unique bristol board safety cards reminding the men 
of certain risks supplement the work of the safety club 
of the Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway. 
These cards may be regarded as ticklers to revive flag- 
ging interest. Incidentally a special card is dropped 
casually by the trainmen in places where trespassers 
are likely to pick them up and thus read timely warn- 
ings of the dangers that they risk. The Chicago Tun- 
nel Company sends postcards to the homes of its men 
asking their dependents to preach the gospel of safety 
to their relatives in its employ. 

Protective Devices 

While the greatest service of "safety first" among 
employees is to eliminate the foolhardiness or reckless- 
ness of men who have become accustomed to working 
under risky conditions, it is as essential to protect even 
deliberate carelessness by means of protective equip- 
ment. The spur of a workmen's compensation act 
should not be necessary to call for the use of such de- 
vices. In this respect the American electric railways 
have lagged far behind Europe. A beginning for the 
better has been made in some shops where belting is 
screened and dangerous parts of tools are shielded. At 
the car maintenance depots of one company a red flag 
is placed on the car by the man who is to work under 
it and this flag must not be removed by anyone else 
under penalty of discharge. Eye troubles from babbitt 
shavings may be easily avoided, and no shop can be 




SAFETY FIRST — VIEW OF PULMOTOR INSTRUCTIONS IN 
HUDSON & MANHATTAN RAILROAD'S BOOKLET 

said to be safely equipped unless cranes and hoists are 
provided in ample number to make it unnecessary for 
the men to lift any extraordinary weight or to take 
unnecessary chances with jacks. 

As accidents may be unavoidable even under the best 
conditions, it is good practice to provide medical and 
surgical kits in shops and at other places where large 
groups of men are employed at some distanace from 
drug stores and physicians. These kits are now made 
in standard packages by surgical manufacturers, in 
accordance with their own experience or in accordance 
with the specifications of the railway physicians and 



surgeons. In addition some systems, like the Hudson & 
Manhattan Railroad, New York, have pulmotor instal- 
lations at the places where high-tension apparatus is 
used. The pulmotor demonstration illustrated was re- 
produced in the Hudson & Manhattan Company's em- 
ployees' booklet "Safety Hints" by permission of the 
National Electric Light Association. 

Types of Accident Hazards and Methods of Pre- 
vention 

As a supplement to the foregoing remarks it is of 
value to reproduce a fraction of a large number of 
instructive pictures taken by G. 0. Smith, supervisor 



SAFETY FIRST — POSTAL CARD SENT TO THE DEPENDENTS OF 
EMPLOYEES AS A CAUTION REMINDER 

of safety, Doherty Operating Company, in the course 
of his work. These illustrations show a few of the 
accident hazards of the more common type, with which 
managers of electric railway companies have to con- 
tend. They also show certain methods which are used 
to prevent accidents, such as guards, protection for 
apparatus, non-slipping ladder shoes, etc. The haz- 
ards shown have either been eliminated or plans have 
been prepared to make the necessary changes to- pre- 
vent accidents. Mr. Smith's views are published on 
page 45. 

Statistics show that it is usually the simple, appar- 
ently insignificant hazard which causes the most 
trouble ; that it is not the unprotected high-tension 
apparatus nor the unguarded flywheel, but rather the 
wheelbarrow carelessly left in front of a doorway or 
the improper placing of materials on shelves without 
protective risers. It should be the endeavor of every 
claim department and safety organization in all classes 
of public utility companies to watch carefully for these 
minor types of hazards and see that the property is 
kept free of them. Mr. Smith states that an accident 
prevention campaign around a power plant usually 
is found to be more in the nature of a general 
house-cleaning than a case for spending much money 
to put in expensive guards and other safety appliances 
for machinery, etc. 

Nearly all of the photographs taken by Mr. Smith 
have been used in the form of lantern slides, and some 
will be used in the form of posters to show the men how 
simple can be the cause of a serious accident. 



Under the title of "Trade Opportunities in South 
America," the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road has issued a 27-page pamphlet dealing with South 
American statistics and general information. Tables 
showing exports and imports to the Central and South 
American countries are presented, together with sec- 
tions describing conditions relative to packing, credits, 
language, currency, postal and weight systems, steam- 
ship service, postal regulations and population. 



CHICAGO TUNNEL COMPANY 

If Speed Interferes with Safety, Give Up Speeding. 
Safety F, S at, Speed Afterward. 

CAicz^^V ^ 1914 

Dear Madame: C/ /• 

The CHICAGO TUNNEL COMPANY is carrying on a vigorous campaign against 
MINOR ACCIDENTS to its employees, which, in the majoritv of cases, are directly 
due to the THOUGHTLESSNESS or CARELESSNESS of the EMPLOYEES THEM- 
SELVES. 

Will YOU do your share toward making this campaign a success, by frequently 
reminding YOUR loved ones to use CAUTION in their daily work, therein saving 

suffering to them and sorrow to yourself? 

Thanking you in advance for YOUR co-operation in this WORLD-WIDE move- 
ment for SAFETY FIRST, we are, 

Respectfully yours. 

By Safety Committee CHICAGO TUNNEL COMPANY. 



January 2, 1915] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 47 

Glasgow Railway Men As Soldiers 

More than 1700 Out of a Total of G100 Employees Are Now in Military Service— Glasgow Drained Dry of Free 

Briar Pipes for the Warriors 



When war was declared on Aug. 4, 1914, a very large 
number of the men of the Glasgow Corporation Tram- 
ways, more especially of the motormen and conductors, 
were called up. At that time the Corporation had 592 
reservists in the service. These men had immediately 
to hand in their uniforms, and they have been at the 
front almost from the start. A large number have been 
wounded and have spent some time at home in Glas- 
gow. Most of these men, however, have already re- 
turned to the firing line. Almost every day, in fact, 




GLASGOW'S RAILWAY SOLDIERS — IN WAR TIMES THE SCOTCH 
LADS FORGET THEIR LOYALTY TO HAGGIS 



line or are preparing for active service in their various 
training camps. 

About the middle of September the municipality of 
Glasgow offered to raise and equip two battalions of 
1100 men each for the government. On the day that 
the magistrates committee decided to put this recom- 
mendation before the Corporation, Mr. Dalrymple sent 
out a notice to all the depots of the department asking 
for volunteers for one of the city battalions, should 
these be formed. The following morning 1100 names 
were handed in. Some of these men were, of course, 
not accepted, but the "First Glasgow" is, for the most 
part, composed of tramwaymen. The men who were 




GLASGOW'S RAILWAY SOLDIERS — STRENGTHENING LIMBS 
AND WIND BEFORE THE DAYS OF KNAPSACK AND RIFLE 



men who have been wounded call to see James Dal- 
rymple, general manager, before returning to duty in 
France. 

Early in August all the men of the staff who were 
members of the local territorial battalions were also 
called up. The Corporation Tramways had, in all, 330 
of this class. These men are now either on the firing 



accepted for service were at once sworn in and sent off 
to camp, where they are still under training and are in 
the pink of condition. The Tramways arranged to 
let them keep their tramway uniform until they re- 
ceived their khaki. Their new regimentals have since 
been sent on to camp, and by this time every man has 
been thoroughly equipped for active service. One half 



— h HE" 



GLASGOW'S RAILWAY SOLDIERS — PIBROCH AND DRUM IN A RECRUITING PARADE SET SCOTTISH HEARTS ASTIR 



48 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



LVol. XLV, No. 1 




GLASGOW'S RAILWAY SOLDIERS — GRUELLING RECRUITS IN CALISTHENICS DURING THE EARLIER DAYS OF CAMP 

TRAINING 



of the battalion is made up of married men, and the 
average age of the whole battalion is twenty-seven and 
a half years. No one in the battalion is less than 
twenty-one, and no one is more than thirty-five years 
of age. 

Recently the Tramways have been losing a number 
of men who are past the fighting age. These men are 
joining what is called the national reserve, and their 
work will be the guarding of bridges, railways, ship- 
yards and other vulnerable points. Possibly also these 
men may get the work of guarding prisoners of war. 
Up to Dec. 14, 1914, the total number of men who 
had left for active service was 1711. The normal 
staff numbers 6100. Up to the date named the number 
of men killed in service had been nine. 

That the British soldier of to-day deserves the 
designation of "best-paid" appears also from the co- 
operation of the Glasgow Corporation Tramways with 
the government. Thus the department is making up 
the income of the wives of the married men who have 
left the service to two-thirds of their husbands' pay. 
This sum includes the government separation allowance 
but does not include any allowance for children or any 
allotment which the soldier may make from his own 
pay. In general, therefore, the wives and dependents 
of the men are as well off, financially, as they were 
when their husbands were at home. 

Single men, without dependents, get one-third of 
their wages. This weekly allowance is either kept for 
the soldiers or is paid over to any one who may be desig- 
nated by them. 




GLASGOW'S RAILWAY SOLDIERS — THE FIRST GLASGOW BAT- 
TALION OF STURDY RAILWAY SCOTS AT GAILES CAMP 



The Second Battalion, which has been raised and 
equipped by the municipality, is chiefly formed of old 
officers and men of the Boys' Brigade. This battalion 
is being trained in the same camp as the First Battalion 
at the Gailes territorial camping ground about 2 miles 
north of Troon. 

The Tramways department is also doing a good deal 
in the way of recruiting among the general public. 
Illuminated cars are sent out during the evenings, and, 
in addition to these cars, there is always a second car 
with a band. Sometimes these cars are followed by 
four other cars full of soldiers, who, of course, usually 
make an abundance of noise. These cars stop for a few 
minutes at important points on the route, and the 
crowds on the street are addressed by a rousing 
speaker. 

In addition to the above, the staff has been enthus- 
iastic enough to collect from passengers and others old 
briar pipes, which, after being cleaned, repaired and 
disinfected, are sent out to the troops at the front. 
The Tramways department has already dispatched con- 
siderably more than 20,000 pipes, and Mr. Dalrymple re- 
ceives every day numerous letters from the troops 
thanking the staff of the department for gifts. As 
Glasgow has now been drained pretty dry Mr. Dal- 
rymple is endeavoring to get people throughout the 
other towns in Scotland interested in the collection 
of pipes. 

The following are extracts from recent letters of 
Glasgow railway men : Horace Jowl, who is in the 
Army Service Corps, said "that they were now feeling 




GLASGOW'S RAILWAY SOLDIERS — A LESSON IN CUT AND 
COVER TRENCH CONSTRUCTION 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



49 



the pinch of both the war and winter, but they were 
contented with the knowledge that they were doing 
their best for King and country." A. E. Simmons, who 
is attached to the anti-aircraft section, in his letter 
said: "Firing here is going on night and day, and 
the way our infantry stick it seems to be beyond human 
endurance. South Africa was a picnic to this as re- 
gards firing, but our commissariat is far better than in 
that war. 

"Troops are being very well fed under the 
conditions that exist at present. It is bitterly cold, and 
we have had rain for days, then frost, and now the 
ground is covered with snow, which makes a very 
pretty picture. We get no news about what is going 
on, only by a newspaper now and again, so, you see, you 
know more than us about what is going on. Our sec- 
tion has brought down three or four German aeroplanes 
that came spying over our lines. Our aeroplanes are 
very good, and the pilots are very daring. I am pleased 
to say that the majority of our section are keeping fair- 
ly well." 



Well Construction of Vienna Auto-Bus 

The Vienna Municipal Tramways, after a study of 
auto-bus designs used in Berlin, Paris and London, and 
following several experiments of its own, has recently 
installed a covered double-deck construction of the type 
shown in the accompanying illustrations. The most in- 
teresting feature of the new design is the use of wells 



VIENNA AUTO-BUS — REAR VIEW OP BUS SHOWING SEATING 
ARRANGEMENT 

whereby a most efficient seating arrangement is se- 
cured within the minimum over-all height, 14.4 ft. The 
cross-sectional view shows that this was obtained by 
lowering that part of the upper floor which is directly 
above the seating on the lower floor. As arranged for 
gasoline operation the new bus is 16 ft. over the 
body alone, 19 ft. from the front of the body over the 



rear stairway and 6.6 ft. over the sides. The lower 
deck seats fourteen passengers and the upper deck 
fifteen. 

The view of the rear of the bus shows a single seat 
at the left. This seat is directly over the rear wheel, 




VIENNA AUTO-BUS — FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS AND 
CROSS-SECTION OF WELL-TYPE DOUBLE-DECK BUS 



the housing of which extends through the flooring. Ex- 
cept for this seat a clear aisle 6.1 ft. high is provided 
to give access to the U-shaped seats, laid out as shown 
on the plan. The clearance between these seats and 
the ceiling is 4.8 ft. Passengers for the upper deck 
use the rear outside stairway which leads to a right- 
hand aisle 6 ft. high. Alongside this aisle are groups 
of curved and transverse seats, as illustrated. Another 
unusual feature is that a partition and door are pro- 
vided on the upper deck to keep in the open, yet under 




VIENNA AUTO-BUS — SIDE VIEW OF DOUBLE-DECK BUS WITH 
WELL FEATURES 



cover, one three-passenger bench for the convenience 
of fresh-air lovers. This bus was invented by Ludwig 
Spangler, director Vienna Tramways. 



On Nov. 29, 1914, occurred the twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary of operation by electricity of the street railway 
lines in the city of Ottumwa, la. 




50 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



War Hospital Cars in Germany 



The Tramways Assist in Transporting the Wounded to 
the Hospitals 

Through the courtesy of Eugen Eichel, editor Elek- 
trische Kraftbetriebe und Bahnen, it is possible to pre- 
sent the accompanying data on what a number of 
the electric railways throughout Germany are doing to 
assist in the national crisis by the transportation of 
wounded soldiers. 

In general, the soldiers who are wounded at the front 
are brought back for treatment by steam train to dif- 



usually provided by the tramway managements. The 
motor car serves to carry those who are slightly in- 
jured, whereas the trailers, which have been especially 
converted for hospital use with stretchers, etc., care for 
those men who have to be transported while recumbent. 
Especial pains are taken to disinfect all rolling stock. 

The simplest way of using the trailers, as at Cologne, 
is to support the handles of the stretchers on the win- 
dow sills, at right angles to the track. The windows 
are replaced by weather-proof curtains. Where the 
cars are wide enough, as at Berlin, the seats have been 
removed and the cots have been placed at right angles 
to the track but entirely within the car. However, 




GERMAN HOSPITAL CARS — CARRYING WOUNDED TO BRUNN TRAILERS BEFORE HAULING TO HOSPITAL VIA MOTOR CAR 



ferent cities in the Empire, where their proper care can 
be assured. Upon their arrival by train at the city thus 
selected they must be transferred from the railroad 
station to the local hospitals, and the tramways are used 
very largely for this purpose. The work is carried on 
in the thorough way so characteristic of German under- 
takings. A regular service has been inaugurated, and 
trains of one motor car and one or two trailers are 



where the wounded men are to be carried an apprecia- 
ble distance the less compact but more comfortable plan 
of placing the cots longitudinally is followed. It is 
usually possible to leave an aisle for the physician or 
nurse, and in some cases, as at Breslau, brackets have 
been installed to carry two tiers of stretchers. If the men 
require no attention during the trip, the cots are placed 
three in a row and in double tiers across the car (twelve 




CERMAN HOSPITAL CARS — BRESLAU CAR FITTED WITH BRACKETS TO CARRY UPPER TIER OF STRETCHERS, AND CAR 

WITHOUT BRACKETS 



JANUARY 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



51 





GERMAN HOSPITAL CARS — ARRANGEMENT OF TWELVE 
STRETCHERS PER CAR AT BRUNN 



cots in all), as at Briinn. Felt packing is used to mini- 
mize vibration. At Breslau the window posts and 
dashers were removed to facilitate the handling of 
stretchers. The sashes of the Breslau cars were also 
coated with a white oil paint to discourage the curious, 




GERMAN HOSPITAL CARS — BRESLAU ROLLING STOCK IN 
RED CROSS SERVICE 



and all dust-catching curtains and hangings were 
removed. 

The Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn and several other 
railways have also built special sidings to bring these 
cars as close to the hospitals as possible. 

Double-Deck Electric Buses at Vienna 

The Vienna Tramways was one of the first street 
railway systems to look into the possibilities of the 
autc-bus. Its first trials were made with gasoline and 
trackless trolley types, but two years ago, on one line 
with 3.5 per cent grades, it placed in successful service 
thirteen storage-battery buses. These buses, however, 
had room only for eighteen seated and five standing 
passengers, which made their operation under city con- 
ditions too costly from the standpoint of crew expense. 
Following the purchase of some gasoline buses, the mu- 




VIENNA SIDE-ENTRANCE BUS OF SPANGLER TYPE; NOTE 



END VIEWS OF LONDON OPEN-TOP BUS; VIENNA ELECTRIC 
END AND SIDE-ENTRANCE BUSES 

nicipality decided to develop a high-capacity (thirty- 
three-passenger) electric bus which would be more 
agreeable to the passengers and give more revenue to 
the city's power plant. 

The double-deck type selected was designed by Lud- 
wig Spangler, director Vienna Tramways. It is only 
13.1 ft. high, a feature which enables it to clear places 
that are too low for the ordinary double-deck bus. Its 
center of gravity, as explained in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for Dec. 12, is also very low. The first 
five buses have a wheelbase of 14.75 ft. and an over-all 
length of 23 ft. The drive for the rear wheels is by 
means of a double-motor and inclosed gearing. The 
battery sets have a range of 18.6 miles and are pro- 
vided in triplicate to permit quick exchanges. 

The accompanying set of end views shows three styles 
of Vienna buses : The one at the left is an open top 
cross-seat of London type; the second, a double-deck 
electric bus with low-step entrance on each side, rear 
platform and safety stairway of Spangler design ; third, 
the latest, a side-entrance double-deck bus, with rear 
overhang 5 ft. long, as described on page 49. One 
novelty of the electric design is that the stairway is 
completely under cover. 

The first buses of this type were placed in service on 
Sept. 20, 1914. Their maximum speed is 13.64 m.p.h. 
and their average speed 8 m.p.h. If the buses prove a 
financial success, others will be installed to serve the 
line between the stations of the Northwestern and 
Southern Railways, which include a run of 705 ft. over 
a 4.1 per cent grade. 

The bodies were built in the municipality's car shops. 
The Accumulatoren and Daimler Companies furnished 
the accumulators and driving mechanism. 



Illinois Central Gas-Electric Motor Car 

Service with a General Electric Company's gas-elec- 
tric motor car has been begun by the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company on its Hopkinsville-Princeton, Ky., 
branch, a distance of about 30 miles. The car makes 
three round trips each day and takes the place of a pas- 
senger accommodation train which formerly made the 
run. This car, with a capacity for eighty passengers, 
is divided into four compartments with a vestibule for 
the engineer, a baggage and mail room, a section for 
negroes, a smoker and a women's section, and is 74 ft. 
long. It was put into service on Dec. 1 without previous 
announcement that it would be used. 



52 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Results of a Straw Ballot of Readers' 
Preferences 

Subjects of Greatest Interest Indicated by Subscribers 
from Selected Lists of Topics 

In order to indicate to the editors of the Electric 
Railway Journal the preferences of the readers for the 
several departments, and at their request, the circula- 
tion department recently selected at random a thousand 
or more names from the subscription list and sent out 
a card ballot requesting data. Each reader who re- 
ceived a card was asked to select five from a list of 
topics covering those discussed by this paper and to ar- 
range these selections in order of their interest to him. 

Approximately one-third of these cards were re- 
turned, and the data have been tabulated. The results 
were so interesting that it was considered worth while 
to print them in the statistical issue. These preferences 
can be considered as approximate only, as the total num- 
ber of ballots returned represent but a portion of the 
total circle of readers. However, the method used is 



similar to that employed in sampling coal and other 
material for test, and the errors due to the method of 
sampling are probably no greater than others involved 
in an investigation of this sort. In selecting from a 
list there is, of course, a tendency on the part of the 
reader to favor the topics printed high on the list, al- 
though in the present case this tendency was dis- 
couraged as far as possible by the order in which the 
topics were arranged. A reader, also, has considerable 
difficulty in selecting topics in order of interest, because 
the focus of interest is not a fixed point but shifts with 
business and engineering conditions. Readers also hes- 
itate to imply by selecting certain topics that they are 
not interested in others. These and other psychologi- 
cal factors must be kept in mind in analyzing the tabu- 
lated data. 

In compiling the data the subscribers who returned 
cards were classified by occupations as shown in Table I, 
where they are listed in numerical order. 

In order to put the data into form for comparison the 
votes were "weighted" by allotting ten points for each 
first choice, eight for the second choice, six for the 



Table I - ccupations of Subscribers Who Replied 

Number Per Cent 



Mechanical and electrical engineers 71 19.5 

Manufacturers and consulting engineers 65 17.9 

Master mechanics and assistants 47 12.8 

General superintendents and assistants . 37 10.1 

Transportation superintendents and assistants 24 6.6 

Auditors, comptrollers, etc 22 6.0 

General managers and assistants 20 5.5 

Roadway and structural engineers and foremen 16 4.3 

Teachers and students 16 4.3 

Presidents and other general officers 12 3.3 

No names signed to ballots 8 2.2 

Draftsmen and designers 7 1.9 

Public service commissions and staffs 7 1.9 

Claim agents 6 1.4 

Purchasing agents and storekeepers 4 1.1 

Signal engineers 2 0.6 

Supervisors of safety 2 0.0 

Total 366 100.0 



Table II — Weighted Preferences for the Several Subjects 

Number Per Cent 



Operating methods and records 1,070 10.02 

Equipment and Maintenance Department 982 9.20 

Track and overhead lines 865 8.11 

Heavy electric railroading 836 7.84 

Car design, construction and equipment 830 7.78 

Power generation and transmission 826 7.75 

Employees' training and welfare work 776 7.28 

Safety first methods 587 5.50 

General news, personals, construction news 530 4.97 

Public relations 528 4.95 

Accounting methods 485 4 . 55 

Carhouse and repair shop design 477 4.47 

Signal apparatus and methods 389 3.65 

Annual and monthly reports 359 3.37 

Labor matters 329 3 . 08 

Public service commission news 326 3.06 

Legal decisions 251 2.37 

Foreign electric railway practice 219 2.05 



Totals 10,665 100.00 



Table III — Choices of Different Classes of Readers Weighted as Described in Article 



Choices of Mechanical 
and Electrical Engineers 



(1) Power gen. and dist 42S 

(2) Track and o. h. lines 287 

(3) Heavy elec. r. r 205 

(4) E. and M. dept 204 

(5) Oper. meth. and rec 198 

All others.. 727 

Total 2.049 



Choices of Transportation 
Supts. and Assts. 

(1) Empl. tr. and w 124 

(2) Oper. meth. and rec 112 

(3) Labor matters 74 

(4) Safety first meth 72 

(5) Public relations 62 

All others 220 

Total 664 



Choices of Manufacturers 
and Consulting Engineers 



(1) Heavy elec. r. r 285 

(2) Track and o. h. lines 181 

(3) Gen'l news, etc 175 

(4) E. and M. dept 165 

(5) Mper. meth. and rec 157 

All others 875 

Total 1 , 838 



Choices of Auditors, 
Comptrollers and Assts. 

(1) Acctg. meth 212 

(2) Ann. and m. rep 138 

(3) Oper. meth. and rec 64 

(4) Empl. tr. and w 58 

(5) Public relations 42 

All others 138 

Total 652 



Choices of Master Mechanics 
and Assistants 



(1) Car design 291 

(2) E. and M. dept 245 

(3) Carhouse, etc., des 211 

(4) Empl. tr. and w 114 

(5) Heavy elec. r. r, . 104 
All others ... 445 

Total 1 , 400 



Choices of General 
Managers and Assts. 

(1) Oper. meth. and rec. .... 126 

(2) Public relations 54 

(3) E. and M. dept 52 

(4) Empl. tr. and w 48 

(5) Safety First meth 46 

All others 264 

Total 590 



Choices of Gen'l Superin- 



tendents and Assts. 

(1) Emply. tr. and w 200 

(2) Oper. meth. and rec 196 

(3) E. and M. dept 126 

(4) Safety first meth 118 

(5) Track and o. h. lines 68 

All others 392 

Total 1 , 100 



Choices of Teachers and 
Students 

(1) Power gen. and dist 98 

(2) Heavy elec. r. r 62 

(3) Car design, etc 60 

(4) Oper. meth. and rec 40 

(5) Signal app. and m 34 

All others 186 

Total 480 



Choices of Roadway and 
Structural Engineers and 
Foremen 

(1) Tr. and o. h. lines 138 

(2) E. and M. dept 40 

(3) Signal app. and m 34 

(4) Public relations 30 

(5) Empl. tr. and w 26 

Gen'l news, etc 26 

Heavy elec. r. r 26 

All others 154 

Total 474 



Choices of Presidents and 
Other Gen'l Officers 

CI) Public relations 66 

(2) Oper. meth. and rec 40 

(3) Acctg. meth 32 

C4) Empl. tr. and w 28 

(5) Ann. and m. rep 26 

Legal decisions 26 

Safety first meth 26 

All others 104 

Total 354 



Choices of Public .Service 
Commission Staff 

(1) Car design, etc 32 

(2) E. and M. dept 28 

(3) Heavy elec. r. r 24 

Oper. meth. and rec 24 

(4) P. S. Comm. news 20 

(5) Power gen. and dist 18 

Tr. and o. h. lines 18 

All others 44 

Total 208 



Choices of Draftsmen 
and Designers 

(1) Heavy elec. r. r 36 

(2) Tr. and o. h. lines 26 

(3) Carhouse des., etc 22 

(4) E. and M. dept 20 

(5) Safety first meth 14 

Signal app. and m 14 

All others 72 

Total 204 



Choices of Claim Agents 

(1) Legal decisions 40 

(2) Safety first meth 38 

(3) Public relations 20 

(4) Labor matters 18 

(5) Empl. tr. and w 16 

All others 40 

Total 172 



Choices of Purchasing 
Agents and Storekeepers 

(1) Acct'g meth 26 

(2) E. and M. dept 24 

(3) Ann. and m. rep 16 

(4) Car design, etc 10 

Oper. meth. and rec 10 

(5) Carhouse des., etc 8 

All others 26 

Total 120 



Choices of 
Signal Engineers 

(1) Signal app. and m 20 

(2) Tr. and o. h. lines 16 

(3) Oper. meth. and rec 6 

Safety first meth 6 

(4) Empl. tr. and w 4 

Heavy elec. r.r 4 

Power gen. and dist 4 

Total 60 



Choices of 
Safety Supervisors 

(1) Safety first meth 18 

(2) Car des., etc 12 

(3) Empl. tr. and w 8 

(4) Public relations 6 

Carhouse design, etc 6 

(5) Gen'l news, etc 4 

Oper. meth. and rec 4 

All others 2 

Total '•■ 00 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



53 



third, four for the fourth and two for the fifth. The 
weighted totals were first tabulated by topics in numer- 
ical order as shown in Table II. 

Next the first five choices of each group were segre- 
gated and arranged as in Table III. 

Deductions 

The most striking point brought out in the tables is 
that the Electric Railway Journal is a technical pa- 
per in the sense that its readers are primarily inter- 
ested in those subjects which pertain to their own lines 
of work. For example, the mechanical and electrical 
engineers place highest on their list the subject of power 
generation and distribution, one to which naturally but 
a part of the paper can be devoted. Next, they are in- 
terested in the large problems of the industry, a fact 
shown by the large vote in favor of heavy electric trac- 
tion. 

The small showing of interest in foreign practice 
is somewhat surprising, but it can be accounted for, we 
think, to some extent at least, by the fact that it in- 
fluences American practice but little. In scientific de- 
velopment of unusual electric railway equipment Europe 
undoubtedly leads, but it has little to teach of standard 
practice and methods. 

The publishers of the Journal have been much inter- 
ested by the choice expressed by this portion of the 
readers of this paper, and it is believed that the readers 
also will be glad to learn of the different preferences 
named. Criticisms by readers of these lists of prefer- 
ences will be welcomed. 



Large Italian Order for Three-Phase 
Locomotives 

In order to work the extensions of the electrically- 
equipped sections of the Italian State Railways now 
under construction, thirty-four 3000-volt, three-phase, 
16 2/3-cycle locomotives have been ordered by the gov- 
ernment — eighteen of the 4 — 6 — 4 type, weighing 84 
tons, from Brown, Boveri & Company, and sixteen of 
the 2 — 6 — 2 type, weighing 68 tons, from the Italian 
Westinghouse Company. According to Electrical Engi- 
neering, both are driven by side-rods from two motors, 
jackshafts at the ends being employed in the former, 
but not in the latter. The motors develop 1300 hp each 
at 46.5 m.p.h. By a combined arrangement of pole- 
changing and cascade connection four economical speeds 
are obtained, namely 23.2, 31, 46.5 and 62 m.p.h. re- 
spectively. 

Electric Railway Taxation in Indiana 

The State Board of Tax Commissioners of Indiana 
has published its report for the calendar year 1914, re- 
garding the assessed valuation of railway track, rolling 
stock and improvements on right-of-way of urban, sub- 
urban and interurban electric railways in that State, 
whether owned, controlled or operated by persons, com- 
panies, co-partnerships or corporations. The informa- 
tion contained in the report is summarized in the ac- 
companying table, no distinction being made in regard 
to rolling stock operating over the company's own lines 
or over other lines under trackage rights. 



Table Showing Elements op Assessed Valuation for Urban, Su 

Main Track 



Names of Railways 


Miles 


Per Mile 


Total 


Beech Grove Traction Company 


3.94 


$8,000 


$31,520 


Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Traction 










18.17 


4,000 


72,680 


Broad Ripple Traction Company 


2.64 


9,000 


23,760 


Brownstown & Ewing Street Railway. 


1.00 


1,500 


1,500 


Central Indiana Lighting Company. . . . 


5.26 


5,000 


26,300 


Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend 










71.01 


8,000 


568,080 


Chicago, South Bend & Northern In- 








diana Railway 


95.24 


9,000 


857,160 


Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora 








Electric Street Railway 


9.38 


7,000 


65,660 




55.02 


6,000 


330,120 


Bvansville, Suburban & Newburgh 










24.36 


7,300 


177,828 


Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Trac- 










187.04 


8,800 


1,645,952 


Fort Wayne & Northwestern Railway. 


41.73 


6,000 


250,380 


Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway. . . . 


19.55 


5,000 


97,750 


French Lick & West Baden Street 










1.90 


5,000 


9,500 


Gary & Interurban Railroad 


76.99 


9,000 


692,910 


Gary & Southern Traction Company. 


11.31 


8,000 


90,480 


Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago 










19.94 


12,000 


239,280 


Indiana Railways & Light Company. . . 


59.66 


7,150 


426,569 


Indiana Utilities Company 


3.70 


3,000 


11,100 


Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction 










101.38 


5,900 


598,142 


Indianapolis & Louisville Traction 










.40.67 


6,000 


244,020 


Indianapolis, New Castle & Eastern 
Traction Company 








58.72 


5,500 


322,960 


Indianapolis Street Railwa3 r 


111.28 


52,000 


5,786,560 


Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Corn- 










23.50 


60,000 


1,410,000 


Interstate Public Service Company. . . . 


58.11 


8,500 


493,935 


Lebanon Thornton Traction Company. 


9.33 


4,000 


37,320 


Louisville & Northern Railway & 








Lighting Company 


16.38 


8,500 


139,230 


Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction 










11.42 


11,400 


130,188 


Madison Light & Railway Company. .. 


3.00 


4,000 


12,000 


Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction 










31.74 


5,500 


174,570 


Muncie & Portland Traction Company. 


30.59 


6,000 


183,540 




8.97 


11,400 


102,258 


Ohio Electric Railway 


22.38 


8,800 


196,944 




53.82 


9,000 


484,380 


St. Joseph Valley Traction Company. . 


31.61 


5,000 


158,050 




5.05 


8,000 


40,400 


Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 










397.21 


9,500 


3,773,495 


Union Traction Company of Indiana. . 


335.33 


9,000 


3,017,970 




7.61 


9,000 


68,490 


Washington Street Railway 


2.60 


4,000 


10,400 




65.88 


6,000 


395,280 


Winona & Warsaw Railway 


2.83 


7,500 


21,225 


Total 


2137.25 




$23,419,886 



and Interurban Electric Railways in Indiana for 1914 

Improve- 
ments 



Second Main Track Side Track Rolling on Right 



t 

Miles 
0.05 


Per Mile Total 
$3,000 $150 


Miles 
0.13 


A 

Per Mile 
$1,500 


Total 
$195 


^ Stock, 
Total 
$4,180 


of Way, 
Total 
$6,400 


o'.ii 


4,000 


'840 


1.12 

'o'.oi 


1,500 
1,500 


1,680 
' '.60 


1,817 

'500 
2,630 


300 


10.68 


3,000 


32,040 


5.06 


1,500 


7,590 


71,115 


40,120 


15.85 


3,000 


47,550 


9.32 


1,500 


13,980 


95,240 


24,500 








V.70 


1,500 


7',050 


4,690 
28,204 


5',560 








2.73 


1,500 


4,095 


19,488 


18,800 


21.81 


3,000 


65,430 


11.59 
0.3S 
0.47 


1,500 
1,500 
1,500 


17,385 
570 
750 


149,632 
25,038 
6,615 


78,830 
11,947 
2,500 


¥.52 
0.77 


3,666 

3,000 


16,560 
2,310 


V.09 
10 


1,500 
1,500 


1,635 
150 


950 
61,592 
5,974 


23,666 

2,500 


7.88 
0.40 


3,000 
3,000 


23,640 
1,200 


2.05 
1.40 


1,500 
1,500 


3,075 
2,100 


19,940 
47,728 
370 


5,600 
29,800 


3.75 


3,000 


11,250 


5.15 


1,500 


7,725 


50,991 


47,770 


0.23 


3,000 


690 


1.18 


1,500 


1,770 


25,479 


8,135 








3.26 
5.41 


1,500 
2,000 


4,890 
10,820 


35,441 
333,840 


22,420 
39,215 








0.89 
4.01 
0.05 


2,000 
1,500 
1,500 


1,780 
6,015 
75 


425,640 
58,514 
1,923 


248,250 
17,080 
75 








1.21 


1,500 


1,815 


16,576 


2,590 


2.61 


3,000 


7,830 


122 
0.10 


1,500 
1,500- 


1,830 
150 


23,016 
1,200 


2,580 
2,000 


1*81 
0.68 
9.16 


3,666 

3,000 
3,000 


5',430 
2,040 
27,480 


1.79 
0.65 
0.60 
0.35 
2.69 
0.49 


1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,000 


2,685 
975 
900 
525 

4,035 
490 


12,696 
15,405 

8,970 
18.3S0 
53,820 

6,322 


6,000 
10,370 

1,550 
10,000 
18,200 
70 


10.24 


3,666 


30,720 


0.44 
12.70 
22.11 

'o'.is 

2.95 
0.92 


1,500 
1,500 
1,500 

1,500 
1,500 
1,500 


660 
19,050 
33,165 

'225 
4,425 
1,380 


5,124 
320,049 
268,982 

6,088 

1.300 
39,698 

5,660 


200 
218,690 
160,640 

21,695 
1,020 


91.65 




$275,160 


108.50 


$165,655 


?2,280,817 $1,088,407 



54 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 1 

The Salt Lake & Utah Railroad 



A 1500-Volt D.C. Interurban Railway Running Between Salt Lake City- and Provo, a Distance of 48.5 Miles- 
The Line Was Built to Develop Good Agricultural Territory — Seven Trains a Day Are Operated 
Each Way, Exclusive of Freight — The Arch-Roof Combination Cars for 
High-Speed Train Service Are Described in Detail 



An important addition to the heavy interurban elec- 
tric railways of the Far West is represented by the Salt 
Lake & Utah Railroad, which was placed in operation 
for passenger service between Salt Lake City and Provo, 
Utah, on July 24, 1914. Regular freight service was in- 
augurated Aug. 15, 1914. The franchises for this line 
were secured in 1912 by the citizens of Salt Lake and the 
territory south of that city, and shortly thereafter W. C. 
Orem, now president, became interested in the financing 
and construction of the road. Actual construction was 
begun early in 1913, and through the extraordinary 
efforts of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, which furnished the substation, line and trac- 
tion equipment, service was started at the date men- 
tioned. The new line taps a great deal of territory 
which had not been served by the steam railroads, al- 
though this section is amply irrigated and suitable for 



angle-iron brackets support the messenger and trolley 
and are so arranged that future double-track require- 
ments can be made by adding a bracket on the opposite 
side of the pole. A No. 0000 trolley and No. 0000 feeder 
are used. 

Energy is purchased under a fifty-year contract from 
the Utah Power & Light Company at 45,000 volts, sixty 
cycles and converted at the substations to 1500 d.c. by 
means of three 150-kw transformers and two 250-kw 
rotary converters. These rotary converters operate at 
750 volts alone and 1500 volts in series. A third rotary 
converter is installed in each substation as a spare for 
series connection with either of the others. 

Service and Rolling Stock 

At this time the company is operating seven trains a 
day in each direction on telephoned train orders, special 




SALT LAKE & UTAH RAILROAD — INTERURBAN STEEL CAR WITH ARCH ROOF 



fruit raising or intensive farming. There is every pros- 
pect that the population, now about 50,000, exclusive of 
110,000 at Salt Lake City, will increase very rapidly 
owing to the liberal service offered by the new railway. 
Preliminary construction notes on this property were 
printed in the Electric Railway Journal for Jan. 10, 
1914, page 87. 

Way, Line and Power 

The roadbed is constructed on steam railroad stand- 
ards with 75-lb. rail, continuous joints and 2840 ties per 
mile. Standard switches with spring rail frogs are used 
on all main line turnouts. The rails are bonded with 
the twin terminal bond of the American Steel & Wire 
Company. The maximum grades are 1 per cent, except 
in one or two places where temporary grades have been 
used. Thus, for a stretch of about 2 miles on both sides 
of Provo Bench near Provo a grade of 1% per cent is 
employed. It is expected, however, that when business 
requires double track for freight and express passenger 
trains a detour of this 1% per cent, grade will be built. 

The overhead construction is of the catenary type to 
permit operation at 750 and 1500 volts d.c. Poles with 



attention being given to convenient connections with the 
Salt Lake & Ogden Railway and the Ogden Rapid Tran- 
sit Company in a joint depot at Ogden. Special Sunday 
and holiday excursions as well as theater trains are a 
popular feature of the company's service. The theater 
trains are operated from both Salt Lake City and Provo, 
the trains leaving at 11:45 p.m. A popular pleasure 
resort is Utah Lake, near Provo. Here fishing, boating, 
hot and cold bathing and dancing are the chief attrac- 
tions. 

The company sells unrestricted mileage books at the 
rate of $11.25 per 500 miles and $20 for 1000 miles. 
These books are also good on the Salt Lake & Utah Rail- 
road, Salt Lake & Ogden Railway and the Ogden Rapid 
Transit Company. Children between five and twelve 
years of age are carried at half fare. The baggage 
allowance is 150 lb. for every full fare and 75 lb. for 
every half fare. Although the company has been oper- 
ating only a short time, it has already made a strong 
bid for special excursions for clubs, lodges, Sunday 
Schools, colleges, churches and other organizations. 

The rolling stock of the company consists of five 61-ft. 
steel cars with passenger, smoking and baggage com- 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



55 



partments, two 50-ft. straight express cars and one loco- 
motive flat car, all with the same motor equipment. The 
general data on the arch-roof passenger cars, as fur- 
nished by the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company, 
Niles, Ohio, follow: 

Length over the spring buffers 61 ft. 8 in. 

Length over the vestibules 59 ft. 8 in. 

Length of the body over the end plates 49 ft. 3 in. 

Length of the rear platforms 5 ft. 2% in. 

Length of the main passenger compartment 31 ft. ^ in. 

Length of the smoking compartment 10 ft. 11 in. 

Length of the baggage compartment 11 ft. 9 in. 

Width over all 9 ft. 6 in. 

Width over the outside sheathing at sills 9 ft. 4 in. 

Width, inside 8 ft. 10% in. 

Width of the seats 40 in. 

Width of the aisle. 25% in. 

Height from the under side sills to the top of the roof. . . .9 ft. 6 in. 
Height from the track to the top of the trolley platform. 13 ft. 4 in. 

Seating capacity 66 

Weight of the car body, exclusive of the electric power 

equipment and air brakes 38,392 1b. 

The underframe is built up entirely of steel beams, 
channels and angles with hot-riveted gussets and angles 
at all joints. The two center sills are 8-in. 18-lb. I- 
beams, the side sills are 8-in. 13 3 /4-lb. channels, while 
5-in. and 6-in. channels are used for the cross-sills. 
There are also diagonal braces, 6 in. x *4 in., between 
the drawbar anchor plates and the side sills at the 
bolsters. Each end of the under- 
frame has a buffer of 8-in. channel 
riveted by angles to all sills and 
fitted on the outside with radial 
spring buffers built up of steel 
channels and plates. The floor 
consists of 13/16-in. x 3 x /4-in. yel- 
low pine in two layers, with two 
thicknesses of waterproof build- 
ing felt between. The toilet sec- 
tion has a "Flexolith" floor. 

The body frame is of steel riv- 
eted at all joints with corners or 
gussets. For the side posts 2 1 / 4- 
in. x ^-in. T's are used. Corner 
posts and each alternate side post 
separating twin windows are 
double. The double posts have 
steel panels riveted to the outside. 
The side plates are 3 in. x 2 in. x 
x A-in. angles ; the sheathing below 
the windows and cross bulkheads 
No. 12 gage steel and the belt rails are 2y 2 -in. x 
steel bars. The side walls below the windows are 
air space between the outside steel 
ining of ^-in. agasote. 




Electric Iiy. Journal 

S. L. & U. R. R.— MAP 



are 
y 2 -in. 

double, with 2^-in. 
sheathing and the inside 

The roof is of the single-arch type with continuous 
steel carlins fastened to the side plates ; also with wooden 
carlins about 10 in. between centers for fastening the 
roof sheathing and ceiling. The outside is sheathed with 
Vk-im x 2 1 / 4-in. cypress and No. 8 cotton duck. Ventila- 
tion is supplied through eleven Lintern automatic roof 
ventilators with ceiling grills or registers. Each side 
has sixteen windows of twin style, the upper sashes 
being stationary while the lower sashes are arranged to 
raise between the double upper sashes. 

The main passenger compartment at the rear end of 
the car occupies a length of eleven side windows and 
the smoking compartment adjacent occupies four side 
windows. Swing doors are used throughout except that 
the baggage compartment has a 4-ft. sliding door at the 
side. The baggage door at the right-hand side of the 
motorman has a sliding sash in the upper part to enable 
the motorman to look backward. 

The seating layout is as follows: Main compartment 
— seventeen 40-in. Hale & Kilburn No. 199-EE steel 
seats with 25-in. headroll, reversible backs, bronze grab 
handles, automatic foot rest, upholstered in dark green 



leather, and four corner seats with stationary backs; 
smoking compartment — four reversible and four sta- 
tionary back seats, upholstered in canvas-lined rattan ; 
baggage compartment — wooden slat seats, paneled 
underneath, with removable tops to form receptacles for 
sand, tools, etc. 

The trucks are of Baldwin class AA type with 84-in. 
wheelbase, intended for operation over curves of 50-ft. 
radius. The center-plate capacity per truck is 34,196 
lb. The weight on trucks, covering the car body only, 
including couplers, heaters, seats, etc, but without live 
load, is 38,392 lb. Other weights follow: 



Electrical equipment with double-end control 2,600 lb 

Dynamotor 2.400 lb 

Air-brake equipment 2,500 lb 

Maximum load of 150 passengers at 150 lb. each 22,500 1b 

Maximum load on two-truck center plates 68,392 1b 

Weight on track of car body, including all equipment but 

without live load 45,892 1b 

Two trucks without motors, gears or cases 25,200 1b 

Motors, including gears and cases 14,800 1b 

Total weight of car on track without live load, ready for 

service 85,892 1b 

The trucks are fitted with 36-in. diameter Standard 
M.C.B. wheels, A.E.R.E.A. open-hearth axles, 7-in. 




SALT LAKE & UTAH RAILROAD — INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING 
LOCATION OF VENTILATORS AND LAMPS 

diameter at the gear seat, and 5-in. x 9-in. journals. The 
bolster is of cast steel with Symington Ba center plates 
and quadruple elliptical springs. Perry roller side bear- 
ings are used on all cars. 

The motor equipment comprises four 115 hp West- 
inghouse 334-E 6 inside-hung motors, geared for 60 
m.p.h. and capable of operation on either 750 or 1500 
volts d.c. The control is of HL type suitable for single 
and multiple car operation. The air brakes are of 
Westinghouse automatic type with A.M.M. No. 24 valve, 
while the hand brakes include the Peacock No. 27-E 
drum and Pittsburgh bronze ratchet drop handle. 

Each car is supplied with thirty-two Consolidated No. 
393-T, single-coil truss plank heaters with thermostatic 
control. The lighting units for the interior consist of 
fourteen 94-watt lamps with Alba shades; also one cir- 
cuit of 23-watt lamps for signs, vestibules, toilet, etc. 
A luminous arc headlight is used for operation over the 
1500-volt section. Arrangement has also been made for 
one illuminated train number sign over each door. 
Among the miscellaneous equipment on the car the 
following may be noted: Janney automatic M.C.B. 
radial couplers, locomotive style pilots, steel alarm gong 
with air ringer and foot button for city service, whereas 
air whistles are used for interurban service, Lintern 
pneumatic sanders and Knutson No. 5 retriever. 



56 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Portable Sub- 



Berkshire Semi-Outdoor 
station 

Last summer the Berkshire Street Railway, Pitts- 
field, Mass., whose out-door substation at Lee, Mass., 
was described in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Dec. 6, 1913, has added and placed in service a new 
semi-outdoor type of portable substation to supplement 
the power supply on certain sections favored with heavy 
excursion traffic. The substation was built by the Gen- 
eral Electric Company and has a continuous capacity of 
300 kw at 600 volts, transforming from a 33,000-volt, 
twenty-five-cycle, three-phase line supply. 

This substation consists of an inclosed operating 
compartment containing the synchronous converter, the 
three-panel switchboard and the three-unit electric 
heaters ; an inclosed central room for the multi-gap 
lightning arrester equipment; and an open section for 
the main transformer, the current transformer, auto- 
matic oil switch, choke coils, disconnecting knife 
switches, etc. Owing to the low overhead clearances 
the car has been kept within 11 ft. 6 in. above the rails, 
including the running board. 

The car is an all-steel structure, the underframe in- 
cluding four 12-in. steel channels which extend the 
entire length of the platform. The two center chan- 
nels, which form a box girder, are provided with %-in. 
top and bottom plates, so that reliance is not placed 



to the sides and roof so that it may be entirely removed 
for the installation or removal of the apparatus. The 
section of the roof over the converter is also bolted down 
so that it may be readily removed for installing or 
dismantling the apparatus when a crane is available. 
A galvanized sheet-metal ceiling is built on the interior 
so as to form air pockets between it and the roof sheath- 
ing to prevent any direct radiation of heat when the 
car is standing in the sun and also to drain any con- 
densation or possible leakage to one side of the car away 
from the apparatus. 

The electrical equipment includes a three-phase, 
twenty-five-cycle, 600-volt, commutating-pole, synchro- 
nous converter operating at 750 r.p.m. The trans- 
former connections are arranged for a.c. starting from 
50 per cent secondary taps, with series resistance to 
cut down the initial rush of current. The machine has 
a normal rating of 300 kw continuously, 450 kw for 
two hours and a momentary overload capacity of 900 kw. 
This high overload capacity is an important merit for 
interurban railway conditions. 

The transformer is an oil-insulated, self-cooled, out- 
door type, rated 330 kva, three-phase, twenty-five 
cycles. Voltage taps are arranged on the primary side 
for unusual flexibility, operating at either 33,000, 13,000 
or 11,000 volts "Y" by using either series or multiple 
connections of the primary coils. The secondary, or 
low-tension winding, is designed for 385 volts and is 




500-KW 33,000-VOLT PORTABLE SUBSTATION FOR THE BERKSHIRE STREET RAILWAY 



on the floor plates to give the required strength. At 
the converter end, two pairs of 6-in. steel channels 
extending across the car are riveted on top of the under- 
framing, the space between each pair being filled with 
concrete. These members constitute the foundations 
for the machine, which is set on wooden blocks, pro- 
vided with leveling plates and secured by anchor bolts 
in the usual manner. Ventilating openings are located 
in the floor of the car under the converter to get cool 
air when the machine is in operation. The openings 
are fitted with removable sheet-iron covers and per- 
manent wire mesh screens. 

A snow shield formed of sheet steel and framed with 
angles extends from the center on top of the support 
over to a wooden block base on the transformer top. 
This protects the high-tension bushings to the trans- 
former, which are brought out in a horizontal posi- 
tion because of lack of overhead clearance on the road, 
and also those to the oil switch units and the current 
transformer. A short cover likewise extends over the 
incoming line leads and those to the lightning arrester 
compartment at the other end of the supporting frame. 
The incoming insulators each side of the choke coils 
are suspended from cross-steel angles tied into the 
framing. 

The operating compartment end of the car is bolted 



provided with the 50 per cent starting taps previously 
mentioned. Series resistance is also used in starting. 
In order to make the secondary leads weatherproof at 
the point of entrance, they are inclosed in a small sheet- 
iron box, from which the connections are carried to the 
switch panels through conduit. 

The remaining apparatus is of standard General 
Electric design, including bell alarms for the automatic 
oil switch and for the d.c. 1000-amp circuit breaker. 

The specific dimensions and important data applying 
to this portable substation are as follows: 



Length over all 38 ft 

Width over sides of car 8 ft. 4 in. 

Maximum width (over side channels) 8 ft- 6 in. 

Height over all (including running board) 11 ft. 6 in. 

Height of floor above rails 3 ft. 8 V 2 in. 

Total length of inclosed cab .23 ft. 6 in. 

Length of operating room 14 ft. 6 in. 

Length of lightning arrester compartment 9 ft. 

Length of outdoor section 14 ft. 6 in. 

Truck base 25 ft. 

Wheelbase 5 ft. 2 in. 

Wheels 33 in. 

Total weight 80,000 1b. 



The Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway has found 
that red gum at $40 per thousand feet B.M., affords it 
a means of making a considerable saving for the panels 
under the windows of its cars where it had been using 
cherry at a cost of $125 per thousand. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



57 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Motor Overloads and Flashing 

Salisbury House, London Wall, 

London, England, Dec. 15, 1914. 

To the Editors: 

In regard to the matter of motor overloads raised 
in a letter by William A. Del Mar, published in a 
recent issue of the Electric Railway Journal, I would 
state that it is extremely difficult in practice to de- 
fine what amount of overloading in a shop test will be 
sufficient to cover the prevention of flashing over under 
actual conditions in practice, and I am not sure that I 
should hold a manufacturer blameless should his mo- 
tors flash over in practice even though a shop test of 
the nature specified should have been complied with. 
My own practice has been to specify the nature of the 
work, the average output, the maximum tractive effort, 
the number of stops and the permissible rise in tem- 
perature, and then to specify that under all reasonable 
working conditions the motors must be free from both 
sparking and flashing. I have known motors that would 
comply with the conditions set down in the proposed 
Section 418 of the A. I. E. E. standardization rules, and 
still flash over in practice, and I have known motors 
that would not comply with the specifications of this 
section and which have proved entirely satisfactory. 

I do not profess to criticise the section referred to, 
but only point out that it is extremely difficult to formu- 
late any clause that will secure the desired result. 

H. F. Parshall, Consulting Engineer. 



The New Jersey Decision 

Welsh Brothers, Investment Bonds 

Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 21, 1914. 

To the Editors: 

The editorial in your issue of Dec. 19 entitled "New 
Jersey Rate Decision" has caused me some bewilder- 
ment. You close this editorial with the following 
words: "We hope that the clear exposition of this en- 
tire subject by the New Jersey court will help to clarify 
public opinion on this important matter." I have al- 
ready read with care the full decision of this case by 
the New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals and have 
found my opinion very much confused by it instead 
of clarified. 

The official summary of this opinion concludes with 
the following: "It is erroneous to assign no value, or 
a merely nominal value, to such franchise when a sub- 
stantial value is fairly reflected in the total market 
value of its securities." In attempting to give a value to 
the property of public service companies for the pur- 
pose of rate making the court would, I think, have the 
commission proceed along the following line of reason- 
ing: 

1. Rates must be such as to yield a fair return upon 
the value of the property used in the service of the 
public. 

2. In that value must be included a substantial 
amount for the value of franchises. 

3. The value of the franchise is based, in part at least, 
upon the earnings of the company just prior to the val- 
uation. 

I hold that if the value of the franchise, as a matter 
of right, is to be based upon the earnings of the com- 
pany just prior to the date of valuation, they should be 
based upon the full earnings. If the full earnings are 
not used for this purpose, a part of the value of the 
franchise to which the company would be entitled ac- 
cording to the reasoning of this court will have been 
confiscated and full justice to the company will not have 



been done. If, then, the full earnings are to be used for 
this purpose, the rates already in effect will have to be 
approved in their entirety and the power of the com- 
mission to regulate at all will have been rendered nuga- 
tory. 

It seems to me that the court is in error when it em- 
ploys a procedure of valuation for purposes of taxation 
and public condemnation to establish a method for val- 
uation for the purpose of rate making. Valuation for the 
latter purpose, it seems to me, is quite different from 
valuation for the two former purposes. For example, 
take valuation for the purpose of taxation: In the 
year for which the tax is levied, the company has re- 
ceived a certain income based upon rates, which, be- 
cause not questioned by the rate making power, are 
legal for that year. The taxation for that year should, 
therefore, I think, be based upon that income actually 
and legally received. If, then, the rate making body 
proceeds to inquire into the justice of the rates in effect 
in that year, and, finding them excessive, reduces them 
for the following year, the valuation in the following 
year for the purpose of taxation should be correspond- 
ingly reduced and the actual tax in that following year 
will be based upon the actual income received in that 
following year. Therefore, the value of the franchise 
as based upon actual income should, at all times, be in- 
cluded in the valuation for the purpose of taxation. If 
it is included in the valuation for rate making pur- 
poses, it will inevitably result, as indicated above, that 
rates cannot be regulated downwards at least. 

From the chapter entitled "Franchise in Rate Cases" 
in Whitten's "Valuation of Public Service Corporations" 
I have found that among the numerous decisions cited 
therein, with a few exceptions, there is none which spe- 
cifically allows, in valuations for rate making purposes, 
the inclusion of value for franchises in excess of the 
fair cost of acquiring the same. The strongly marked 
trend of legal opinion, as indicated in this chapter, had 
seemed to me to make the question of the value of fran- 
chises for this purpose entirely clear and to render jus- 
tice to the companies and the holders of their securities. 

In your editorial you draw an analogy between the 
value of the franchise and the value of property taken 
up many years ago by individuals under the govern- 
ment homestead act. I fail to find any analogy between 
these two cases. Many of the state commissions grant 
to public service corporations the benefit of the in- 
crease in value of the real estate and property owned by 
them when those commissions base rates upon the cost 
of reproducing the property of the companies at the 
time of valuation for rate making purposes. Many, or 
most, of these commissions also allow a considerable 
going-concern value to cover the cost of building up the 
business. If there is a substantial risk connected with 
building up the business, that should be, and often is, 
taken care of by allowing a sufficient return upon a fair 
value to attract the capital necessary for constructing 
the plant and building up the business. 

I cannot see how such value can be covered by the 
value of the franchise without recognizing the full earn- 
ings of the company at the time being, as reflected by 
the market value of the 'entire capitalization of the com- 
pany and thus in effect rendering the rate making 
power null and void. Herbert S. Welsh. 

[Editors' Note — We realize that judicial opinion on 
this point is divided but hardly believe that the prin- 
ciple laid down by the New Jersey Court could be used 
in a hypothetical case to justify reasoning in a circle ; 
that is to say, that the value of the franchise is large 
because the rates are high, and the rates must be kept 
high so as not to reduce the value of the franchise. 
The New Jersey court did not say that the value of 
the franchise should be a controlling factor in the 



58 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



establishment of rates but condemned the policy of 
assigning no value to it or merely a nominal value when 
a substantial value is fairly reflected in the total market 
value of the securities. The comparison to the home- 
stead act in our brief editorial was intended to show 
that the grant of the franchise, or the homestead, was a 
consideration in both cases for the recipient to under- 
take the risk and expense of developing the property. 
A good summary of the principle at issue, as well as 
the dictum of the New Jersey court, as we read the 
decision, is the wording used in Principle IX of the 
Code of Principles. This principle reads as follows: 
"In the appraisal of an electric railway for the purpose 
of determining reasonable rates, all methods of valuation 
should have due consideration."] 



Publicity by Public Utility Commissions 

State of North Dakota 
office of commissioners of railroads 

Bismarck, Dec. 19, 1914. 

To the Editors: 

We have read with considerable interest the article 
on page 1240, of your issue of Dec. 5, on "Publicity by 
Public Utility Commissions." 

While the North Dakota Railroad Commission is not, 
in the full sense, a public utility commission, I desire 
to express my concurrence with the views expressed in 
the article mentioned. In all proceedings of this com- 
mission, we seek the utmost publicity, and through 
official pamphlets and our State newspapers publish as 
news items practically all the proceedings of the board. 
We have found that this is not only beneficial to the 
board but highly appreciated by the people in general, 
as it has brought to common knowledge the powers and 
duties of the commission, which, a few years ago, were 
absolutely unknown. As a result, it has greatly 
strengthened the commission and broadened its field of 
usefulness to the people. As another result of this pub- 
licity, many things come before the board which here- 
tofore have been settled with the public utility com- 
panies direct with satisfactory results. 

I am a newspaper man and, naturally, appreciate the 
value of publicity in all its various phases and am very 
much impressed with the importance to the people of a 
complete knowledge of the acts of its public servants. 
The more publicity we can secure as to the proceedings 
of various public boards, I am thoroughly convinced, 
will be for the best interests of all concerned. 

W. F. Cushing, Secretary. 

Education and the Code of Principles 

Purdue University 

Lafayette, Ind., Dec. 22, 1914. 

To the Editors: 

The editorial bearing the title "Poisoning the Wells," 
which appeared in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Dec. 5, was a very clear exposition of the views which 
have been lying more or less dormant in the minds of 
many technical educators for years. Attempts to obtain 
in the past the necessary data and co-operation from the 
railway and lighting officials to enable both sides of the 
problem of the proper regulation of public service cor- 
porations to be fairly presented to classes in economics 
and engineering have been met with indifference. 
Whatever the motive, therefore, that prompts this policy 
of publicity toward the educational institutions of the 
country, it will doubtless receive a hearty reception, at 
least from engineering schools. 

The writer cannot agree with the editorial in the con- 
temporary which you criticise that "No conclave of dis- 
interested public scientists would presume to formulate 
a canon of correct principles on the relations of public 



utility corporations to the state." This is the very 
activity in which economists have been engaged for 
years. It is also but natural that with the intimate con- 
tact which exists in most universities between depart- 
ments of political science, economics and history, the 
part of the state should be emphasized at the expense 
of the corporation. This condition has been aggra- 
vated by the lack of interest on the part of corpora- 
tion officials. 

The original editorial in question points out that all 
but one of the "Code of Principles" of the American 
Electric Railway Association are debatable. Does it de- 
sire to confine technical education to undebatable prob- 
lems? If so, the very foundations of engineering educa- 
tion are to be undermined, and the first debatable 
problem in practice will be met by the technical graduate 
with much less success than at present. 

It is not argued that all the principles set forth are 
ideal or even unprejudiced, but it is believed that stu- 
dents, under the guidance of able instructors, will be 
able to arrive at a more sane solution of the problem at 
issue between the public service corporations and the 
state if both parties to the controversy are allowed to 
present their arguments in whichever form they may 
consider desirable. C. Francis Harding, 

Professor of Electrical Engineering. 

Graphic Comparisons of Accidents 

BY EDWARD DANA, ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF 
SURFACE LINES BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY 

It is quite difficult to present statistical information 
to many officials of a large railroad and to its trainmen 
in such a manner as to be quickly understood in its 
proper relation. 

Recently during our "safety first" campaign diagrams 
of the type illustrated were used very successfully to 
show results by the month for six types of accidents. 
The hands were colored respectively red, green and 




Etcctru Ry.Journa'. 



BOSTON CHART USED TO SHOW COMPARATIVE ACCIDENT 
RECORD 

black. The black was permanently set at the total 
number for the corresponding month of the year previ- 
ous, the red was changed from day to day to indicate 
the total up to that date for the present year and the 
green was changed from day to day to indicate the total 
up to that same day for the previous year. The small 
dial shows the day of the month to which the chart was 
corrected. The plan may be used for a division of car- 
houses as well as for the entire system. We have found 
that it gives a very quick comparison of accidents. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



59 



American Association News 



Committee Lists for 1915 Practically Complete Are Given— Meetings of American Executive, Valuation, 
Block Signal and Educational Committees Are Announced — Preliminary Mid- Year Meeting 

— Transportation Plans Are Described 



COMMITTEE APPOINTMENTS FOR 1914-1915 

The following list of committees is practically com- 
plete but is subject to extension due to the fact that a 
few committees are not yet complete. 

American Association Standing Committees 
Aera advisory — H. C. Donecker, chairman, Newark, 
N. J.; J. H. Hanna, Washington, D. C; J. K. Choate, 
New York, N. Y. ; Edwin H. Baker, New York, N. Y. ; 
Daniel W. Smith, Detroit, Mich.; C. G. Rice, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; L. T. Hixson, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Ernest 
Gonzenbach, Syracuse, N. Y. ; J. V. Sullivan, Chicago, 
111.; C. B. Wells, Denver, Colo.; Anthony N. Brady 
medal — A. W. Brady, chairman, Anderson, Ind. ; Frank 
Hedley, New York, N. Y. ; C. S. Sergeant, Boston, Mass.; 
award of bronze medal for best paper presented before 
a company section — 0. T. Crosby, chairman, Warren- 
ton, Va. ; S. G. McMeen, Columbus, Ohio; James H. 
McGraw, New York, N. Y. 

Company membership — J. E. Gibson, chairman, Kan- 
sas City, Mo. ; F. W. Hild, Portland, Ore. ; R. W. Spoff ord, 
Augusta, Ga. ; J. J. Caufield, Minneapolis, Minn.; A. M. 
Patten, Topeka, Kans. ; George L. Radcliffe, Cleveland, 
0.; M. S. Sloan, New Orleans, La.; Samuel Riddle, 
Louisville, Ky. ; C. S. Ching, Boston, Mass.; company 
sections and individual membership — Martin Schreiber, 
chairman, Newark, N. J. ; R. P. Stevens, Youngstown, 
Ohio; H. A. Bullock, Brooklyn, N. Y.; H. H. Norris, 
New York, N. Y.; E. J. Blair, Chicago, 111.; B. C. Edgar, 
Nashville, Tenn. ; George G. Whitney, Washington, 
D. C. 

Compensation for carrying United States mail — 
Capt. A. R. Piper, chairman, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; W. H. 
Collins, Gloversville, N. Y. ; P. N. Jones, Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; Henry S. Lyons, Boston, Mass.; H. A. Nicholl, 
Anderson, Ind.; J. K. Choate, New York, N. Y. ; 
T. C. Cherry, Annapolis, Md. ; cost of passenger trans- 
portation service- — James D. Mortimer, chairman, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. ; Paul Shoup, Los Angeles, Cal. ; Henry 

G. Bradlee, Boston, Mass. ; Thomas N. McCarter, New- 
ark, N. J. ; Charles N. Black, San Francisco, Cal. ; edu- 
cation — H. H. Norris, chairman, New York, N. Y. ; 

H. A. Bullock, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Martin Schreiber, 
Newark, N. J.; W. L. Robb, Troy, N. Y.; A. M. 
Buck, Urbana, 111. ; V. Karapetoff, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Electrolysis — Calvert Townley, chairman, New York, 
N. Y. ; R. P. Stevens, vice-chairman, Youngstown, Ohio; 
L. E. Woodbridge, San Francisco, Cal; federal relations 
— Arthur W. Brady, chairman, Anderson, Ind. ; E. G. 
Connette, Buffalo, N. Y. ; George H. Harries, Omaha, 
Neb.; Paul Shoup, Los Angeles, Cal.; E. C. Fos- 
ter, Manchester, N. H. ; L. S. Storrs, New Haven, 
Conn.; F. W. Brooks, Detroit, Mich.; H. H. 
Crowell, Grand Rapids, Mich.; Frank R. Ford, New 
York, N. Y.; L. S. Cass, Waterloo, Iowa; J. T. 
Wessels, Hagerstown, Md. ; insurance — H. J. Davies, 
chairman, Cleveland, Ohio; F. A. Healey, Spring- 
field, Ohio; E. J. Cook, Rochester, N. Y.; A. H. Ford, 
Portland, Me.; F. J. Spaulding, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 1915 
convention — James D. Mortimer, chairman, Milwaukee, 
Wis. ; C. L. Henry, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Charles N. Black, 
San Francisco, Cal.; H. C. Donecker, Newark, N. J.; 
J. H. Handlon, San Francisco, Cal.; T. T. C. Gregory, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Organization of the International Electrical Con- 



gress, San Francisco, 1915, acting with American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers — Frank R. Ford, New 
York, N. Y.; Henry G. Stott, New York, N. Y.; Henry 
W. Blake, New York, N. Y.; Edwin B. Katte, New 
York, N. Y.; public relations — Thomas N. McCarter, 
chairman, Newark, N. J.; T. S. Williams, Brooklyn, N. 
Y. ; James D. Mortimer, Milwaukee, Wis.; James 
H. McGraw, New York, N. Y.; Guy E. Tripp, 
New York, N. Y.; S. M. Curwen, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; E. W. Rice, Jr. Schenectady, N. Y. ; Frank 
R. Ford, New York, N. Y. ; J. H. Pardee, New York, 
N. Y.; Frank Hedley, New York, N. Y.; Charles N. 
Black, San Francisco, Cal. ; T. S. Wheelwright, Rich- 
mond, Va. ; C. K. Knickerbocker, Chicago, 111. ; Arthur 
W. Brady, Anderson, Ind.; E. G. Connette, Buffalo, N. 
Y.; Geo. E. Hamilton, Washington, D. C; R. M. Searle, 
Rochester, N. Y.; H. G. Bradlee, Boston, Mass.; H. H. 
Vreeland, New York, N. Y. 

Relations with Manufacturers' Association — (repre- 
senting American Electric Railway Association) C. L. 
Henry, chairman, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Arthur W. Brady, 
Anderson, Ind.; R. E. Danforth, Newark, N. J.; (rep- 
resenting Manufacturers' Association) W. L. Conwell, 
New York, N. Y.; C. R. Ellicott, New York, N. Y.; E. H. 
Baker, New York, N. Y. ; relations with state and sec- 
tional associations — R. P. Stevens, chairman, Youngs- 
town, Ohio; Patrick Dubee, Montreal, Que.; H. C. Don- 
ecker, Newark, N. J. ; James F. Hamilton, Schenectady, 
N. Y.; C. L. S. Tingley, Philadelphia, Pa.; Ernest Gon- 
zenbach, Syracuse, N. Y. ; representing association at 
the American Good Roads Congress — E. C. Faber, chair- 
man, Wheaton, 111. ; C. N. Wilcoxon, Michigan City, Ind. ; 
C. D. Emmons, South Bend, Ind. 

Standards for car loading — S. W. Huff, chairman, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; E. J. Dickson, Buffalo, N. Y.; E. J. 
Cook, Rochester, N. Y.; M. C. Brush, Boston, Mass.; 
W. F. Ham, Washington, D. C; subjects — C. L. Henry, 
chairman, Indianapolis, Ind. ; R. E. Danforth, Newark, 
N. J.; H. C. Clark, New York, N. Y.; C. S. Mitchell, 
president Accountants' Association, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 
L. P. Crecelius, president, Engineering Associa- 
tion, Cleveland, Ohio; William Tichenor, presi- 
dent, Claims Association, Indianapolis, Ind.; M. C. 
Brush, president, Transportation and Traffic Associa- 
tion, Boston, Mass. 

Taxation matters — ■ T. W. Wilson, chairman, Wil- 
mington, Del.; Alabama — J. P. H. DeWindt, Birming- 
ham, Ala.; Arizona — R. G. Arthur, Douglas, Ariz.; 
Arkansas — C. J. Griffith, Little Rock, Ark. ; California 
— H. A. Mitchell, San Francisco, Cal.; Colorado — B. M. 
Lathrop, Colorado Springs, Colo. ; Connecticut — L. S. 
Storrs, New Haven, Conn. ; Delaware — T. W. Wilson, 
Wilmington, Del. ; District of Columbia — W. F. Ham, 
Washington, D. C. ; Florida — -Hardy Croom, Jackson- 
ville, Fla. ; Georgia — P. S. Arkwright, Atlanta, Ga. ; 
Indiana — R. I. Todd, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Iowa — W. G. 
Dows, Cedar Rapids, Iowa ; Kansas — A. M. Patten, 
Topeka, Kans. ; Kentucky — F. W. Bacon, Lexington, 
Ky. ; Louisiana — Jos. H. DeGrange, New Orleans, La.; 
Maine — Howard Corning, Bangor, Me.; Maryland — J. 
J. Doyle, Baltimore, Md. ; Massachusetts — H. S. Lyons, 
Boston, Mass.; Michigan — F. W. Brooks, Detroit; Min- 
nesota — A. M. Robertson, Minneapolis; Mississippi 
— A. B. Paterson, Meridian, Miss.; Missouri — A. H. 
Rogers, Webb City, Mo.; Montana — W. C. Callaghan, 



60 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Helena, Mont; Nebraska — W. A. Smith, Omaha, Neb.; 
New Hampshire — E. C. Foster, Manchester, N. H.; 
New Jersey — George Barker, Newark, N. J. ; New 
Mexico — W. P. Southard, Las Vegas, New Mexico; New 
York — B. E. Tilton, Syracuse, N. Y. ; North Carolina 
— H. W. Plummer, Asheville, N. C. ; North Dakota — 

C. P. Brown, Fargo, N. D.; Ohio — W. A. Draper, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio; Oregon — C. N. Huggins, Portland, Ore.; 
Pennsylvania — C. L. S. Tingley, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Rhode Island — D. F. Sherman, Providence, R. I.; South 
Carolina — F. H. Knox, Spartanburg, S. C. ; South 
Dakota— F. M. Mills, Sioux Falls, S. D.; Tennessee— 
E. D. Reed, Chattanooga, Tenn. ; Texas — W. J. Jones, 
Austin, Tex. ; Utah — Simon Bamberger, Salt Lake City, 
Utah; Vermont — E. M. Addis, Brattleboro, Vt.; 
Virginia — A. B. Guigon, Richmond, Va. ; Washingtoyi 
— J. B. Howe, Seattle, Wash.; West Virginia — W. W. 
Magoon, Huntington, W. Va. ; Wisconsin — Dudley 
Montgomery, Madison, Wis. ; Canada : British Colum- 
bia — George Kidd, Vancouver, B. C; Manitoba — Wil- 
ford Phillips, Winnipeg, Man.; Nova Scotia — J. W. 
Crosby, Halifax, N. S., Can.; Ontario — J. D. Fraser, 
Ottawa, Ont. ; Quebec — Patrick Dubee, Montreal, Que. 

Valuation — L. S. Storrs, chairman, New Haven, 
Conn.; James D. Mortimer, Milwaukee, Wis.; J. N. 
Shannahan, Hampton, Va. ; H. H. Crowell, Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich.; Gerhard Dahl, New York, N. Y.; B. E. 
Tilton, Syracuse, N. Y. ; C. S. Sergeant, Boston, Mass. ; 
W. H. Sawyer, Columbus, Ohio; Martin Schreiber, 
Newark, N. J. ; ways and means — J. H. Pardee, chair- 
man, New York, N. Y. ; H. C. Donecker, Newark, N. J.; 
Harlow C. Clark, New York, N. Y. 

American Association Special Committees 

Arrangements for midyear meeting — Charles L. 
Henry, chairman, Indianapolis, Lnd. ; M. C. Brush, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; J. H. Hanna, Washington, D. C. ; W. F. 
Ham, Washington, D. C; Charles C. Peirce, Boston, 
Mass. ; S. K. Colby, Baltimore, Md. ; Bertram Berry, 
New York, N. Y. ; conferring with other associations 
regarding meeting dates — H. C. Clark, chairman, New 
York, N. Y.; E. B. Burritt, New York, N. Y. ; H. G. 
McConnaughy, New York, N. Y. ; membership provi- 
sions (representing the American Electric Railway 
Association) — L. S. Storrs, chairman, New Haven, 
Conn.; C. L. Henry, Indianapolis, lnd. ; C. S. Mitchell, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; L. P. Crecelius, Cleveland, Ohio; James 
H. McGraw, New York, N. Y. ; (representing the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association) 
Charles C. Peirce, Boston, Mass.; S. K. Colby, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Accountants' Association Committees 

Freight and express accounting — E. L. Kasemeier, 
chairman, Springfield, Ohio; Walter Shroyer, Ander- 
son, lnd.; H. H. Reed, Boston, Mass.; H. B. Cavanaugh, 
Cleveland, Ohio; A. E. Dedrick, Youngstown, Ohio.; 
passenger accounting — L. T. Hixson, chairman, Indian- 
apolis, lnd.; John M. C. Horn, Champaign, 111.; R. J. 
Clark, Kansas City, Mo.; T. B. MacRae, Chicago, 111.; 
Irwin Fullerton, Detroit, Mich. ; representing associa- 
tion at convention of railroad commissioners, 1915 — 
W. F. Ham, chairman, Washington, D. C; C. L. S. 
Tingley, Philadelphia, Pa.; P. S. Young, Newark, N. J.; 
standard classification of accounts — H. L. Wilson, 
chairman, Boston, Mass. ; W. F. Ham, Washington, 

D. C; W. H. Forse, Jr., Anderson, lnd.; R. N. Wallis, 
Fitchburg, Mass. ; Percy S. Young, Newark, N. J. 

Engineering Association Committees 

Buildings and structures — C. F. Bedwell, chairman, 
Newark, N. J. ; H. G. Salisbury, Toronto, Ont., Can. ; 



R. C. Bird, New York, N. Y. ; L. C. Datz, New Orleans, 
La.; T. H. Frank, Philadelphia, Pa.; W. H. Roberts, 
Akron, Ohio; F. H. Miller, Louisville, Ky.; H. G. 
Throop, Syracuse, N. Y. ; electrolysis — A. S. Richey, 
chairman, Worcester, Mass. ; G. W. Palmer, Jr., Bos- 
ton, Mass.; E. B. Katte, New York, N. Y.; E. J. Blair, 
Chicago, 111. ; equipment — W. G. Gove, chairman, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.; L. M. Clark, Indianapolis, lnd.; F. R. Phil- 
lips, Pittsburgh, Pa.; W. R. McRae, Toronto, Ont, 
Can.; R. N. Hemming, Anderson, lnd.; F. W. Garrett, 
Boston, Mass.; W. E. Johnson, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; J. R. 
Ayers, Utica, N. Y. ; R. H. Dalgleish, Washington, D. C. 

Heavy electric traction — E. R. Hill, chairman, New 
York, N. Y. ; E. B. Katte, New York, N. Y. ; W. S. Mur- 
ray, New Haven, Conn. ; Hugh Hazelton, New York, 
N. Y. ; J. M. Bosenbury, Peoria, 111.; C. H. Quinn, Roa- 
noke, Va. ; power distribution — A. S. Richey, chairman, 
Worcester; G. W. Palmer, Boston; R. H. Rice, Chi- 
cago, 111.; C. L. Cadle, Rochester, N. Y.; E. J. Blair, 
Chicago, 111.; C. R. Harte, New Haven, Conn.; C. F. 
Woods, Boston, Mass.; D. E. Crouse, Annapolis, Md. ; 
Gaylord Thompson, Trenton, N. J. ; power generation — 
J. W. Welsh, chairman, Pittsburgh, Pa.; R. J. S. Pig- 
gott, New York, N. Y. ; Fay Woodmansee, Chicago, 111.; 

G. H. Kelsay, Anderson, lnd.; A. B. Stitzer, Youngs- 
town, Ohio; W. H. Roberts, Akron, Ohio; E. H. Sco- 
field, Minneapolis, Minn.; E. D. Smith, St. Louis, Mo.; 
way matters — C. S. Kimball, chairman, Washington, 
D. C.; H. F. Merker, East St. Louis, 111.; E. H. Berry, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; E. P. Roundey, Syracuse, N. Y. ; W. 

F. Graves, Montreal, Que., Can.; R. C. Cram, Brooklyn, 
N. Y.; C. W. Gennet, Jr., Chicago, 111.; E. M. Haas, 
Chicago, 111.; L. A. Mitchell, Anderson, lnd. 

Claims Association Committees 

Accident prevention board — W. F. Weh, chairman, 
Cleveland; William Tichenor, Indianapolis; George 
Carson, Seattle, Wash.; R. E. MacDougall, Rochester, 
N. Y.; B. B. Davis, Columbus, Ohio; Peter C. Nickel, 
New York, N. Y. ; F. J. Whitehead, Washington, D. C. ; 
S. B. Hare, Altoona, Pa.; C. B. Proctor, Memphis, Tenn.; 

H. R. Goshorn, Philadelphia, Pa., past president; 
Charles B. Hardin, St. Louis, Mo., past president; E. 
C. Carpenter, past president; H. V. Drown, Newark, 
N. J., past president; H. K. Bennett, past president; 
C. A. Avant, Birmingham, Ala., past president; J. S. 
Doyle, New York, N. Y., representing Engineering As- 
sociation ; H. E. Reynolds, Boston, Mass., represent- 
ing Transportation and Traffic Association ; employ- 
ment — B. B. Davis, chairman, Columbus, Ohio; E. E. 
Slick, Anderson, lnd. ; subjects — F. D. Edmunds, chair- 
man, New York, N. Y. ; H. D. Briggs, Newark, N. J.; 
J. E. Burr, Pottsville, Pa.; ways and means — J. S. Har- 
rison, chairman, Jacksonville, Fla. ; J. S. Kubu, Utica, 
N. Y.; A. Dixon, El Paso, Tex. 

Transportation and Traffic Association 
Committees 

Construction of schedules and timetables — Alexander 
Jackson, chairman, Newark, N. J.; J. J. Dempsey, vice- 
chairman, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; C. B. Wells, Denver, Colo.; 

G. A. Richardson, Seattle, Wash.; Howard F. Fritch, 
Boston, Mass. ; express and freight traffic — F. D. Nor- 
viel, chairman, Anderson, lnd.; C. F. Handshy, Spring- 
field, 111.; F. W. Coen, Sandusky, Ohio; E. T. Chapman, 
New Haven, Conn.; H. E. Reynolds, Boston, Mass.; 
George H. Harris, Oakland, Cal. ; fares and transfers — 
J. E. Duffy, chairman, Syracuse, N. Y. ; J. V. Sullivan, 
Chicago, 111. ; G. K. Jeffries, Indianapolis, lnd. ; C. E. 
Learned, Boston, Mass. ; B. C. Edgar, Nashville, Tenn. ; 

H. T. Jones, San Francisco, Cal. ; passenger traffic — 
P. P. Crafts, chairman, Mobile, Ala.; E. E. Soules, 
Peoria, 111.; F. W. Hild, Portland, Ore.; J. A. Green- 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



61 



land, Fort Wayne, Ind. ; J. K. Pur.derford, New Haven, 
Conn.; E. M. Walker, Dubuque, Iowa. 

Rules — W. H. Collins, chairman, Gloversville, N. Y. ; 
L. H. Palmer, vice-chairman, New York, N. Y. ; W. C. 
Callaghan, Helena, Mont.; C. E. Morgan, Jackson, 
Mich. ; Sam W. Greenland, Fort Wayne, Ind. ; W. R. W. 
Griffin, East Liverpool, Ohio; Edward Dana, Boston, 
Mass. ; standards — L. H. Palmer, chairman, New York, 
N. Y.; C. V. Wood, Springfield, Mass.; J. N. Shanna- 
han, Hampton, Va. ; N. W. Bolen, Newark, N. J.; J. E. 
Gibson, Kansas City, Mo.; F. D. Norviel, Anderson, 
Ind.; W. H. Collins, Gloversville, N. Y.; C. S. Ching, 
Boston, Mass.; P. P. Crafts, Mobile, Ala.; Alexander 
Jackson, Newark, N. J.; George L. Radcliffe, Cleveland, 
Ohio; subjects — H. C. Donecker, chairman, Newark, N. 
J.; L. H. Palmer, New York, N. Y.; E. F. Schneider, 
Cleveland, Ohio; training of transportation employees — 
C. S. Ching, chairman, Boston, Mass.; W. J. Harvie, 
Syracuse, N. Y. ; Bruce Cameron, St. Louis, Mo.; E. E. 
Strong, Rochester, N. Y. ; F. I. Hardy, South Bend, 
Ind. ; to develop uniform definitions— H. C. Donecker, 
chairman, Newark, N. J.; Frederic Nicholas, New 
York, N. Y. ; William C. Greenough, Worcester, Mass. 

Joint Committees, Accountants' and Engineering 

Engineering accounting — Accountants — F. H. Sillick, 
co-chairman, New York, N. Y. ; M. W. Glover, Mobile, 
Ala.; Charles H. Lahr, Akron, Ohio; J. C. Collins, Ro- 
chester, N. Y. ; H. A. Gidney, Boston, Mass. ; engineers — 
Charles Ruf us Harte, co-chairman, New Haven, Conn. ; 
Martin Schreiber, Newark, N. J.; C. H. Clark, Cleve- 
land, Ohio; J. P. Ripley, New York, N. Y.; J. P. 
Barnes, Rochester, N. Y. ; life of railway physical prop- 
erty — engineering — Martin Schreiber, co-chairman, 
Newark, N. J. ; Robert B. Rifenberick, Detroit, Mich. ; 
J. H. Hanna, Washington, D. C. (Accounting mem- 
bers not yet appointed.) 

Joint Committee, Accountants' and Transportation 
and Traffic 

Transportation accounting — accountants — M. R. Boy- 
Ian, co-chairman, Newark, N. J. ; G. W. Kalweit, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. ; I. A. May, New Haven, Conn. (Trans- 
portation & Traffic members not yet appointed.) 

Joint Committees, Engineering and Transporta- 
tion and Traffic 

Block signals for electric railways — engineers — J. M. 
Waldron, co-chairman, New York, N. Y. ; C. H. Morri- 
son, New Haven, Conn. ; J. Leisenring, Peoria, 111. ; G. 
N. Brown, Syracuse, N. Y. ; transportation and traffic — 
J. W. Brown, co-chairman, Newark, N. J.; C. D. Em- 
mons, South Bend, Ind.; H. A. Nicholl, Anderson, Ind.; 
A. E. Roome, Los Angeles, Cal. ; transportation engi- 
neering — engineers — R. N. Hemming, co-chairman, An- 
derson, Ind. ; W. E. Rolston, Michigan City, Ind. ; R. D. 
Beatty, Cleveland, Ohio; transportation and traffic — 
P. N. Jones, co-chairman, Pittsburgh, Pa.; J. B. Stew- 
art, Jr., Youngstown, Ohio; C. N. Wilcoxon, Michigan 
City, Ind. 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION CORRESPONDENCE 
COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 
The International Correspondence Schools, with 
which the educational committee of the American As- 
sociation has arranged for conducting the courses out- 
lined in the 1914 report of the committee, has issued a 
special circular briefly describing these courses. Copies 
of the leaflet can be secured by addressing Secretary 
Burritt. It is the plan of the committee to have the 
courses in full operation at once, and the committee has 
been pleased to learn from the officials of the correspon- 



dence schools that enrollments are already being se- 
cured. At the committee meeting to be held next Mon- 
day, arrangements will be made for supplying full in- 
formation to member companies and their employees 
regarding the part which the association will play in 
conducting the courses. 



MID-YEAR MEETING ARRANGEMENTS 

Secretaries Burritt and McConnoughy are in Wash- 
ington at work upon the details of the mid-winter meet- 
ing program and will announce them in a few days. 

The committee in charge of transportation matters 
held a meeting in New York on 'Dec. 21 to discuss the 
subject of special trains from New York and Chicago. 
The former will leave New York about 1 -a. m. on Friday 
Jan. 29, arriving at Washington not later than 8 a. m. 
No arrangement for a special train returning will be 
made. A local sub-committee was appointed to make the 
arrangements for the special train from Chicago. 

The general plan of procedure adopted by the commit- 
tee for suggestion to the association secretaries was 
this: Notices regarding the dinner and special trains, 
and applications for dinner tickets will be sent to com- 
pany and individual members of both associations. 
Upon receipt of an application a dinner ticket will be 
sent for each individual, with a circular giving infor- 
mation regarding special trains, and a post-card appli- 
cation form for train space. These cards, when re- 
turned, will be forwarded to the railroad company 
which will issue tickets, including an identification card 
admitting to a special train. 



COMING COMMITTEE MEETINGS 

Jan. 4, New York, 10 a. m., American Association 
educational committee, H. H. Norris, associate editor, 
Electric Railway Journal, chairman. 

The meetings of certain sub-committees of the joint 
committee on block signals, scheduled for Jan. 4 and 5 
have been postponed. 

Jan. 7, New York 2 p. m., American Association 
valuation committee, L. S. Storrs, president The Con- 
necticut Company, chairman. 

Jan. 11, Chicago (Congress Hotel), sub-committees 
of the Engineering and Transportation & Traffic Asso- 
ciations' joint committee on block signals for electric 
railways, J. M. Waldron, signal engineer Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company, and J. W. Brown, assistant 
general superintendent Public Service Railway, co-chair- 
men, will meet as follows : on certain changes in 
phraseology in regard to standard light aspects, J. W. 
Brown, chairman ; on revision of block signal rules for 
contactor signals, C. D. Emmons, Chicago, South Bend 
& Indiana Traction Company, chairman ; on study of 
highway crossing protection, J. Leisenring, Illinois 
Traction System, chairman ; to report on advisability of 
operating single-track interurban signal-blocked lines 
without dispatchers, H. A. Nicholl, Union Traction 
Company of Indiana, chairman. 

Jan. 28, Washington (New Willard Hotel), 10 a. m., 
American Association executive committee, C. Loomis 
Allen, Allen & Peck, Inc., chairman. 



REQUEST TO COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN 

Secretary Burritt has requested that chairmen of 
committees have progress reports in his hands by Jan. 
20 in order that they may be digested and presented to 
the executive committee at the above meeting in Wash- 
ington. 



62 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Equipment and Its Maintenance 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical 
Practices in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

(Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will be Paid for at Special Rates.) 



Location of Trolley Wire on Curves — I 

BY S. L. FOSTER, CHIEF ELECTRICIAN UNITED RAILROADS OF 
SAN FRANCISCO 

As long ago as 1895 the author evolved a plan for 
getting the exact location of the trolley wire on curves 
that proved extremely simple and satisfactory, and he 
had always supposed that others similarly situated had 
done as well or better. Of late there has been much in 
print on this subject, but as nothing has seemed to be 
as efficient as the results of the author's work of 1895, 
it may be worth while to present it. 

Of course, the trolley wire location can be found by 
the use of a drafting table and a lot of instruments and 
time, and it can be calculated for each case from a 
complete set of essential measurements. However, in 
flat city work the writer's twenty-year old method calls 
for no mathematical work, neither mental nor written, 
by the linemen and but one-official calculation is needed 
for each type of car. 

The author's original formula is identical with the 
one presented to the American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Association by the committee on power distri- 
bution at its annual 1914 convention, except that the 
latter formula omits consideration of the wheelbase of 
a double-truck car. This omission is not very serious 
but, as it causes an error of from x h in. to IV2 in. in 
the accuracy of the trolley location, this factor would 
seem to be worth incorporating in the formula. 

The 1895 formula was as follows: 

o = R—^R—{JLy—f B 2 y + c=-L>+ (H-iy 

EH 
+ -G 

Where = offset of trolley wire from center of track 

toward inside of curve 
E = elevation of outer rail 
H = height of trolley wire above rail 
G = gage or distance between rails of one 

track 
R = radius of curve 
b = wheelbase of one truck 
B = center to center of king pins of the two 

trucks 

C = center of car to center of trolley base 
L = length of trolley pole 
/ = height of car roof above rail. 

The feature of interest of the author's method, how- 
ever, is not in the formula but in the fact that from it 
was obtained the length of a chord that was common to 
all curves and that served for the lineman everywhere 
and forever as long as the type of car and height of 
trolley wire remained unchanged. 

For example, in fiat city work with a certain type of 
car the lineman needed only to be told to stretch a line 
31 ft. long as a chord across the curve and to measure 
from the center, or 15y 2 -ft. mark, the shortest distance 
or versed sine or middle ordinate to the nearest rail to 
get the distance to locate the trolley wire inside the 
center of the track on any and every curve. 

In country work with 19-ft. height of trolley, the 



standard of the California State Railroad Commission, 
the lineman, of course, has to multiply each inch of ele- 
vation of the outer rail by 4 and add this product to his 
versed sine obtained by the common chord. 

When new types of cars were added, the line foreman 
was given a new common chord length for each one. 
When several types of cars used the same curves the 
average length of the common chord was used, etc. The 
following is a more exhaustive presentation of this and 
other subjects connected with the location of over- 
head curves. 

The proper location of the trolley wire on curves in 
American practice, where the usual trolley wheel harp 
is used, depends on — 

First — The dimensions of the car used, the trolley 
pole and the height of the trolley wire. 

Second — The gage of the track, the radius of the 
curve and the elevation of the outer rail. 

Third — The distance between the ears or points of 
support. 

In the following calculations it is assumed (1) that 
when there is but one trolley pole on a car it will be 
located at the exact center of the car roof, and (2) 
that when there are two poles on a car the rear pole 
only will be used and used trailing. 

Formulas 

In deriving a general formula for use in determining 
the exact proper location of the trolley wire for least 
trolley wheel friction the following letters will be used : 
R for radius of the center line of the track 
g for gage of the track — distance between rails on one 
track 

b for wheelbase of one truck, that is to say, from cen- 
ter to center of the two axles on one truck 
B for distance from the center of one truck to the cen- 
ter of the other truck 
C for distance from the center of one trolley base to the 

center of the car roof 
h for height of the trolley wire above the top of the 
rail 

i for height of the base of the effective trolley pole 
or top of the car roof above the top of the rail 

I for length of the trolley pole or distance from top 
of the car roof to trolley wire contact with trol- 
ley wheel measured along the line of the trolley 
pole 

p for projection of the trolley pole on the horizontal 
plane in which the trolley wire lies. 

All these measurements are in feet. When the trol- 
ley wheel is rolling along the wire on the straight 
track, it is doing so with the least frictional resistance 
compatible with sufficient electrical contact. The prob- 
lem to be solved here is so to locate the trolley wire 
over the curved track that the trolley wheel with the 
usual American rigid harp, as distinguished from 
the English bed-caster type of harp, will still roll 
around on the curved wire with approximately the same 
small resistance as on the straight track. 

In order to secure this result the trolley wire curve 
must be moved in or out, usually in, until the projec- 
tion of the trolley pole makes a true tangent with this 
trolley curve. The trolley wire is then parallel to the 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



63 



sides of the trolley wheel and not at an angle with 
them as is the case when the curved trolley wire is not 
properly located and the wheel scrapes against the wire 
as it passes, wearing both rapidly. 

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of the trol- 
ley pole extending from the car roof to the trolley wire 
at the usual angle of about 45 deg. From this figure 
it is clear that the projection, 

(1) 



Trolley Wire, 
Car Roof 



p = yi'— (h 


— iy 








1 




M 
i 





Rail 



1 i 



FIG. 1 — STUDY OF TROLLEY POLE PROJECTION 

Fig. 2 is a diagram representing a double-truck car 
on a curved track. In this figure 
a, a, a = the center line of the curved track 
K, K = the rails of curved track 
b, b = the two four-wheeled trucks of the car 
d = the center of the car 
e = the location of the trolley base 
/ = the center of one truck 
g = the gage of the track 

m = the trolley wheel on the projection of the 
trolley pole when on the wire over the 
center of the track 

n = the trolley wheel when the trolley wire curve 
is so located that the projection of the 
trolley pole is a tangent to the trolley wire 
curve, making an angle of 90 deg. with 
the radius. 

= the center of the curve 

R = the radius of the center of the track curve 

R' = the radius of the properly located trolley wire 
curve — s, s — that is sought. 
We will determine the factors in the formula step by 
step as follows: 




FIG. 2 — DOUBLE-TRUCK CAR ON CURVED TRACK 

Case A — The center / of one truck is distant radially 
from the curve a, a, a, a distance expressed by 



R 



— I — - 1 as will be clear from Fig. 3. 



In Fig. 3, 

ACE = a short arc of the track curve to which the 
wheelbase of one truck is chord AE. 

— = half the wheelbase of one truck , 

U 



R 



D 



radius of center of track curve 



V.S. = Versed sine or middle ordinate or distance the 
center / of the truck is inside the center of 
the track = 



as will be 



Case B — The center d of the car is distant radially 
from the center of the track curve — a, a, a — a distance 

expressed by R — -^R 2 — ~~ (~^~) 

clear from Fig. 4. 
In Fig. 4, 

A'C'E' =A short arc of a curve passing through the 
centers of the two trucks and to which the 
imaginary line joining the centers of two 
trucks is a chord A'E' . 

— = Half the distance between centers of trucks 
2 

D = Radius of an imaginary curve passing through 
the centers of the trucks and having the 
same centers as R in Fig. 3. 

D = R—V.S. on 



V.SS 



•V— ay 



New versed sine or distance center of car is 
inside imaginary curve of radius D 



»-v^fN*-fr)-(i-y 



Since D 



V.S; =D — D' = ^R 2 — f-^J 

Adding this V.S/ to the V.S. obtained from considera- 
tion of Fig. 3 and combining the terms of this sum. 



we 



get v.s. + v.s.' = 



(3) 







/ 






D fir 


o 






FIG. 3 — RADIAL DISTANCE FROM CENTER OF ONE TRUCK ; 
FIG. 4 — RADIAL DISTANCE OF CAR CENTER "D" 
FROM CENTER OF TRACK CURVE 

Case C — Returning now to Fig. 2, 

do = R— (V.S. + V.S.') (4) 
eo = y(rfo) 2 + (edy (5) 
ed = C or distance from the center of the trolley base 

to the center of the car roof. 
en = Projection — p — of trolley pole. 

R' 



V(eo) 2 — (en)' 



(6^ 



64 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Substituting in equation (4) for V.S. + V.S.' its 
value in equation (3) and combining, we get 



^-:fct(x)-(S-)' 



(7) 



Substituting this value of do and value C of ed in 
equation (5) we get, 



eo = 



(8) 



Substituting in equation (6) this value of eo and 
the value of en or p in equation (1) we get, 

«'=^ ! -Y-|-) 2— (4") 2+CB— * 2+ (/i - {)2 (9) 

The distance the trolley wire should be inside the 
center of the track, if flat, is thus, 



R—R'=R- 



(10) 

We will leave formula (10) for the present and take 
up the subject of elevation of outer track rail. 



Machine for Grinding Home-Made Grids 

BY C. L. KELLER, ASSISTANT MASTER MECHANIC DETROIT 
UNITED RAILWAY 

For several years the Detroit United Railway has 
found it could make quite a saving by manufacturing its 

own cast-iron grids. 
In preparing these 
grid castings prior 
to assembling, the 
only work necessary 
embraced grinding 
the contact faces 
smooth and parallel. 
In order to facilitate 
this operation, as 
well as to insure a 
full contact area, a 
special grid grind- 
ing machine has 
been devised. 




Methods of Testing for Short-Circuits in 
Field Coils 

BY F. J. FOOTE, MASTER MECHANIC OHIO ELECTRIC RAIL- 
WAY, COLUMBUS, OHIO 

•There are several satisfactory methods of testing for 
short-circuits in field coils. The writer believes that 
where the fields are out of the motor case the most 
satisfactory field tester is the transformer type. A 
rough sketch of this style is given in Fig. 1. It con- 
sists of a heavy rectangle of laminated iron with an ex- 
citing coil on one leg and the coil to be tested on the 
other. An ammeter is connected in series with the ex- 
citing coil, which is supplied with alternating current 
of proper voltage. If there is no short in the coil the 
ammeter will show only a very small current. With a 
good field coil this current will be the same whether the 
field coil is on the free leg of the transformer or not. 
If there is a short in the coil under test the ammeter 
will indicate the short by showing a heavy current. 

A very convenient circumstance in connection with the 
transformer method is that it not only indicates a 
short, but often cures it. If a short develops the re- 
peated and rapid turning on and off of the current will 
often burn away enough metal at the point where the 
turns are in contact to remove the short entirely. If 
the field is afterward impregnated there is little chance 
that the short will return. While most satisfactory 
where the field is out on the bench, the transformer 
method has the following disadvantages: It cannot be 
used on fields installed in motor cases; the tester is 
somewhat expensive and not all carhouses are supplied 
with alternating current. 

The next best field tester is one that measures the 
actual resistance of the field. This can be done by pass- 
ing a known current through the field and measuring 
the drop with a low-scale voltmeter, and the resistance 
is then computed according to Ohm's law. A more con- 
venient arrangement, however, and one which is on the 
market, is a modified form of Wheatstone bridge which 
gives the resistance directly in ohms. 
One of the advantages of this device 

° / / Telephone 

is that the fields can be tested while 
in place in the motor and need not even 




Field Coil 
to be lesfed 




DETROIT UNITED RAILWAY GRID 
GRINDING MACHINE 



Battery 

FIGS. 1 AND 2 — TRANSFORMER AND BATTERY — TELEPHONE METHODS OF TEST- 
ING FIELD COILS 



This machine was made from an old twist drill grin- 
der by providing a rest with a groove of proper width 
to take the grid casting. The grinding operation con- 
sists simply of sliding the casting forward and back in 
this groove with the face against the wheel. The size 
and location of the groove in the rest is such as to 
insure a good contact between adjacent grid castings 
when mounted on the frame. The simplicity of 
the machine and the easy manner of carrying out the 
work are apparent from the accompanying halftone illus- 
tration. 



be disconnected from each other, as one, two or four 
fields can be tested in series, as desired. To use this 
tester the correct resistance for each type of field must 
be known, but this information is readily obtained from 
the manufacturers, or it can be secured by measuring 
several types of fields which are known to be good and 
taking the average. As with the other methods, some 
judgment must be exercised because fields of the same 
type and number, even when new, will vary slightly in 
resistance. A field should not be condemned if it shows 
a few per cent high or low in resistance. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



65 



Several field testers on the market have proved more 
or less satisfactory, depending on the care and judg- 
ment of the operator. One inexpensive method that has 
proved very useful to the writer in many cases, largely 
because the necessary apparatus is nearly always to be 
found in any carhouse, is illustrated herewith. It re- 
quires one good field of the same kind as the one to be 
tested, a small doorbell battery, an ordinary telephone 
receiver and a buzzer. The two fields, the battery and 
buzzer are connected in series, which will cause the 
buzzer to "buzz"; the receiver wires are then applied 
repeatedly to the terminals, first of one field and then 
of the other, until there is no doubt in the mind of the 
operator as to which field gives the louder sound or if 
there really is a difference in the intensity of sound. If 
the field under test has a very weak sound, it is badly 
shorted and should be condemned. If the difference in 
sound is very slight, it is likely that the field is all right 
and merely of slightly different resistance. With a 
little practice this test gives very satisfactory results, 
especially on small motors and where only one kind of 
motor is handled by the same operator. 



An Oil Bath Tank 

BY R. H. PARSONS, ELECTRICAL FOREMAN 

As a part of the equipment of an electrical repair 
shop an oil bath will be found useful if not positively 
necessary. 

A recommended practice for the treatment of the 
wooden parts of controllers, etc., is as follows: "Use 
kiln-dried lumber and finish complete, taking care to re- 
move all saw marks. Drill all holes except those for wood 




* „ „ t ight Lines indicate 

\\ 4 xlxl Frame location of Tank in 

, Spliced and Riveted . Frame 
at Corner 

Posts p y 



'I. 
Bar 



i-xli 

* _£ Jf 

Bar rivited 
. to Post 
. j PI. stops each end 
4 Coils Series Wound 4" O.C . 



\6alv. Iron Resistance 
Coil on^ Porcelain InsulatS 
j£" Rod Support 



Coils 4" OX. 



j'xll Bar- 
All Rivets i "steel 
SECTION H-H 



tank proper is so made that it can readily be lifted from 
the frame, for the purpose of cleaning, etc. 

The four heater coils, made as part of the frame, are 
so placed that there is a clearance of about 2 in. between 
them and the bottom of the tank. These coils are made 
from the parts of obsolete car heaters. Each coil has a 



SECTION F-F 
Showing bottom 

Splice 




Angle for Support 
in Frame 



No. 16 6a I v Iron 



SECTION D-D 



FIG. 2 — PLAN OF OIL BATH TANK 

resistance of approximately 14 ohms, making a total of 
56 ohms per set. In this way we get about 10 amp at 
the ordinary street railway voltage of 550 or a little 
more. 

The tank itself is shown more clearly in Fig. 2. It is 
constructed of No. 16 galvanized iron, riveted and 
soldered at the joints and made more firm by an angle 
rim around the top. It is supported in the frame by a 
1-in. angle riveted at each end. The cover shown in 
Fig. 3 is made of No. 16 galvanized iron, strengthened 
by a 3/16-in. x 1-in. fiat iron bent edgewise and riveted. 



-3 -1 



Splice Piece 
; same material 
as Frame 



K 9s h< $j-~">l 

* C to C. of Hinges 




I'Rad 



"3 Top of Tank 
■' Frame 

■A Cover Frame 
Is!!-" J"xl" Bar Iron 



I* / ■*! 



Edges of Iron Frame 

Beveled 
Frame of f-/' Iron 2f Steel Rivets 



Rise of Handle 
Handle of ^ "iron 

SECTION B.B 



Bent to shape 



FIG. 1 — PLAN OF FRAME SUPPORT FOR OIL BATH TANK 



SECTION A-A 

FIG. 3 — PLAN OF COVER FOR OIL BATH TANK 



screws. Place in oven and heat for eight hours at a 
temperature of 100 deg. Cent, to 120 deg. Cent. While 
hot place in raw linseed oil at room temperature and 
soak for sixteen hours. Drain for four hours and place 
in oven and bake at a temperature of 120 deg. Cent, for 
four hours. Remove from oven and scrape. Then finish 
with coat of shellac." 

For these controller parts the plain oil bath without 
heat is all that is required. Heat is desirable, however, 
in treating contact rods and other wood which is ex- 
posed to water and weather. In such cases the oil if 
heated to just below the boiling point and kept at that 
heat for about forty hours will permit much deeper 
penetration of hardwoods. 

The oil bath tank herewith illustrated can be used 
for either condition mentioned, and it will also be found 
useful for other purposes. Fig. 1 illustrates the frame 
support for the tank, which is made of 1-in. x 1-in. x 
V±-\n. angle irons riveted together at the corners. The 



This band around the cover makes a strong anchor for 
the hinges and the handle of the cover. The complete 
tank is not heavy and has capacity enough for all 
general purposes. 

Street railways in Kentucky have noted with interest 
the progress of litigation to determine the constitution- 
ality of the workmen's compensation law recently en- 
acted in that State. The lower court has upheld the 
validity of the measure and it is now before the Court 
of Appeals, whose judgment will be final. The traction 
companies have indicated that they will come under the 
law, as if they elect to remain out they lose the right 
to plead the common law defenses in damage suits. 
None of them, as far as has been learned, will enter the 
State insurance system, however, but the usual plan 
will be to carry their own insurance, as at present. 
Under the law the maximum payment for death is 
$3,750. 



66 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Controller Segment Sample Boards 

To insure the correct delivery or purchase of seg- 
ments for the different types of controllers employed 
on the lines of the Chicago, South Bend & Northern 
Indiana Railway, a sample set of segments of each type 




BOARDS CONTAINING CONTROLLER SEGMENT SAMPLES 

of controller has been mounted on a board. Three of 
these sample sets are shown in the accompanying half- 
tone illustration. These boards are hung on the wall 
convenient to the stockroom clerk's window so that when 
a certain segment is desired workmen may indicate it 
on the board. Each segment contains the bin number 
in which it is to be found in the stockroom, as well as 
the manufacturer's catalog number for use in making 
requisitions and orders. 




AXLE CAP WITH FILLER 




Electric Ry.Juurnal 



46 

Jy- 



Oil-Saving Filler for Motor-Axle Cap 

The high-speed cars of the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 
Railroad Company are equipped with either two or four 
GE-66 motors, and W. J. Bowman, master mechanic, 
Wheaton, has devised special filler pieces which, when 
inserted in the axle caps, provide an oil-well space 
for approximately 3 pints of 
oil and improve the oiling ar- 
rangement. The special filler 
pieces have reduced the amount 
of packing about one-half. As 
they are on a 45-deg. angle the 
packing does not drop away 
from the axle, therefore giving 
good lubrication to axle and 
bearings and decreasing the 
wear on both. 

The dimensions of the filler 
pieces, one right and one left 
for each cap, are shown in the 
line drawing. The material is 
1/16-in. sheet iron cut as 

shown, and drilled for bolting to the cap casting. When 
inserted, these two pieces form a 45-deg. baffle, behind 
which clear oil accumulates. Two 3 /±-in. pipes, 9^4 in- 
long, are set vertically under the cap cover and these 



5»® 



DIMENSIONS OF SHEET-IRON FILLER 



permit filling and testing without admission of dirt to 
the oil chamber. 

Since these special baffles have been installed Mr. 
Bowman reports a reduction in the amount of oil used 
and that hot motor axle bearings have been prac- 
tically eliminated. 

Baling Paper by Machine 

While the waste elimination campaign of the larger 
street and interurban railways includes the collection 
of waste paper preparatory to baling and sale, smaller 
companies have not generally adopted this means of 
good housekeeping and economy because the savings 
have been considered too small and the cost of the baling 
outfit too large. Nevertheless, the general repair shops 
and storage yards of the Chicago, South Bend & North- 
ern Indiana Railway, South Bend, Ind., have a small 




WASTE PAPER BALING OUTFIT 

baling equipment which has paid for itself many times. 
The baler proper was purchased from a manufacturer 
at a cost of about $12. All paper collected in the offices, 
stations, shops and cars is placed in the baler, which 
serves as a container until enough has been collected to 
make a 100-lb. bale. Heretofore this company has been 
burning paper rubbish, which not only was wasteful, but 
required the time of one workman as watcher during the 
burning. Now the time required to prepare a bale is 
much less than that necessary to burn the same amount 
of paper, while the paper finds a ready market at ap- 
proximately 40 cents per 100 lb. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



67 



110-Ton D.C. 2400-Volt Locomotives for 
15-mile Chilean Mine Railway 

A remarkable deposit of iron ore is found at Tofo, 
Chile, where the Bethlehem-Chile Iron Mines Company 
is preparing to mine it for shipment to the United 
States via Panama Canal for use in the blast furnaces 
at South Bethlehem, Pa. These mines occupy the sum- 
mits of two hills, approximately 2000 ft. above sea level 
and about 4 miles in an air line from the port of Cruz 
Grande. 

An electric railway operating at 2400 volts direct 
current is now being built from the mines to the piers 
for a length of approximately 15 miles (within a 4-mile 
air line) with an average grade of 3 per cent for nearly 
the entire distance. This is also the maximum grade. 
The physical conditions made it desirable to use re- 
generative control and electric braking, thereby econ- 
omizing energy, brakeshoes and wheels. 

The General Electric locomotives designed for this 
service will weigh 110 tons on drivers and will be 
equiped with four 300-hp 1200/2400-volt motors oper- 
ated two connected permanently in series on 2400 volts. 
The first installation will consist of three locomotives, 
each having a capacity to haul a 450-ton train up grade 
at 10 V2 m.p.h. and exerting the same braking effort when 
regenerating at 12 m.p.h. If the locomotives are operat- 
ing with the maximum train weights down grade a por- 
tion of the braking will be done with air brakes, and 
when stopping air brakes will be used alone. 

The trolley will be of No. 0000 grooved copper wire 
catenary suspended from a steel messenger supported 
by a mixture of bracket and cross-span construction on 
United States cedar poles, as Chile grows no timber suit- 
able for this purpose. A duplicate 22,000-volt high- 
tension transmission line will in general follow the trol- 
ley and will be carried on the same poles when possible. 

In the power house oil-fired boilers are to be used. 
The oil will be received in tank vessels and pumped to an 
oil storage tank above the power station. The generat- 
ing room will contain two 3500-kw, three-phase, sixty- 
cycle, 2300-volt Curtis steam turbines with direct-con- 
nected exciters for supplying power to the railroad and 
the mines ; two 300-kw, three-phase, sixty-cycle, 600-volt 
turbines for operating motor-driven auxiliaries, fire 
pumps, etc., and at night, lights for the piers, villages, 
and mines when the main turbines are shut down. 



Street and Station Indicator Used] at 
Los Angeles 

The Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal., is 
now trying out the street and station indicator of the 
National Street & Station Indicator Company of that 
city, as hereinafter described. 

The truck of the car carries two horizontal magnets 
spaced 36 in. apart, about 4 in. above the pavement, al- 
though it is possible to carry them higher. Half-way be- 
tween these two magnets is an airtight and waterproof 
compartment, containing a miniature armature in the 
form of a vane held in normal position by a spring. 
Near places where it is desired to announce a new street 
or station, two 2-in. x Vi-in. bars of iron 1 ft. apart are 
installed parallel with the rails, each bar being 6 in. on 
either side of the center of the track. These bars range 
in length from 3 ft. in the downtown districts to 6 ft. 
on suburban lines. They may be covered with pave- 
ment. 

When the truck magnets are brought close to the two 
iron bars, the bars form a magnetic field strong enough 
to attract the small armature to a different position. 
In moving to this new position, a switch is operated. 



supplying the indicator mechanism with an impulse 
which causes it to move ahead or back one more space. 
The indication is given a block ahead to give the passen- 
gers time to get ready to alight. The reverse series of 
indications is made automatically upon the reversal of 
the car motor. 

The indicator holds 200 to 400 plates. The device can 
be arranged to show the same name on opposite sides, to 
hang in the center of the car or to operate indicators 
at opposite ends of the car in series. A separate com- 
partment on the end of the indicator case contains an 
oscillating armature with a spring to hold it in normal 
position. The upper end of this armature carries two 
pawls, one for driving in either direction. These pawls 
engage the teeth of a ratchet wheel, which is mounted 
on a shaft extending through the plate compartment. 
This shaft has two or more hexagon disks over which 
the plates are arranged. 

The maker intends to lease these devices at a monthly 
rental and keep them in working order. 



Signal Lighting Transformers 

A new line of miniature air cooled transformers, 
known as type M, has been developed by the General 
Electric Company for railway signal lighting. These 
transformers are distinctive in application and design. 
They are inclosed in a neat and compact case, either 
for indoor use or in a weatherproof form for outdoor 
use. 

The transformers are fitted with standard R.S.A. 




OUTDOOR SIGNAL LIGHTING TRANSFORMERS, 25 TO 125 
WATTS, SIXTY CYCLES, 110 VOLTS PRIMARY, AND 
10 VOLTS AND 6/12 VOLTS SECONDARY 

terminals, as shown by the accompanying illustrations, 
and are furnished in sizes for 25 to 125 watts, twenty- 
five and sixty cycles. 

A lamp of from 2y 2 to 5 watts is generally considered 
sufficient for signal illumination; consequently, a 
transformer of this kind with 6 to 12 volt, 2V2 to 5 
watt, high efficiency Mazda lamps makes a very satis- 
factory, as well as economical, system of lighting. 



A British Consular report states that there are now 
250 miles of double-track electric lines in operation 
within a radius of 50 miles in Osaka, Japan, and that 
a further 80 miles of line are under construction. 



68 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Two Years' Maintenance Record of Track 
Crossing on a Steel Substructure 

On Dec. 4 and 5, 1912, the Union Traction Company 
of Indiana installed on Ohio Avenue, Muncie, Ind., a 
steam railroad double-track crossing of the steel sub- 
structure type made by the International Steel Tie Com- 
pany, Cleveland, Ohio. This crossing consisted of 90-lb. 
A. S. C. E. rail with a compromise joint of 80-lb. A. S. 
C. E. rail at the south end and of 72-lb. T-rail at the 
north end. 

The report made by the user of this installation states 
that during the year 1913 the only charge against the 
crossing was one of $16.57 in labor for surfacing, while 
during the year 1914 the company spent $29.86 in 




CROSS-SECTION AND OTHER DE- 
TAILS OF SUBSTRUCTURE FOR 
HIGH-SPEED CROSSINGS 



A One-Man Internal-Combustion 
Locomotive 

The Internal Combustion Locomotive Company, Wil- 
mington, Del., has just brought out an internal com- 
bustion locomotive for double-end operation similar to 
drivers, frame, and swing form pony trucks for nego- 
tiating sharp curves. The engine is a self-starting six- 
cylinder gasoline equipment which develops 450 hp 
the regulation steam, connecting-rod locomotive with 




ONE-MAN INTERNAL COMBUSTION LOCOMOTIVE 



labor for surfacing and tightening bolts. In two years, 
therefore, only $46.43 was spent for maintenance. Not 
a single bolt was renewed, and the frogs are stated to 
be as good as the day they were put in. The crossings 
installed later on Perkins Avenue, Muncie, also accord- 
ing to the International system, have cost nothing at 
all since they were placed. 

As the detail drawing shows, the substructure com- 
mon to this form of construction is built up on much 
the same lines as the International steel twin ties, and 
the connection of the rail to the substructure is made 
with the standard rail clips. The latter anchor the 
crossing so firmly that creeping is practically impossible. 

It is well known that ordinary wooden ties form an 
unsatisfactory support, and even the use of special 



on the rails. The transmission has a master clutch of 
the Hele-Shaw type, connecting with the engine and 
driving shaft of the variable speed transmission sys- 
tem. The driven shaft of the transmission carries an 
individual clutch for each speed to be applied, thus 
giving a transmission without gears to slide in and out 
of mesh. This transmission differs from the automo- 
bile form in having the same number of speeds for 
backward as for forward running. The application of 
power by this transmission is through chain and 
sprocket, although gears, constantly in mesh, may be 
substituted. The fuel may be gasoline, kerosene, ozo- 
line, crude oil, compressed natural gas or distillates. 
The heating and lighting of the trailing passenger cars 
are provided by the locomotive. 




STEAM RAILROAD CROSSING SUPPORTED ON STEEL SUBSTRUCTURE, OHIO AVENUE, MUNCIE, IND. 



length ties leaves much to be desired. On the other 
hand, a steel substructure of the section illustrated 
gives a firm, non-rocking and non-sagging support on 
a liberal bearing area. The tamping, which has the 
advantage of being entirely under the load, is done with 
a horizontal pick stroke from both sides of each sup- 
porting member, and the job is accomplished far more 
easily and effectively than under wooden ties. 



One of the strongest points asserted in favor of this 
locomotive is its remarkable per car-mile saving in 
operating expense, not to mention the large saving in 
the first cost of new interurban lines. For railroad 
service requiring 35-ton to 50-ton locomotives, and in- 
terurban service, requiring 15-ton to 25-ton machines, 
this internal combustion locomotive is considered ideal. 
It handles trains at a speed of 25 to 50 m.p.h. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



69 



LONDON LETTER 



New Car in Glasgow— London Bill to Unify Electricity Con- 
trol — Serious Interruption to London Surface Traffic 

(From Our Regular Correspondent) 

The Glasgow Corporation is experimenting with a new 
type of car designed by James Dalrymple, the general 
manager of the tramway department, in an endeavor to 
facilitate the egress and ingress of passengers at the 
stopping places. Passengers leave by the front platform 
on the near side of the road, while ingress is only possible 
at the rear end of the car on the near side. In order to 
provide head room for the exit on the front platform, the 
stairway has been moved forward to the dashboard and a 
vertical brake introduced. Hitherto, all the cars have been 
provided with ordinary seats on the upper deck, each cap- 
able of holding two passengers, with a gangway between. 
In the new car each passenger is provided with an inde- 
pendent chair with back rest. Each seat is mounted on a 
pivot, which allows it to be turned when the direction of 
the car is altered. The seats are staggered so that the 
shoulder of one passenger does not come against that of 
his neighbor, but overlaps to a certain extent, securing 
much greater comfort. The use of the car has been sanc- 
tioned by the Board of Trade. 

The Edinburgh & District Tramways has offered to sell 
its undertaking to the corporation for £250,000, although 
the company places its present value at £292,742. The 
corporation tramways committee has decided to take no 
action in the matter, the city chamberlain having sub- 
mitted to the committee a statement showing that the 
purchase of the undertaking at the figure put forward 
would involve a loss of £70,000 to the ratepayers, as com- 
pared with the price the corporation would have to pay 
on the expiration of the lease in 1919. 

The military authorities at York have arranged with 
the corporation tramways committee to extend the tram- 
ways from Lendal Bridge to the railway goods station, and 
from Fulford Road to the Ordnance Stores, to give the 
military authorities facilities for carrying stores from the 
railway to the depot. The military authorities will advance 
the money for the extension, estimated at £4,700, and pay 
carriage on terms whfch are to be fixed. The work will 
be commenced at once. 

The Sheffield tramways committee is recommending the 
City Council to promote a bill in the present session of 
Parliament authorizing the corporation to construct a 
tramway from the junction of Bawtry Road with Sheffield 
Road to the city boundary at Tinsley, and to give the cor- 
poration running powers over the Rotherham Corporation 
Tramways from Weedon Street to the city boundary at 
Tempi eborough; also for power to purchase the Rotherham 
Corporation Tramways within the city, and for power to 
run motor omnibuses from the city boundary at Hands- 
worth Bridge to Aston. Rotherham Corporation, it is re- 
ported, is seeking similar powers in respect to its Sheffield 
service. 

The Hove Town Council has not yet been able to agree 
with the Brighton Town Council as to the particular sys- 
tem of railless traction to be adopted on the through 
routes between the two towns. Hove favors the Cedes- 
Stoll system, which has an over-running trolley, while 
Brighton desires to adopt the under-running trolley sys- 
tem. It looked as if arbitration was the only way in which 
the matter could be settled, but the Hove Council has now 
entered into an agreement with the Brighton Corporation 
for an extension of time for the construction of the 
through routes for a further period of six months on 
condition that the Brighton Corporation agrees to defer 
making application to the Board of Trade for the appoint- 
ment of an arbitrator for a like period. 

The extension of the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway 
from Paddington to Queen's Park, where a junction is 
effected with the main line of the London & North-Western 
Railway, will probably be opened for traffic in January. 
Including Queen's Park, the new line will serve three sta- 
tions and extend the benefit of the tube railway services 
to the populous district of Maida Vale and Kilburn. The 
complete scheme provides for through service from the 
Baker Street & Waterloo System over the new electric 



tracks of the London & North-Western Railway to Wat- 
ford, and at Queen's Park, where the connection between 
the underground and surface railway is made, a new joint 
station is being provided. Through service of the kind 
contemplated between a London tube railway and a main 
line of an existing steam railway constitutes a departure, 
as hitherto, although the London Electric Railways have 
had underground communication with each other, and with 
surface lines there has been no physical junction which 
would permit through service. It will be necessary when 
the Queen's Park extension is first opened for passengers 
to change at Queen's Park into the steam-propelled trains 
of the London & North-Western Railway, which are serv- 
ing the stations on the Watford electric route pending the 
completion of the work of equipment and of the power 
house at Stonebridge Park, but before the end of 1915 
electric service will be in operation between Watford and 
the Elephant and Castle. 

The London County Council is promoting a bill in Parlia- 
ment to unify the control of the supply of electricity in 
and around the metropolis. The measure provides for the 
establishment of the London Electricity Authority, consist- 
ing of representatives of the County and County Borough 
Councils in the area, namely, the County Councils of Lon- 
don, Essex, Kent, Hertford, Middlesex and Surrey, and the 
County Borough Councils of Croydon and East Ham and 
West Ham. Assessable value has been adopted as the basis 
of representation, one member being appointed by each of 
the authorities, with the addition, in each case in which the 
assessable value exceeds £2,500,000, of one member in 
respect of each £2,500,000 of the excess. On this basis the 
membership would be: London County Council, eighteen; 
Middlesex, two, and Essex, Hertford, Kent, "Surrey, East 
Ham, West Ham and Croydon one member each. The 
principle of the bill is that all existing power shall be 
conferred on the authority, but that the powers relating to 
supply and the construction of works, the purchase of 
lands, and the purchase of undertakings shall be dele- 
gated by the authority to an operating company. It is 
provided that the authority shall supply electrical energy 
only to authorized undertakers in the area of supply or 
contiguous to it, to any company or body or persons own- 
ing or working railways, tramways, canals, docks or water- 
works, and for general purposes. The bill has been ap- 
proved by the Parliamentary committee of the London 
County Council. 

The most serious interruption which the London County- 
Council has yet experienced on its vast tramway system 
occurred recently. The entire tramway service of London 
was stopped for nearly twenty-four hours. A transformer 
blew out in the power house at Greenwich. Extensions 
are being carried on there and much temporary work has 
been put up while the alterations were being made. The 
explosion set fire to a wooden staging in the vicinity of the 
switchboard which controls the whole system. This put 
out of service all the cables transmitting energy from 
the switchboard to the various substations. 

The Stepney Borough Council has been advised by the 
London County Council that it intends to relay the lines in 
Burdett Road and Grove Road for horse traction, but in 
such a position that they would be suitable for electrifica- 
tion if desired. 

Application is to be made to Parliament in the present 
session by the Bristol Tramways & Carriage Company, 
Ltd., with respect to the revival of powers and the exten- 
sion of time for the compulsory purchase of lands, and an 
extension of time for the completion of authorized tram- 
ways. The tramways in question are proposed extensions 
of some of the present routes into the country beyond the 
existing city boundaries. The reference to compulsory 
purchase of land is with regard to acquiring strips of 
land in different parishes to provide the required distance 
between the rails and the sidewalks. 

Edinburgh Corporation is applying for a provisional 
order for new tramways and a tram road in the Colinton 
and Corstorphine districts. 

The Dunfermline Town Council has applied for a pro- 
visional order authorizing the construction of a tramway 
between Dunfermline and the new Rosyth dockyard, and 
for permission to link up tramways in the Inverkeithing 
and Forth Bridge districts with those of West Fife. 

A. C. S. 



70 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 1 

News of Electric Railways 



ST. LOUIS MILL TAX DECISION 

Opinion ofj UjU^rge Walker of the Missouri Supreme Court 
Upholds the Right of St. Louis to Tax Fares of 
the United Railroads by the 1904 Ordinance 

On Dec. 19 the Missouri Supreme Court handed down 
an opinion confirming the validity of the mill tax ordinance 
and holding the United Railways, St. Louis, liable for the 
payment of taxes that have accumulated in the ten years 
since the ordinance was passed. The majority opinion was 
written by Judge R. F. Walker and was concurred in by 
Justices Lamm, Woodson and Brown. Judge Woodson filed 
a separate concurring opinion. Judge Graves dissented in 
an opinion in which Judges Farris and Bond concurred. 
Judge Walker held that the ordinance was the exercise of 
a separate and distinct power clearly within the authority 
of the city. The gist of the court's ruling was that the tax 
was not a double tax, Judge Walker declaring it to be a 
license tax and one upon a privilege and not upon the 
property itself and that it did not come within the letter 
or the spirit of the national or State constitution prohibit- 
ing double taxation. Judge Graves held that the validity 
of the ordinance was not settled in the Supreme Court 
of the United States and that the ordinance results in 
double taxation. 

The St. Louis mill tax ordinance was drafted by William 
F. Woerner in 1902. It was finally enacted into law in 
1903 and went into effect on Jan. 1, 1904. An injunction 
against the enforcement of the ordinance was at once 
sought in the Federal Circuit Court by all of the street 
railways in St. Louis and an injunction was granted by 
the lower court restraining the city from collecting the tax 
of 1 mill for every pay passenger carried. The Supreme 
Court of the United States reversed the holding of the 
lower court in May, 1908, and ordered the injunction dis- 
solved. In the meantime the United Railways had absorbed 
all of the other street railways in St. Louis. Suits entered 
in the State circuit courts were delayed by a second appeal 
to the federal courts, which again declined to modify or 
reverse the prior decision. After some further delays the 
cases were then pressed for trial for the collection of the 
tax and judgment given in every instance for the city in 
the respective sums sued for, representing the amount for 
different quarters in question. All of the judgments ren- 
dered in the St. Louis Circuit Courts were then appealed 
by the United Railways to the State Supreme Court. The 
first of these is the one just passed on by that court. The 
amount which has been accumulating for more than ten 
years now totals between $2,000,000 and $3,000,000. The 
company assailed the validity of the ordinance on the fol- 
lowing grounds: 

First — That it was an impairment of contract obligations. 

Second — That it was not within the charter powers of 
the city, for the reason that it was not a license tax, but 
was any one of a number of other things, such, for ex- 
ample, as a general tax upon property, a tax upon gross 
receipts, an occupation tax or an income tax. 

Third — That if the city had power to levy the tax under 
the charter, that power had been taken away by the statutes 
of the State. 

Fourth — That the ordinance was invalid because it con- 
tained more than one subject not expressed in the title. 

Fifth — That the tax violated the provisions of the 
Missouri constitution requiring uniformity of taxation. 

Sixth — That the ordinance was unreasonable. 
■ Following the action of the Missouri Supreme Court re- 
fusing to grant an extension of time to Jan. 10 to attorneys 
for the United Railways in which to file a motion for a 
rehearing in the suit, Henry S. Priest, counsel of the 
company, issued a statement in which he said that the 
motions for rehearings would be filed in the time required 
by law, and that failing the granting of a rehearing the 
matter would be taken to the federal courts again. Mr. 
Priest said in part: 

"I intend to prepare a motion for rehearing and by brief 
in support of it to demonstrate to the court that the major- 



ity opinion is predicated upon a misapprehension both of 
law and of fact in the record. 

"I am sure I note in the majority opinion some misappre- 
hension of fact and some omissions of fact and some calcu- 
lations as to fact, and consequently some misapprehension 
of law, which I am sure the majority will be quite willing 
to correct, and possibly, upon correction, change its views 
as to the ultimate decision of the case. 

"I cannot, of course, anticipate what action the Supreme 
Court will take on such motion for rehearing, as I may 
file. I shall call the attention of the court to many cases 
which I cited in my brief and some subsequently rendered, 
none of which were cited or commented upon in the ma- 
jority opinion, and ask it to consider and distinguish those 
cases in their application to the issues which the court has 
before it. 

"The opinion of the court based the affirmance of the 
judgment below wholly upon the fact or supposed fact that 
the precise and identical issues now before it were decided 
and determined adversely to the United Railways, in the 
suit brought by the company against the city and decided 
by the Supreme Court of the United States, reported in 
210 United States Supreme Court Reports. 

"A decision of the Federal Court is a federal \a\f. 
and the Supreme Court of the United States is the final 
interpreter of all federal laws that are drawn in question 
and form the basis of judicial judgment. From the fact, 
therefore, that the Supreme Court has predicated the city's 
right to recover in these cases upon a judgment of the 
Supreme Court of the United States gives the United Rail- 
ways Company, upon that question alone, the right to ap- 
peal to the Supreme Court of the United States as the final 
interpreter of its own opinion." 



WHAT BRITISH RAILWAYS DID AT THE OUTBREAK 
OF THE WAR 

According to the Tramway and Railway World of Dec. 10, 
1914, the members of the Railway Executive Committee of 
Great Britain were on Nov. 13 the guests of honor of the 
American Luncheon Club at the Savoy, London. H. A. 
Walker, general manager of the London & South-Western 
Railway, reviewed the way the railways handled the mili- 
tary traffic on the outbreak of war. Mr. Walker said: 

"The government gave the railways a time limit of sixty 
hours to make ready for the despatch of 350 trains of, 
roundly, thirty vehicles each to Southampton, the port of 
departure for the expeditionary force. We delivered the 
goods, as Americans would say, in forty-eight hours. For 
practically every day of the first three weeks of the war, 
we handled at Southampton during a period of fourteen 
hours no fewer than seventy-three of these trains, including 
the running of them to the boat side and the unloading of 
the full equipment of guns, ammunition and horses. The 
trains arrived at intervals averaging twelve minutes. It 
was a matter of special pride to all the railwaymen con- 
cerned — and we general managers give credit for the feat 
to the efficiency of our disciplined staffs — that practically 
every train without exception came in on schedule time. 
Some of them came from remote parts of the kingdom — 
Wales and the north of Scotland." 

H. W. Thornton, general manager of the Great Eastern 
Railway, and lately of the Long Island division of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, in acknowledging a tribute which 
the previous speaker had paid to his zeal during mobiliza- 
tion, said that so far as his knowledge of transportation 
achievements went, there was no event in railway history 
to compare with what British lines had accomplished in 
August, 1914. Certainly in America, "the land of big 
stunts," there had never been anything which could be 
compared 'to it. 

Sir Guy Granet, general manager of the Midland Railway, 
who also spoke, declared that primary credit for the really 
remarkable work performed by British railways during the 
days of mobilization was due to the energetic direction of 
the railway executive committee's labors by its chairman, 
H. A. Walker. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



71 



POINTED PARAGRAPHS ON PUBLIC POLICY 

During nineteen years' experience in utility work D. L. 
Gaskill, Greenville, Ohio, has observed that there are cer- 
tain definite factors which tend to produce congenial rela- 
tions betwen the public and the utility companies. In his 
characteristic epigrammatic style Mr. Gaskill recently gave 
some of his thoughts on this subject to the members of the 
Indiana Electric Light Association at their convention in 
Indianapolis. The following paragraphs are excerpts from 
his address: 

"To-day to the alert public utility manager the public 
policy of the company is a distinct and well-defined part 
of his organization, calling for expenditure of time and 
money and bringing greater results, both good and bad, 
than any other department. 

"The interest of the public in the utility is confined to 
two things — service and rates. When the utility has made 
the first of these perfect and the latter reasonable, and 
has convinced the public that it has done so, the public 
policy of that company is a pretty well-settled question. 

"I know of some cases in which regulations controlling 
service in Western towns are made by men in Eastern 
cities, and the fit they make is wondrous to behold. It is 
comparable to an elephant's blanket for a Shetland pony. 
Straightforward and open dealing, with few rules, will 
produce less discrimination than lots of rules and part of 
them broken. 

"A disordered liver and a utility manager have no busi- 
ness being incorporated in the same man. They won't 
mix. The man who can receive a complaint as if it were 
a pleasure is the pearl we are seeking. No other is worth 
the price of his wages. 

"Not all complaints are worthy, not all are well founded, 
but all persons having them think that they are, and to 
receive them, attend to them, and make the complainant 
think he has attained his end, is the art we should cultivate. 

"I believe that it would be a good thing for utilities if a 
law could be passed requiring the public utility manager 
to call upon every business customer at least once a 
month and ascertain if his service is satisfactory." 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS 

Indications Point to Their Being Reorganized or Sup- 
planted 

The announced determination of Charles S. Whitman, the 
new Governor of New York, to take up at once the question 
of the Public Service Commissions of New York would indi- 
cate that important changes are likely to be brought about in 
New York State in the method of public service regulation. 
Some time ago agitation was directed chiefly at the commis- 
sion for the second district, which has jurisdiction in the 
state outside of Greater New York. More recently it has 
been directed against the commission in Greater New York. 
It was admitted some time back that the work of the com- 
mission for the second district was considerably behind and 
that complaints and actions were greatly delayed. Follow- 
ing the appointment of Mr. Van Santvoord to that commis- 
sion and the taking of office by Commissioner Emmet the 
work was greatly accelerated so that now there appears to 
be little complaint on the score of the' workings of that body. 

The most recent developments as regards the commission 
for the first district are the letter to Mr. Whitman from the 
president of the City Club, New York, and the defence of 
the commission given out on Dec. 29 by Mr. McCall. Mr. 
Spencer, the president of the club, says that "it is at least a 
matter of doubt whether the commission has used or is using 
its functions to the extent or in the manner contemplated at 
the time of its creation, or, indeed, properly." To which Mr. 
McCall has replied that while he "can readily see that the 
temper of the people may be sorely tried they must recog- 
nize that it would be much easier for all the companies to 
give the most complete service and obviate these complaints 
rather than to curtail their service wilfully and with malice 
and invite complaints." Added to all this is the statement 
of Mr. Whitman that he has been giving the commissions 
serious attention with a view to action at Albany of a prac- 
ticable character and that "within the next month you will 
hear something: from Albany which I trust will be appreciat- 
ed by the public, who have every reason to be dissatisfied 
with present conditions." 



Meanwhile the commissioner of health of New York City 
has demanded that steps be taken to ameliorate alleged over- 
crowding of cars. To this Mr. McCall rejoined that the ju- 
risdiction of the commission did not extend to control over 
people sneezing and coughing in cars. Over in Brooklyn the 
matter of alleged unsatisfactory transit conditions has been 
put before the grand jury, and many witnesses have been 
called to testify, including the representatives of the com- 
mission. 

At least three propositions regarding the commissions 
have been laid before the Governor-elect. The suggestions 
made are that the commissions be done away with altogeth- 
er, that the two commissions be combined into one, and that 
the present double commission be practically done away with 
by legislation and promptly reestablished on much the same 
basis, with altered powers. 

The original commissions, created during the Hughes ad- 
ministration in 1907, contained representation from both im- 
portant political parties. At present the only Republican 
member of the commission for the first district is Milo Roy 
Maltbie, who was appointed by Governor Hughes. The 
Democratic members are Chairman McCall, J. Sergeant 
Cram, George V. S. Williams and Robert C. Wood. 



CLEVELAND REPORT FOR NOVEMBER 

The operating report of the Cleveland (Ohio) Railway for 
November showed an increase of $17,614 in the interest fund, 
making a total at the beginning of December of $222,000. 
The gross receipts were $89,872 larger than for the same 
month in 1913, but this is attributed, to some extent, to the 
blizzard in the early part of November last year. The 
transfer charges were $56,040, as compared with $60,542 in 
October, although the increase in the number of persons 
carried over the same month a year ago was 895,968. The 
ordinance surplus for the month was $15,901. 

The ordinance introduced by Councilman Dittrick for the 
purpose of rendering the manner of paying fares uniform 
on all lines was defeated at this meeting. Mr. Witt opposed 
the movement. 



A WORD ABOUT ELEVATED RAILROADS IN 
GENERAL 

President Williams Shows That Elevated Railways Do Not 
Depreciate the Value of Abutting Property 

The Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company has re- 
printed and is distributing through the boxes in its sur- 
face cars the address made by T. S. Williams, president of 
the company, before the Brooklyn committee of one hun- 
dred on Dec. 7, 1914. This address had to do with the 
removal of sections of the company's elevated railroad. 
Mr. Williams referred to the consideration which the re- 
moval of the elevated railroads received at the time the 
dual subway contracts were being negotiated. He said 
that the project for the removal of the structure in lower 
Fulton Street now advanced after the contracts have all 
been executed was not the company's seeking, but that if 
the city had the money to spend for the work in the in- 
terest of beautifying lower Fulton Street he saw no rea- 
son why such a provision should not be incorporated in 
the transportation arrangements now under way, provided 
a decision was reached promptly. Otherwise the company's 
duty and its obligations require it to proceed as the city 
and the company had previously contracted. In his con- 
clusion Mr. Williams quoted many tax values to show the 
property in streets where there are elevated structures to 
be more valuable than on parallel streets equally accessible. 
In regard to elevated railways in general he said in part: 

"If we had not, in our own minds, identified subways 
with expre-s and local service, and with frequency of serv- 
ice justified by the congestion of population through which 
they h ave heretofore been built, subways would not be so 
popular. A two-track subway of itself offers no advantage 
in speed or comfort over a two-track elevated. There is 
the same elevation to overcome in access and egress. The 
only difference in this respect is whether we climb at the 
beginning of our ride or at the end. Indeed in the matter 
of air, and light, and noise, and dust, and interest, and 
health, the advantage is all with the elevateds. When we 
consider that 5 track-miles of elevated can be built for the 
same money as 1 track-mile of subway, the number of 



72 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



people who can be benefited with the same amount of 
money may be quintupled. Our own elevated railroads, 
limited to two tracks and to a type of structure now not 
recommended, are not to be compared with the new and 
improved types such as we are erecting for our extensions 
and our third-tracking, with their provision for express 
service. From the point of view of the man who rides, 
therefore, the advantage is with the elevated railroads, 
provided the facilities for express and local service are 
equal to those of the subways. From the point of view of 
the pedestrian, the man who rides in trolley cars, carriages 
or automobiles the subways have the advantage. 

"From the point of view of the abutting property owner 
the argument is by no means one-sided. There seems to 
be a common impression that elevated railroads depreciate 
the value of abutting property. I had occasion recently to 
procure from the assessment rolls the valuation of prop- 
erty along streets in Brooklyn and in Manhattan where 
there are elevated railroads and that of property on ad- 
jacent and parallel streets where all of the advantages of 
transportation are at hand with none of the apparent dis- 
advantages. The fact seems to be that while elevated rail- 
roads change the character of property their construction 
and operation do not usually impair its value. 

"Our duty as citizens and the duty of city officials seems 
to lie along the pathway of our contractual program. Let 
us all co-operate to complete speedily the undertaking to 
which we are now committed, and to make it the material 
and financial success which it should be, and in that way 
we shall be rendering the best service not only to our 
present fellow-citizens but to those who come after us. 
■When a man with limited resources builds a home to live 
in he does not go out first to buy oil paintings — he con- 
cerns himself with walls, and floors, and light, and water, 
ard heat, and furniture; and then later, as his resources 
permit, he may indulge himself in the luxuries of pictures 
and bric-a-brac. The parable is not inapplicable to the 
city's transit building." 



SPEED-CONTROL FOR THE BROOKLYN SUBWAY 

The speed-control system approved for installation on the 
lines of the New York Municipal Railway Corporation in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and mentioned briefly in last week's issue, 
will be the first installation of the kind in the country. In 
the original plans for the lines in question a standard signal 
system was considered with speed-control only as an alterna- 
tive, the installation involving some 103 miles of track and 
approximately 870 fixed signals. After the opening of the 
bids for the work, however, it was decided to adopt the 
speed-control system, and on this basis the quotation of the 
General Railway Signal Company was lower than that of 
the Federal Railway Signal Company, which was the low 
bidder for the original signal system, the Union Switch & 
Signal Company eventually withdrawing its proposal for the 
alternative system. 

By the use of speed control the major part of the 870 
fixed or roadside signals will be eliminated, as indications 
will be given to the motormen by means of lights in the 
cab. Fixed signals at interlocking plants, however, will be 
retained to indicate the position of the switches. The signal 
lights in the motorman's cab will be controlled by the en- 
gagement of shoes on the cars with ramps located at fre- 
quent intervals at the side of the track, a speed-recorder 
connected with the local circuits on the car providing the 
means for limiting the speed by brake-applications. 

In general the system will follow the principles of the 
recently patented Simmen automatic speed-control, as the 
General Railway Signal Company has obtained an exclusive 
license to manufacture and sell this system in the United 
States. This speed-control system, however, should not be 
confused with the original Simmen system of signaling, 
which has been installed on several interurban roads and 
which includes continuous cab signals, centralized control of 
signals by the dispatcher and automatic recording of train 
movements. The Simmen Automatic Railway Signal Com- 
pany will continue to install the latter system, and it is re- 
ported also that this company has reserved the right in its 
agreement with the General Railway Signal Company to 
use speed control wherever the Simmen signal system is 
installed. 



POWER TO REVOKE CHICAGO TRACTION ORDI- 
NANCES STUDIED 

The city of Chicago has obtained legal opinion from its 
corporation counsel on two franchise questions in the con- 
troversy between the City Council and the Chicago Surface 
Lines regarding the alleged non-fulfilment of contract 
obligations in the matter of service and extensions. One 
question concerned the annulling of the 1907 ordinances for 
specific refusals by the company to obey the Council's 
mandates. The other concerned the revoking of the trac- 
tion ordinances for non-fulfilment of contract obligations. 
In the opinions rendered by the corporation counsel to the 
city the first was considered as a question of public policy 
and the second as a proposition in law. The fiscal year 
for the traction companies closes on Feb. 1, 1915. Under 
the compulsory provisions of the settlement ordinances the 
city ordered the company during this period to construct 
20 miles of extensions to the surface lines. Under the pro- 
visions of the ordinance the companies are required to 
build an additional 20 miles annually, making a total of 40 
miles in all. About 20 miles of these extensions have been 
completed. 



Cleveland Rapid Transit Grant Approved. — Mayor Newton 
D. Baker, of Cleveland, Ohio, has signed the amended grant 
to the Cleveland Rapid Transit Railway. 

Ohio Tax Values Increased. — Public utility companies of 
all kinds in Ohio will pay taxes on a valuation of $1,095,848,- 
080 for 1914, an increase of $37,751,410 over 1913. 

New Road in Alabama. — George I. Brown, general man- 
ager of the Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Railway & Utilities 
Company, Tuscaloosa, Ala., recently announced that the 
company expected to have the line of the company in Tusca- 
loosa in operation shortly after Jan. 1. 

The Lexington Arbitration. — Hearings of evidence in the 
controversy between the Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Company and the local carmen's union are to be resumed 
at once and speedily completed. The sessions of the board 
of arbitrators, of which Charles Bagby, Danville, Ky., is 
chairman, have been interrupted by illness of George Mac- 
leod, a member of the board. 

Chicago Elevated Stub Removal Case Continued. — The 
suit to force the removal of the Chicago Elevated Railways' 
stub structure on Market Street was up in the United States 
District Court on Dec. 17. Upon request of the attorneys 
for Samuel Insull, receiver for the Chicago & Oak Park Ele- 
vated Railroad, the owner of this portion of the structure, 
the case will be up for final hearing on Jan. 11, 1915. 

Chicago Terminal Electrification Report. — The report of 
the Chicago Association of Commerce committee investi- 
gating smoke abatement and electrification of railway 
terminals has been completed by its engineering organiza- 
tion and is now being considered by the commission, which 
must pass on the report before it is made public. As orig- 
inally outlined, this report will discuss the necessity for a 
change from steam to electricity as motive power on the 
railroads as a means of reducing air pollution. The change 
is being considered from the standpoints of physical and 
financial practicability. 

Sale of Seattle Municipal Railway Rejected. — The resolu- 
tion reintroduced before the city utilities committee of the 
City Council of Seattle, Wash., providing for the sale of 
the Seattle Municipal Railway to the Puget Sound Trac- 
tion, Light & Power Company, has been defeated in the 
committee of the whole by a vote of seven to one. The 
other propositions pertaining to municipal railway matters, 
referred to in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 26, 
page 1404, have also been rejected. Councilman Erickson 
moved that consideration of the resolutions be indefinitely 
postponed and this was carried. 

New York Signal Contract Stands. — Joseph S. Auer- 
bach, counsel for the Federal Signal Company, has re- 
quested the Public Service Commission for the First Dis- 
trict of New York to reconsider its action awarding the 
contract for the new signal system on the New York 
Municipal lines to the General Railway Signal Company, 
Rochester, and that a public hearing be held on the matter, 
stating that he would advance reasons sufficient to con- 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



73 



vince the commission that the contract should be awarded 
to his clients, who, he said, were the lowest bidders on the 
initial bidding. After Mr. Auerbach's argument the com- 
mission by a vote of three to two declined to reconsider its 
action. 

Western Massachusetts Transportation. — The legislative 
recess committee on transportation facilities in western 
Massachusetts has submitted a draft of its report to Gov- 
ernor Walsh, with a proposed bill giving the Public Service 
Commission authority to require street railways to extend 
their lines in the five western counties of the State. No 
recommendation is made by the committee in favor of state 
ownership of street railways, although sentiment favoring 
this course developed at the hearings. The committee 
favors extension of lines by private capital. It is expected 
that Governor Walsh will discuss the proposed building of 
new lines in his message to the next Legislature, which will 
convene on Jan. 6, 1915. 

Reports of Maine Railways. — According to the annual re- 
port filed with the Public Utilities Commission the net in- 
come of the street railways of Maine for the year ended June 
30, 1914, was $561,519, or $24,283 less than in 1913. The 
gross income increased $243,910 while the total charges were 
$263,204 greater than in the previous year. The operating 
expenses increased $117,306. Transportation earnings were 
$2,895,192 compared with $2,762,105 for the preceding year. 
Operating expenses were $1,956,123 compared with $1,838,- 
817 for the previous year. The number of fare passengers 
carried was 51,024,110, an increase of 854,101. The total 
mileage of street railways in operation was 497.27, an in- 
crease of 9.18 miles for the year. During the year no pas- 
sengers were killed and only fifty-three passengers were in- 
jured. One employee was killed and six injured. Seven other 
persons were killed and twenty-five injured, making a to- 
tal of eight persons killed and eighty-four injured. The 
number of persons, excluding general officers, employed on 
the street railways, was 2004, an increase of 233 over the 
previous year. The wages paid amounted to $1,325,300. 
Forty-four general officers received $72,415 in wages. 

Mobilizing a Million a Day. — William Clayton has con- 
tributed to the National Magazine for December, 1914, a 
fourteen-page illustrated article dealing with the handling 
of New York transportation by the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company, which operates both elevated and the sub- 
way lines in Greater New York, and the New York Rail- 
ways, which operates surface lines in the Boroughs of Man- 
hattan and the Bronx. Various phases of the activities of 
both companies are taken up, including the establishment 
of the welfare department. The article is illustrated with a 
portrait of Theodore P. Shonts, president of both companies, 
and with photographs showing the signal post in the New 
York subway, the evolution of the street car as shown in 
the recent street car parade, the low center-entrance surface 
car, the double deck surface car, and the subway band. The 
writer say that fifty years ago the people of New York 
were considering transportation by subway, and that for 
more than forty years unsuccessful attempts were made by 
the city to secure underground rapid transit. The article 
is particularly interesting in the light that it sheds to the 
public on the efforts made by both companies to increase 
their transportation facilities. The writer says that mani- 
festly the Interborough Rapid Transit Company has done 
everything that human ingenuity could do to increase the 
capacity of the subway. 



PROGRAM OF ASSOCIATION MEETING 

New York Electric Railway Association 

A meeting of the executive committee of the New York 
Electric Railway Association was held at the Transporta- 
tion Club, New York, on Dec. 22. Those in attendance were 
James F. Hamilton, Schenectady; John J. Dempsey, Brook- 
lyn; S. Walter Mower, Cooperstown; Wilber C. Fiske, New 
York; William O. Wood, New York, and Charles C. Dietz, 
Brooklyn. It was decided to hold the next quarterly meet- 
ing at the Fort William Henry Hotel, Lake George, N. Y., 
on Tuesday and Wednesday, March 2 and 3. The program 
will be announced later. Other matters of importance were 
considered by the committee at the meeting on Dec. 22. 



Financial and Corporate 



IMPROVED EXPORTS AND STEEL TRADE 

Although the trading has been comparatively dull on the 
Stock Exchange during the last week and not so conducive 
to optimism, the betterment now showing in that excellent 
barometer of general conditions, the steel trade, is a most 
hopeful feature at the beginning of the year. Already some 
advances in prices have been made, following a substantial 
increase in the volume of orders. This increase up to the 
present time has not included many demands from the rail- 
roads, but with the new year and its promise of more re- 
munerative rates it can be expected that the carriers will 
feel free to order a little more widely. When this happens it 
is likely that the steel market will be rapidly strengthened 
as regards prices, but they are now very low and will still be 
low after a moderate advance over the figures now prevail- 
ing. The present, therefore, seems to offer profitable oppor- 
tunities to electric railways for the placing of orders. 

Another encouraging fact is that the excess of merchan- 
dise exports over imports has been accumulating a trade bal- 
ance in favor of the United States in recent weeks at the 
rate of more than $1,000,000,000 a year, and this with but 
little more than 50 per cent of the usual amount of cotton 
going abroad. For thirteen districts through which 88 per 
cent of the imports and 85 per cent of of the exports pass 
the total imports for the fourth week of December were $19,- 
259,000 and the exports $38,667,000, making a favorable bal- 
ance of $19,408,000. For the four weeks ended December 26 
imports totaled $91,068,000 as compared to exports of $179,- 
846,000, an excess of exports amounting to $88,778,000. It 
is estimated by Secretary Redfield that for the full month the 
United States will have an excess amounting to well over 
$100,000,000. 



WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC TO ABSORB MACHINE 
COMPANY 

Charles A. Terry, Walter D. Uptegraff and H. H. West- 
inghouse, executors for the estate of George Westinghouse, 
have sent the following circular to the stockholders of the 
Westinghouse Machine Company: 

"The undersigned have entered into a contract for the 
sale of their stock in the Westinghouse Machine Company 
to the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
upon the basis of one share of the common stock of that 
company being issued in payment for three shares of the 
stock of the machine company, and upon the condition 
that all other stockholders of the machine company shall 
have the privilege for thirty days, namely, until Jan. 26, 
1915, to sell their stock upon the same basis. 

"Our conclusion that this sale is advisable has been 
reached after very careful consideration of the present 
condition and future prospects of the Westinghouse Ma- 
chine Company. The business of that company cannot 
be carried on profitably without a substantial amount of 
additional capital, which it has been impracticable to pro- 
cure under present financial conditions and the large mort- 
gage debt of the company. In view of this and other diffi- 
culties which confront the company, it seemed to us ad- 
vantageous to exchange our shares for shares of a strong 
company which is doing a prosperous business and paying 
dividends. 

"Stockholders of the Westinghouse Machine Company 
desiring to join in this sale should promptly send their 
stock certificates (indorsed for transfer in blank and prop- 
erly stamped) to the Colonial Trust Company, Pittsburgh, 
or to the Franklin Trust Company, New York. The trust 
company receiving the stock will at once issue in exchange 
therefor transferable certificates of deposit, which will be 
exchangeable for the stock of the Westinghouse Electric 
Manufacturing Company upon the consummation of the 
sale, or for the deposited stock in case the sale should not 
be consummated." 

The Westinghouse Machine Company has a total out- 
standing capital stock of about $7,500,000 and almost an 
equal amount of outstanding funded debt. The Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company has outstanding 
preferred stock amounting to $4,000,000 and $36,700,000 
of common stock. It also has $22,000,000 of funded debt. 



74 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



ANNUAL REPORT 

American Public Utilities Company 

The statement of combined earnings of the subsidiaries of 
the American Public Utilities Company, Grand Rapids, 
Mich., for the year ended June 30, 1914, follows: 



Gross earnings from operations $2,319,594 

Operating expenses 1,338,715 

Net earnings from operations $980,879 

Miscellaneous income 45,303 

Gross income $1,026,182 

Less expense 51,486 

Net income $974,696 

Fixed charges : 

Interest on underlying securities $554,659 

Interest on collateral trust bonds 44,650 

Total fixed charges $599,309 

Remainder' $375,387 

Dividend on $3,914,000 of preferred stock 234,840 

Balance $140,547 



According to an analysis of operation made by the direc- 
tors, the gross earnings for the year increased 8.14 per cent, 
the operating expenses 13.59 per cent, and the net earnings 
from operation 1.59 per cent. The increase in operating 
expenses was largely caused by abnormal expenditures for 
maintenance on lighting properties at Indianapolis and La 
Crosse, made after their acquisition in order to bring them 
up to the proper operating efficiency, and also by the ex- 
penditure of nearly $20,000 for the acquisition of new busi- 
ness. In general, funds otherwise available for dividends 
or surplus were returned to the several properties in main- 
tenance and acquiring new business. The fixed charges 
upon subsidiary obligations increased $28,350. There was 
expended for extensions and additions by subsidiaries $794,- 
079, against which subsidiary bonds amounting to $567,000 
were issued and sold. The sum of $300,401 was expended in 
enlarging the Indianapolis property alone. 

In June the company acquired the Chippewa Valley Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company through the medium of the 
Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power Company, the succes- 
sor to the La Crosse Gas & Electric Company. It is stated 
that the earnings of the Chippewa Valley Railway, Light & 
Power Company increased rapidly during the last five 
years. In 1905 the gross receipts were $122,093, and the 
net earnings $49,268, while in 1912 the gross earnings were 
$394,842, and the net earnings $230,235, an increase of $181,- 
076, or 367 per cent. In discussing the possibilities of future 
growth of this company, the annual report calls attention to 
several undeveloped water power sites, and says that as 
these are brought into use and the product marketed, the 
public service commissioner will authorize additional securi- 
ties to be delivered to the American Public Utilities Com- 
pany in consideration of its having financed the merging 
of the properties and the building of dams, etc., thus mate- 
rially increasing the assets and earning power of the com- 
pany without further expenditure on its part. 



NEW SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND NOTE ISSUE 

The Railroad Commission of California has authorized 
the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways to issue 
$246,666 of promissory notes to be secured by an issue of 
$370,000 of general lien bonds. The commission states that 
it has given its authorization for this temporary financing 
in order that the company may be preserved in the best 
possible operating condition. The order provides that the 
face value of the notes shall at no time be less than 66 2/3 
per cent of the face value of the bonds pledged as col- 
lateral. The notes will mature in a period not to exceed one 
year from date and will bear interest at a rate not to exceed 
7 per cent per annum. It is made a condition of the order 
that the notes shall be issued only to persons in direct inter- 
est in the corporation, who shall be fully advised of all the 
circumstances surrounding the company's finances and who 
shall agree to hold the bonds as collateral until the notes 
have matured or have been paid or refunded. The company 
proposes to use these notes for the following purposes: re- 
imbursement for moneys expended from income, and after 
such reimbursement for the purpose of paying interest on 



outstanding bonds and notes, $148,922; purchase of new cars, 
$75,000, and construction of interlocking power at Stanford 
Avenue and Lowell Street, Oakland, $22,744. 



TIME EXTENSION IN KANSAS CITY 

The City Council on Dec. 28 authorized an extension of six 
months in the time in which the reorganization committee of 
the Kansas City Railway & Light Company may accept the 
terms of the new franchise voted by the people at the recent 
election. This was done in order that the officials of the 
company, as well as the reorganization committee, may have 
sufficient time to go over the franchise matter before its ac- 
ceptance. 

The plan for the reorganization of the property is rapidly 
approaching completion, and it is expected that an official 
announcement regarding the matter will soon be forthcom- 
ing. Frank Hagerman, counsel for the company, was in New 
York this week conferring with bankers in regard to the nec- 
essary financing incident to the plan. The earnings of the 
Kansas City properties are said to be highly satisfactory, 
and as soon as the necessary details are worked out in con- 
nection with the reorganization, it is believed that they will 
be again on a substantial operating basis. 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Railway, Charlottesville, Va. 

— At a meeting of the directors of the Charlottesville & 
Albemarle Railway, held on Dec. 1, a semi-annual dividend 
of 3% per cent on the preferred stock was declared payable 
on Jan. 1, 1915, to stockholders of record of Dec. 10. 

City Railway, Dayton, Ohio. — A quarterly dividend of 
1% per cent was paid on the $2,400,000 of common stock 
of the City Railway on Dec. 31 to holders of record of 
Dec. 21. This compares with 2 per cent paid quarterly 
from June, 1912, to September, 1914. 

Cleveland, Youngstown & Eastern Railway, Cleveland, 
Ohio. — Judge Estep in the Common Pleas Court of Cuya- 
hoga County at Cleveland has appointed Robert Beatty 
receiver for the line of this company lying between the 
Cuyahoga County line and Garrettsville, Ohio, in the suit to 
foreclose the $52,000 mortgage of 1910 having a first lien 
thereon. The court ordered that after Dec. 28 the receiver 
should discontinue the operation of this portion of the road. 
The line from Chagrin Falls to Cleveland is in no way 
affected by this order, and its operation will be continued 
the same as before. The Cleveland, Youngstown & Eastern 
Railway took over the property of the Chagrin Falls & 
Eastern Railway and the Cleveland & Chagrin Falls divi- 
sion of the Eastern Ohio Traction Company some time ago. 
The complete lines connect Cleveland, Chagrin Falls and 
Garrettsville. 

Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Railroad, New York, 

N. Y. — The Public Service Commission of the First District 
of New York has been served with a writ of certiorari, ob- 
tained by the Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Railroad, 
for a review of the commission's action in refusing to ap- 
prove an issue of $2,800,000 of bonds applied for by the com- 
pany. The company contends that the finding of the com- 
mission was contrary to the evidence and that the laws 
authorizing the decision are unconstitutional because of the 
impairment of contract obligations. 

Fresno (Cal.) Interurban Railway. — The Fresno Inter- 
urban Railway has filed an application with the Railroad 
Commission of California renewing its request for authority 
to issue 200 shares of capital stock at $80 a share and 
$14,700 of ten year 6 per cent bonds at not less than 90. 
The company was recently authorized to issue 100 shares 
of capital stock at not less than $80 per share in lieu of 
100 shares of stock issued for incorporation purposes at $10 
a share. The company contends that it has not the author- 
ity to release the 100 shares of old stock issued for in- 
corporation purposes, it having been mutually understood 
by the subscribers that these shares would be held by the 
company solely for voting purposes. 

Hudson Companies, New York, N. Y. — Holders of pre- 
ferred stock of the Hudson Companies, formed originally 
to finance the construction of the Hudson & Manhattan 
Railroad, have formed a protective committee consisting 
of Charles P. Curtis, Allan Forbes, Arthur B. Silsbee and 
Charles W. Taintor, Boston, and Charles P. Cooley, Hart- 
ford. The committee has issued a circular calling for 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



75 



proxies to vote at the annual meeting on Jan. 12. The 
committee says: "The manner in which the company's 
affairs have been dealt with seems to evidence the need for 
a thorough examination of the methods whereby the cash 
paid in by the preferred stockholders, amounting to nearly 
$16,000,000, has dwindled to a quoted value of little more 
than one-twentieth of that amount, and it seems evident 
that if such examination is to be properly or seriously 
made, the management of the company's affairs should be 
taken from the hands of the interests which have hitherto 
controlled it." The company owns $25,000,000 of the $40,- 
000,000 of common stock of the Hudson & Manhattan 
Railroad, $2,300,000 of its preferred shares, and a block 
of the tunnel concern's bonds. The Hudson Companies 
also holds $2,450,000 of 5 per cent bonds of the Greeley 
Square Realty Company. 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company, New York, N. Y.— 
On Dec. 24 the directors of the Interborough-Metropolitan 
Company authorized the retirement on Jan. 1 of! $1,000,000 
of the outstanding $4,000,000 of five-year 6 per .cent notes, 
maturing on July 1, 1915, from the proceeds of the 5 per 
cent extra dividend which was recently declared on the 
stock of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. The 
board also authorized a new issue of $3,000,000 1 of ten-year 
6 per cent notes to refund the remaining $3,000,000 of 
notes. All of the holders of the latter have, it is reported, 
agreed to take the new notes in exchange. Out of the new 
notes, $300,000 will be retired annually through sinking 
fund, through the use of which the bonds may be called at 
any time. 

Minneapolis & Northern Railway, Minneapolis, Minn. — 

The Minnesota Loan & Trust Company, formerly receiver 
of the Minneapolis & Northern Railway, has resigned and 
its resignation has been accepted by the court, which has 
allowed its account. F. H. Hunter has been appointed re- 
ceiver in place of the trust company. 

Sunbury & Susquehanna Railway, Sunbury, Pa. — The re- 
ceivers of the Sunbury & Susquehanna Railway have applied 
to the Northumberland County Court for an order for the 
sale of the property of the company under foreclosure. 
Argument will be heard on Jan. 8. The company is a con- 
solidation of the Northumberland County Traction Com- 
pany, Sunbury, Lewisburg & Milton Railway and the Sun- 
bury & Selingsgrove Electric Street Railway. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind. — The Terre Haute, Indianapolis & East- 
ern Traction Company recently made the following an- 
nouncement to stockholders: "In pursuance of the policy 
announced in our communications of March 10 and June 10, 
1914, the directors have unanimously determined that the 
dividend payable on Jan. 1, 1915, should not be declared 
at this time." 

Titusville (Pa.) Traction Company. — The Titusville 
Traction Company has filed at Harrisburg notice of an 
issue of $265,000 of bonds. The Titusville Traction Com- 
pany is the successor of the Titusville Electric Traction 
Company, the property of which was sold at foreclosure 
in Titusville in August to Frederick W. Garvin, New York, 
N. Y., representing the bondholders. 

Washington Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash. — A 
quarterly dividend of 1% per cent has been declared on 
the $14,081,900 of stock of the Washington Water Power 
Company, payable on Jan. 2, to holders of record of Dec. 
12. This compares with 1% per cent paid in October, 1914, 
and 2 per cent from April, 1911, to July, 1914, inclusive. 

West Jersey & Sea Shore Railroad, Camden, N. J. — The 

directors of the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad have 
decided to call a meeting of the stockholders in thirty days, 
to consider the authorization of an increase in the capital 
stock to the extent of $3,000,000 and the creation of a 
$13,000,000 general and refunding mortgage upon the com- 
pany's property. Stock amounting to $2,000,000 will be of- 
fered to shareholders at par and the proceeds used to retire 
certificates of indebtedness held by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. The additional $1,000,000 will not be issued in the 
immediate future. Of the proposed new mortgage bonds 
$6,500,000 will be reserved to take up the present first con- 
solidated mortgage bonds at maturity, and the proceeds of 
the remainder will be used to pay for improvements. 



DIVIDENDS DECLARED 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, 2% per cent, preferred. 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Street Railway, quarterly, 1% per 
cent. 

City Railway, Dayton, Ohio, quarterly, 1% per cent, 
preferred; quarterly, 1% per cent, common. 

Columbia Railway, Gas & Electric Company, Columbia, 
S. C, quarterly, 1V 2 per cent, preferred. 

Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Electric Railway, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, 1% per cent, preferred. 

London (Ont.) Street Railway, quarterly, S per cent. 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

New England Investment & Security Company, Spring- 
field, Mass., preferred, 2 per cent. 

Omaha & Council Bluff Street Railway, Omaha, Neb., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, common and preferred. 

Porto Rico Railways, Ponce, Porto Rico, quarterly, 1% 
per cent, preferred. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash., quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Rome Railway & Light Company, Rome, Ga., quarterly, 
1 per cent. 

Scioto Valley Traction Company, Columbus, Ohio, quar- 
terly, l 1 /! per cent, first preferred and preferred. 

Stark Electric Railroad, Alliance, Ohio, quarterly, three- 
fourths of 1 per cent. 

Thirteenth & Fifteenth Streets Passenger Railway, 
Philadelphia, Pa., quarterly, $6. 

Tri-City Railway & Light Company, Davenport, la., 
quarterly, IV2 per cent, preferred; 1 per cent, common. 

Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Company, 
Olean, N. Y., 3 per cent, first preferred. 

Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Railway, quarterly, 3 per cent. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Leetonia, Ohio, 
quarterly, 1 per cent, preferred. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 

ATLANTIC SHORE RAILWAY, SANFORD, MAINE. 

Gross Operating Net Fixed Net 

Period Earnings Expenses Earnings Charges Surplus 

lm„ Nov., '14 $24,267 $26,025 $1,758 $644 $2,402 

1 " " '13 25,797 22,139 3,662 661 3,001 

AURORA, ELGIN & CHICAGO RAILROAD, WHEATON, ILL. 

lm., Oct., '14 $172,580 $116,793 $55,787 $43,044 $12,743 

I " " '13 176,808 116,775 60,032 37,551 22,481 
4 " " '14 783,790 478,585 305,205 173,309 131,896 

4 " " '13 797,159 468,625 328,534 149,349 179,185 

CLEVELAND, SOUTHWESTERN & COLUMBUS RAILWAY, 
CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

lm., Nov., '14 $100,184 $61,066 $39,118 $32,159 $6,959 

1 " " '13 98,490 08,708 29,782 32,059 f2,276 

11 " " '14 1,158,384 694,551 463,833 355,934 107,899 

11 " " '13 1,149,871 696, 5S0 453,292 348,843 104,449 

INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY, NEW YORK. 

N. Y. 

lm., Nov., '14 $2,SS2,819 $1,054,344 $1,838,475 $1,077,575 $751,000 
1 " " '13 2,865,329 1,041,756 1,823,573 1,080,9S8 742,585 

5 " " '14 13,499,304 5,180,865 S, 318, 439 5,404,900 2,913,539 
5 13 13,236,392 5,175,973 8,060,419 5,631,749 2,428,670 

LEHIGH VALLEY TRANSIT COMPANY, ALLENTOWN, PA. 

lm , Nov., '14 $149,940 $75,274 $74,666 $57,748 $16,917 

1 '• " '13 191,199 71,199 119,999 71,331 48,668 

12 " " '14 1,841,034 905,246 935,738 699,311 236,477 
12 13 1,764,998 881,941 883,057 578,144 304,913 

NORTHERN OHIO TRACTION & LIGHT COMPANY, 
AKRON, OHIO. 

lm , Nov., '14 $286,732 $1S6,009 $100,724 $65,366 $35,358 

1 '■ " '13 265,097 184,001 SI, 095 62,992 IS, 103 

11" " '14 3.319,704 2,040,014 1,279,691 722,007 557,683 

11 13 2,9S9,155 1,829,359 1,159,797 649,107 510,689 

TWIN CITY RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY, MINNEAPOLIS, 

MINN. 

lm.,Nov., '14 $752,502 $396,674 $355,829 $228,924 $126,905 

1 13 751,113 374,947 376,166 234,979 141,187 

11 14 8,499,229 4,392,277 4,106,952 2,507,433 1,599,519 

II 13 8.085,035 4,086,321 3,99S,715 2,5S4,509 1,414,206 

UNITED RAILWAYS COMPANY OF ST. LOUIS, 
ST. LOUIS. MO. 

lm.,Oct., '14 $1,073,964 $796,643 $277,321 

1 13 1,129,269 908,529 220,740 

10 14 10,47S,950 7,903,501 2,575,449 

10 " " *13 10,542,580 7,584,902 2,957,678 

♦Includes taxes. fDeficit. 



76 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Traffic and Transportation 



ASSISTING CHRISTMAS SHOPPERS 

Conductors in White Gloves Assist Kansas City Passengers, 
Call Cars and Answer Questions 

The Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., went 
a little out of its way this Christmas season, as for the past 
two years, to accommodate the shopping public and the gen- 
eral traffic. A week before Christmas the company picked 
twenty especially gentlemanly and well-appearing conduct- 
ors and stationed them at busy corners to assist people onto 
the cars. These men were in full uniform, and in addition 
wore white gloves — which were "kept white" through re- 
newal when necessary during the day, that the clothing and 
especially the packages of passengers assisted might not be 
soiled. Their most valuable service was in helping the chil- 
dren, who thronged downtown to visit the stores. The con- 
ductors stood at the points where the rear ends of the cars 
would stop, and their only duties were to hold packages 
while people got on the cars, assist the passengers, expedite 
the movement by calling the names of the cars, and answer- 
ing questions. They did not collect fares. They were on 
duty as late at night as shoppers crowded the streets, and 
until midnight Christmas Eve. The "front end collectors" 
were on duty also, as usual, at downtown corners, collecting 
fare from the street so that passengers could get on the 
front ends of the pay-as-you-enter cars; a few more were put 
on, and they were on duty during a greater part of the day 
than under normal circumstances. 



BAY STATE AGREEMENT 

Terms Reached Between Bay State Street Railway and Its 
Employees in Agreement Which Expires on Sept. 30, 1916 

In agreeing to arbitrate the question of wages, the Bay 
State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., and branches of the 
Amalgamated Association represented in sixteen local 
unions of employees, came to terms upon a number of 
transportation matters which had been under discussion for 
about two months. It was agreed that the hours of labor 
of blue uniformed men are to be exempt from arbitration 
as they are established by law. 

In the event of suspension or discharge, the agreement ar- 
ranges for the taking up of the case with the division su- 
perintendent by the union, with appeal to the general su- 
perintendent and thence to the general manager, followed 
by arbitration in case of disagreement. The arbitration 
provision does not apply, however, to conductors and motor- 
men during their first six months of service. In the event 
of nine consecutive months without error, a trainman's 
record is to be considered clean. Seniority choice is to 
prevail for runs in both passenger and service car operation, 
with the exception of freight and express cars, but men are 
not to be permitted on runs which, because of age, disabil- 
ity or other disqualifications, they are not fitted to operate. 

The company agrees to furnish employees free transpor- 
tation over the division in which they are employed, and 
upon request will furnish transportation to a reasonable 
extent over other parts of the system. No discrimination 
is to be made against members of the association, and the 
company agrees to dismiss or suspend union employees 
from its service upon proof of violation of the association's 
constitution and general laws, where such violation has 
caused the dismissal or suspension of the employee from 
the union. In the arrangement of schedules the company 
agrees to recognize the principle of dividing the total num- 
ber of hours in such schedules into runs of nine hours, to 
be completed in eleven consecutive hours, so far as possible. 
Not more than 20 per cent of all runs are to be completed 
in excess of twelve hours. Payment for time in excess of 
twelve hours' outside limit is to be determined by the arbi- 
tration board now sitting. 

The present practice of requiring men to report and to 
remain to protect runs, or for extra work, is to remain in 
force. Any conductor or motorman promoted to the posi- 
tion of starter, inspector, foreman, or other official post, is 
to be given a year in which to try the work without loss of 
rating. Extra compensation at the rate of 3 cents an hour 



is to be allowed for breaking-in new men. Seniority is to 
prevail in the mechanical and miscellaneous departments, so 
far as consistent with qualifications, the latter being subject 
to arbitration in case of dispute. 

The agreement is to continue until Sept. 30, 1916, with 
provision for extension and change upon due notice. 

SERVICE QUESTION IN CHICAGO 

Several newspapers, the local transportation committee 
of the City Council and Mayor Harrison's public service 
department are all agitating increases in transportation 
facilities in Chicago. The city has threatened to resort to 
the courts to enforce or annul the city traction ordinances, 
despite the fact that authorities are agreed that downtown 
track capacity is used to its limit during the rush-hour 
periods and that the only means of relieving congestion is to 
be found in the construction of a subway. The subway is 
again up for consideration, but definite action is being de- 
layed until it is possible to determine whether the surface 
and elevated lines may be merged, as upon this merger will 
depend the character of the subway. If the merger takes 
place the subway would serve for both surface and ele- 
vated cars, but if the consolidation cannot be brought about 
the subway may be used to furnish additional capacity either 
for the surface or elevated lines. The Board of Supervising 
Engineers is making traffic checks to verify complaints and 
recommends as a cure the service standard which it sub- 
mitted to the city in May, 1913. This standard provides 
for a maximum of seventy passengers to a forty-seat car 
during any thirty-minute rush-hour period, or any fifteen- 
minute non-rush hour period. This standard it is thought 
if adhered to would provide seats for all passengers during 
the non-rush hours and eliminate undue crowding during the 
rush-hour periods. 

SPECIAL MESSAGE ON THE "JITNEY" BUS 

Los Angeles Mayor Says Further Delay of Regulatory Leg- 
islation Would Be Gross Injustice 

Mayor Rose of Los Angeles, Cal., issued a statement to 
the City Council on Dec. 23 in which he recommended that 
that body should enact drastic legislation to regulate the 
"Jitney" bus business in Los Angeles. The Mayor contend- 
ed that the use of the streets by the "Jitney" buses was an 
additional burden not contemplated in the original dedica- 
tion of the city streets and that the city had the indubitable 
right to regulate and restrict this form of traffic. He said 
that drastic rules and regulations were demanded "to cope 
with what has become in the last sixty days a grave menace 
to the community." In his communication Mayor Rose re- 
viewed the tremendous growth of the "Jitney" bus business 
and pointed to the official police records to prove the increase 
in accidents recently. In this connection figures were cited 
to prove that the 5-cent buses had been involved in 22 per 
cent of the personal injury mishaps reported to the authori- 
ties. The Mayor suggested that both incompetence and reck- 
lessness on the part of the drivers were in a degree responsi- 
ble for the unusual increase in accidents and that only driv- 
ers of proved ability should be licensed to enter the business 
district. In addition to this he would require all applicants 
for licenses to state the course intended to be traversed and 
compel them to maintain these courses and make designated 
station stops. The mayor said that he had plenty of sym- 
pathy for the bus drivers, but that the authorities must see 
that the drivers do not jeopardize life and property. A con- 
siderable part of the address was devoted to the considera- 
tion of the effect of the operation of the "Jitney" buses on 
street railway transportation. The Mayor said in part: 

"Assuming that the 700-odd autobusses operating in Los 
Angeles are averaging $3 a day in fares, we have a total 
of $2100, or about $60,000 a month, subtracted from the 
earnings of the street railways. How does this affect the 
public? As is well known, the street railroads operate un- 
der franchises which entail heavy expense for street main- 
tenance, taxes and public improvements. It is estimated 
that the street railways maintain at least one-third of the 
streets along which their tracks run, at a cost to them of 
upward of $350,000 a year. In addition, they have to bear 
their proportion of special assessments for street openings 
and for condemnation of lands for parks and other public 
purposes, for which their occupancy of contiguous streets 
renders them liable. Moreover, at least 2 per cent of the 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



77 



close partnership of the traffic-regulated street railways 
with the public. Besides this impost they must pay their 
regular taxes in support of the government, amounting to 
about 5 cents on the dollar. 

"One of the executive officers of the Los Angeles Railway 
is authority for the statement that for every nickel col- 
lected in fares more than 3 cents is expended directly for 
labor in this city. Of the remaining 2 cents at least 1 
cent goes for taxes, license, street improvements and ma- 
terial, or four-fifths of the whole is returned whence it 
came, to benefit the people of Los Angeles. The remain- 
ing fifth takes care of the interest charges on the bonded 
indebtedness, and as many of the bonds are owned in Cali- 
fornia, a share of this last fifth also remains here. 

"In contrast to this showing is the 5-cent fare paid over 
to the 'Jitney' bus driver. Four-fifths of this sum must go 
for gasoline, oil, rubber tires and to pay for the machines, 
for few of them are owned outright by the men operating 
them. It is a direct reversal of conditions. In the latter 
case 4 cents in 5 goes out of the city; in so far as the street 
cars are concerned, that same proportion in the nickel stays 
here. 

"I am thus explicit because I wish to show our people the 
partnership interest created by the franchise regulations 
that bind the street railways to certain specific obligations, 
directly benefiting the public, as opposed to the non-regu- 
lated auto-busses, having no such onerous liabilities im- 
posed upon them. It is patent that if the street railways 
are losing what will amount to $750,000 a year the public 
service heretofore furnished by the street railways will be 
curtailed to comport with these new conditions. 

"The people in the end will be compelled to depend upon 
the street railways for transportation. Meanwhile, the loss 
of revenues has affected the whole city as shown. Exten- 
sions have been necessarily blocked and the enforced econ- 
omies have been reflected in a hundred different direc- 
tions beyond the street railways themselves. It is they 
that have most seriously felt the pinch thus far, but it re- 
quires no seer's vision to perceive that the people so im- 
mediately concerned in the prosperity of the big corpora- 
tions sharing their incomes with the city must suffer from 
the restricted revenues. 

"To dally longer in our present state of irresolution and 
inaction as regards the 'Jitney' bus is to be guilty of gross 
injustice to the people." 



THE AUGUSTA-AIKEN FARE CASE 

Hearings on the application of the Augusta-Aiken Rail- 
way & Electric Company for permission to increase its fares 
were held before the South Carolina Railroad Commission 
on Dec. 10 and 16. The application to the commission 
briefly was for permission to increase the fares from 1 cent 
to 2 cents a mile. At the hearing on Dec. 10 J. H. Pardee, 
vice-president of the company, said that a fair income on the 
investment was imperative, and that last year, after de- 
ducting $41,000 for depreciation, there remained only $25,000 
income, a return of approximately 3 per cent. Mr. Pardee 
agreed at the hearing to have S. B. Culley, auditor of the 
company, and R. W. Spofford, general superintendent, ap- 
pear before the commission. He took the position, however, 
that neither Mr. Culley nor Mr. Spofford could testify to 
anything material except facts already sworn to by Mr. 
Culley in the last annual report of the company to the 
Railroad Commission. 

On Dec. 16 James U. Jackson, formerly vice-president of 
the company, reviewed his association with the company 
from the time that the road was built until quite recently. 
Mr. Jackson did not consider the line an interurban one in 
the strict sense of the word, and said that two or three 
times each session of the South Carolina Legislature for 
eight years he opposed bills to force the Augusta-Aiken 
Railway & Electric Company to install water coolers, toilets 
and separate cars for the whites and negroes. Mr. Jack- 
son said that he advanced the argument each time that the 
road was a trolley road with cheap fares and could not 
afford to better the equipment under the charge of 1 cent 
a mile for transportation. 

Perhaps the principal contention of the opposition to the 
increase in fares was that the people had been induced to 



invest money in land; homes and factories in the territory 
served by the line, on the assumption that the present rate 
of fare would be continued, and that to put into effect the 
fare now proposed would practically amount to the confisca- 
tion of the investments of these people. 

The commission set Dec. 29 as the date for the final hear- 
ing. 



Chicago Tests Destination Sign Provisions. — A suit to 
test the right to force the Chicago (111.) Surface Lines to 
provide signs showing the destination of cars has been filed 
in the Municipal Court. In all there are 170 of these suits 
for violations. 

Fare Case to Ohio Supreme Court. — The Supreme Court 
of Ohio has been asked to review the decision of the Hamil- 
ton County Circuit Court involving the payment of a 5-cent 
fare between Pleasant Ridge and the business section of 
Cincinnati over the lines of the Interurban Railway & Termi- 
nal Company and the Rapid Railway. 

Suit to Force New Transfer Points. — The city of Chicago, 
111., has filed two suits for $1,000 each in the Municipal 
Court against the Chicago Surface Lines to force new 
transfer points. The specific purpose of the suit is to re- 
quire the railways to accept transfers at any point where 
cars of several lines run on the same track. 

Inquiry Into Seattle Service. — The Washington Public 
Service Commission has filed a complaint on its own initia- 
tive against the Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power 
Company alleging inadequate service in Seattle and ordered 
the company to have its officials appear at a hearing which 
it intended to hold in Seattle on Dec. 28. 

Safety Zones in Cleveland. — Standards connected by 
chains have been secured to mark the safety zones at sev- 
eral of the stops in the business district in Cleveland 
where traffic is exceedingly heavy. According to Director 
of Public Safety Benesch the use of chains will be extended 
to other parts of the business district as rapidly as may 
be advisable. 

Reduction in Schedules Asked in Atlanta. — The Georgia 
Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., has asked the 
Railroad Commission of that State for authority to diminish 
existing schedules on several lines. The petition sets forth 
that traffic in Atlanta has been decreasing steadily, and 
that the receipts for the month of November showed a de- 
crease of $2,230 compared with November, 1913, and were 
actually less than those for November, 1912. 

Puget Sound Fare Change. — The Puget Sound Electric 
Railway, Tacoma, Wash., has filed with the Public Service 
Commission a supplemental tariff naming a round-trip rate 
of $1 between Puyallup and Seattle. This gives patrons 
from Puyallup the same round-trip rate as is in effect be- 
tween Tacoma and Seattle, while previously they have 
paid the one-way rates to and from Seattle amounting to 
$1.50. The change went into effect on Dec. 24. 

Transfer Charge Under Consideration at Boston. — A 
special committee of the Chamber of Commerce of Boston, 
Mass., is investigating the financial side of electric railway 
operation with a view toward determining the feasibility of 
a charge for transfers on Massachusetts street railways. 
The investigation grows out of the 20 per cent maintenance 
and depreciation requirement of the Massachusetts Public 
Service Commission as set forth in the recent Middlesex & 
Boston fare decision. 

Good, Bad and Indifferent Suggestions. — Many sugges- 
tions have been made to the United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., 
in connection with the effort to have passengers move for- 
ward in its cars. Some of the suggestions made for signs 
for use in the cars follows: "The best looking girls are in 
the front seats," "Follow St. Louis to the front," "Confer 
a favor upon those who follow by moving to the front," 
"Success is gained by moving to the front," "Consideration 
of others is a mark of good breeding," "Kindly move to the 
front." 

Inquiry Into St. Louis Service.— The Missouri Public 
Service Commission has announced that the inquiry being 
conducted by it into the question of the adequacy of the 
service furnished in St. Louis by the United Railways will 
be continued on Jan. 13 at the Planters Hotel. John M. 



78 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Atkinson, chairman of the commission, says that on the 
hearing on Jan. 13 the company will have an opportunity 
to present evidence concerning its financial ability to carry 
out the extensions and improvements which have been 
proposed and of denying the need of such improvements. 

Combined Steel and Wooden Trains Discontinued. — The 
Long Island Railroad has notified the Public Service Com- 
mission for the First District of New York that it is now 
complying with the terms of the commission's order to dis- 
continue the use of wooden trail cars in trains made up in 
part of r teel cars. The commission's order was issued to 
become effective on Dec. 1, 1914, but the company requested 
permission to continue the operation of the fifty-three 
wooden cars until new equipment could be purchased. This 
application the commission denied and compliance with the 
order followed this action. 

Fare Zone Petition Denied. — The Public Service Commis- 
sion of Maryland has dismissed the petition of F. L. Haw- 
ley to require the Washington, Berwyn & Laurel Electric 
Railway, Washington, D. C, which operates between Wash- 
ington and Laurel, to establish three fare zones, instead 
of four as now, between Laurel and the District line. The 
present zone system of the road was established by author- 
ity of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the local 
body decided that it could not act in the matter because the 
Supreme Court of the United States had held in the Shreve- 
port case that where the jurisdiction of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission and a local regulatory body con- 
flicted the former authority prevailed. 

Transfer Greetings in Kansas City. — The Metropolitan 
Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., expressed Christmas and 
New Year's greetings as usual to all the passengers that 
took transfers. On December 24, 25 and 26, and on Dec. 
■31, Jan. 1 and 2 the transfers bore the following on the 
reverse side: "It is our wish that you enjoy A Merry, 
Bright Christmas and A Happy New Year." These words 
were printed in red ink; and in a corner of the space was 
a picture, printed in green, of Santa Claus astride a 
reindeer bearing a big sack of toys and waving a minia- 
ture Christmas tree. The transfers were printed on sta- 
tioners' bond. The change in the texture of the transfers 
aroused curiosity in the passenger. 

Service Matters in Los Angeles. — The City Council of 
Los Angeles, Cal., has adopted a resolution ordering the 
Board of Public Utilities Commissioners of Los Angeles 
to conduct an investigation of the local surface railways 
and to submit recommendations at the earliest possible 
date regarding more direct routes, quicker running time 
and the construction of cut-offs. In line with this resolu- 
tion Councilman Snowden has recommended stopping alter- 
nate cars at alternate blocks. Councilman Roberts an- 
nounced recently that suits would be started against the 
Pacific Electric Railway to restore transfer privileges on 
the Edendale line. The company has granted the demand 
for a 5-cent fare and stop at Harriman Avenue. 

Fare Readjustment Asked. — The Kansas City-Western 
Railway, Kansas City, Kan., has asked the Kansas Public 
Utilities Commission for permission to readjust rates. 
The schedules which have been proposed show • some de- 
creases, but provide for an average increase, including a 
higher round-trip rate between Kansas City and Leaven- 
worth. The basis of the proposed schedule is a straight one- 
way fare of 2 cents a mile; round trip at 1.8 cents a mile, 
fifty-ride one-year books at 1.56 cents, fifty-ride ninety-day 
books at 1.25 cents, and twenty-five-ride sixty-day books at 
the rate of 1.35 cents a mile. The receipts of the company 
are understood to have suffered a decrease on account of the 
withdrawal of 3100 soldiers at Fort Leavenworth, who were 
called away eighteen months ago. 

"Safety First" in Nashville. — The Nashville Railway & 
Light Company, Nashville, Tenn., is using advertising space 
freely in the newspapers in connection with its "safety 
first" campaign. A recent Sunday issue of the Nashville 
Tennesseean contained a four-column display advertise- 
ment, the full length of the page, in which drawings by 
F. D. Spotswood, Lexington, Ky., were used. Included in 
the text of the advertisement was the following paragraph: 
"We beg the drivers of wagons, teams, buggies and auto- 
mobiles to remember that the cars are bound to run on a 
fixed track and cannot vary their course, nor shut off their 



speed at once — but the drivers can, and the responsibility 
for a collision is generally with them. Drivers: Be de- 
liberate and careful when crossing a track or driving beside 
it." 

Service Complaints in Cincinnati. — W. Kesley Schoepf, 
president of the Cincinnati Traction Company, sent a long 
communication to Mayor Spiegel on Dec. 22, 1914, in which 
he explained in detail the efforts of the company to meet 
the complaints filed with the Director of Public Service. 
After suggesting a number of changes that would result 
in improvements, Mr. Scoepf concluded: "In general, I 
desire to say that, while the reduction in our traffic has 
been large, the service given by this company, as measured 
by the number of seats provided for the traffic during the 
rush-hour periods, has been maintained well above the 
service for the same days of last year." The transfer 
schedule worked out by representatives of the company 
and the street railway committee of the City Council was 
presented to Council on Dec. 22, but its consideration was 
fixed track and cannot vary their course, nor decrease their 
deferred until members have an opportunity to study it care- 
fully. 

Berkshire Petition Finding. — The Massachusetts Public 
Service Commission has refused to order the Berkshire 
Street Railway to remove its high-tension wires from poles 
in Cheshire or to discontinue the use of its local substation, 
as petitioned by the Selectmen. The board points out that 
the wires were attached prior to the passage of any act mak- 
ing the consent of the Selectmen mandatory upon the com- 
pany in connection with the erection of transmission lines 
and that no provision of law was cited which required the 
company to obtain the consent of the Selectmen prior to 
building a local substation. The petitioners claimed that 
the substation is a local disturbance of the peace, but the 
commission points out that the company is endeavoring 
through the manufacturers to reduce the noise of the ma- 
chinery and refuses to take action at present. Regarding 
the demand for lower fares, the board withholds action un- 
til the company shall submit a proposed new schedule of 
rates subject to public hearing. 

Louisville's "Ruddy Runabouts" Rerouted. — After having 
passed through the heart of the retail section of Louisville 
for many years, turning into Fourth Street at Chestnut 
Street and running one block north before turning West on 
Walnut Street, the Brook Street cars of the Louisville (Ky.) 
Railway on Dec. 15 were routed straight down Chestnut 
Street to Fifth Street, thence north on Fifth street to Main 
street as usual after the Walnut Street intersection was 
passed. This routing has long been desired by the officials 
of the company, which in 1912 tried it, beginning at a time 
when construction work effectually blocked Walnut Street. 
Popular clamor, however, compelled restoration of the time- 
honored routing, and it has taken an order from the board 
of public safety, acting in the interest of pedestrians at that 
always busy corner, to divert the cars. This line has for 
years been the butt of the "village wits" and the cars have 
variously been dubbed the "Crimson Ramblers," "Red Rov- 
ers" and "Ruddy Runabouts" on account of the tortuous 
course they have taken through the city. 

Pension Plan for St. Louis Employees. — Richard Mc- 
Culloch, vice-president and general manager of the United 
Railways, St. Louis, Mo., announced on December 24 a 
pension system for old employees effective on Jan. 1, 1915. 
Under the plan about twenty-five present and former em- 
ployees will receive from $240 to $600 a year. The pen- 
sions will be paid entirely by the company. Any employee 
of sixty years who has been with the company fifteen 
years or more continuously and is incapacitated for work 
may upon request retire from active service with a pension 
for life. Any employee seventy years old with the com- 
pany twenty years continuously can be retired on a life 
pension unless exempted by special ruling of the general 
manager. The amount of the annual pension is to be 1% 
per cent of the average annual wage received during the 
employee's last ten-year period of service multiplied by 
the number of years of the employee's continuous service. 
It is provided, however, that no pension shall be less than 
$240 a year or more than 40 per cent of the average annual 
wage. The largest salary considered for the purpose of 
computing the pension allowance will be $1,500 a year. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



79 



Personal Mention 

Mr. Samuel W. Pennypacker, Philadelphia, has been desig- 
nated chairman of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commis- 
sion to succeed the late Nathaniel Ewing. 

Mr. Walter H. Gaither, Pittsburgh, Pa., private secretary 
to Governor Tener of Pennsylvania, has been appointed a 
member of the Pennsylvania Utility Commission. 

Mr. Henry Clay Hall, Colorado Springs, Col., has been 
nominated by President Wilson for re-appointment to the 
Interstate Commerce Commission for a term of seven years 
from Jan. 1, 1915. 

Mr. James W. Carmalt, Montrose, Pa., attorney for the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, has been appointed chief 
examiner of the commission. He succeeds Mr. Ross D. 
Rynder, New York, who resigned to become commerce 
counsel for Swift & Company, Chicago. 

Mr. P. B. Sawyer, vice-president and general manager 
of the Utah Power & Light Company, Salt Lake City, and 
formerly general manager of the Union Electric Company, 
Dubuque, la., in charge of street railway and electric serv- 
ice interests, has resigned from the Utah Power & Light 
Company, with which he has been connected since its or- 
ganization more than two years ago. 

Mr. Harry W. Alexander, publicity and sales manager of 
the Federal Light & Traction Company, New York, has 
resigned his position to become manager of the editorial 
and advertising section of the Society for Electrical De- 
velopment. He will begin his new duties Jan. 1, 1915. 
Mr. Alexander's first position was in the accounting de- 
partment of the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake 
Railroad, at Los Angeles. Later he was transferred to the 
passenger department. Some time later he became press 
representative of one of the large amusement holding com- 
panies, and for three years traveled for this corporation 
throughout the United States and Canada. He later acted 
as its resident agent at different times in Salt Lake City, 
Pocatello, Idaho, and Denver, Col. In 1909 he became con- 
nected with the Chicago Inter Ocean. Early in 1911 he be- 
came associated with the Federal Light & Traction Com- 
pany's operating department, resigning a year later to go 
with the construction forces of the Kansas City, Clay County 
& St. Joseph Railway. He returned late in 1912 to the 
Federal company, in the sales department, and in May, 
1913, became publicity manager. Later he was placed in 
charge of the sales department. 

Mr. George M. Cox has been appointed vice-president 
of the Middlesex & Boston Street Railway and of the 
Norumbega Park Company, with headquarters at New- 
tonville, Mass. He will retain his title and official duties 
as general manager of the railway company and as as- 
sistant treasurer of the Boston Suburban Electric Com- 
panies. Mr. Cox is a native of West Newton, and was 
graduated from the Newton High School in 1884. After 
eight years in mercantile business in Boston he joined the 
Middlesex & Boston organization as a clerk in the book- 
keeping department. He served successively as chief clerk, 
assistant treasurer and assistant general manager, suc- 
ceeding Mr. Carl A. Sylvester as general manager shortly 
after the latter's departure for Rio Janeiro, Brazil. Mr. 
Cox has just been re-elected a member of the Newton 
Board of Aldermen, after four years' service in that body. 
He is a member of the New England Street Railway Club 
and the Massachusetts Street Railway Association. Mr. 
Cox has had immediate charge for the company of the 
campaign for the establishment of a standard fare of 6 
cents on the system, which culminated in the recent favor- 
able Middlesex & Boston rate decision of the Massachusetts 
Public Service Commission, providing a new outlook for 
street railway financial administration for the roads within 
its jurisdiction. 

OBITUARY 

Clarence L. Chapman, at one time superintendent of the 
Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway, is dead. Mr. Chapman 
was born in Sanford, Maine, on Dec. 1, 1843. He served in 
the Civil War and was postmaster of Somersworth, N. H., 
for ten years. He was connected with the Springfield 
(Mass.) Street Railway for many years as a foreman. 



Construction News 



Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 
ported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 

Torrington (Conn.) Traction Company. — Application for a 
charter has been made by this company in Connecticut to 
build a 10-mile electric railway between Torrington and 
Thomaston. Incorporators: Hosea Mann, Torrington, 
George B. Goodwin, Torrington, and Howard Guernsey, 
Thomaston. [E. R. J., Dec. 19, '14.] 

Hartford, New Britain & Meriden Railway, Hartford, 
Conn. — Application for a charter will soon be made by this 
company in Connecticut to build an electric railway from a 
connection with the tracks of the Connecticut Company in 
Meriden northerly along Broad Street or Colony Street 
and the Hartford turnpike, or on private right-of-way near 
the highway in the towns of Meriden, Berlin, Newington, 
Wethersfield and Hartford to the intersection of Fairfield 
and Maple Avenues in Hartford and to a connection with 
the tracks on Fairfield Avenue, Hartford. The petitioners 
also ask for a right-of-way at some convenient point or 
points on the route to extend a line or lines westerly to the 
center of Berlin and to the center of New Britain. John 
C. Warnock, Meriden, attorney. 

FRANCHISES 

Tucson, Ariz. — The Tucson Rapid Transit Company has 
received a twenty-five-year franchise from the Council for 
several extensions of its lines in Tucson. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — The Los Angeles Railway has agreed 
to purchase the franchise for the extension of the Brooklyn 
Avenue line on Evergreen Avenue in Los Angeles to serve 
the Malabar district, on condition that the Trilby rail re- 
quirement be eliminated. 

Lewiston, Idaho. — The City Council at a special meeting 
granted the Nortz Syndicate of Minneapolis a twenty-five- 
year franchise in Lewiston. The railway must be in opera- 
tion by Aug. 1, 1915. As soon as R. C. Dahlkjeim, repre- 
senting the syndicate, can secure a franchise in Clarkston, 
Wash., work will be begun. The matter of granting the 
syndicate a franchise is before the Clarkston City Council 
at this time. 

Augusta, Maine. — The Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville 
Street Railway has received permission from the Public 
Utilities Commission to change the location of its tracks on 
Western Avenue and on Rhines Hill in Augusta. 

St. Louis, Mo. — C. Brenner, John A. Robitch and F. Ar- 
nold have asked the Council for a franchise for an exten- 
sion of the Bellfontaine Street line from its present loop 
to the city limits. 

Orange, N. J. — The Public Service Railway has filed 
with the city clerk the acceptance of the franchise granted 
by the Council on Nov. 24, 1914, for the extension of the 
Central Avenue line in Orange. 

Toronto, Ont. — Plans and specifications for the Eglinton 
Avenue section of the Forest Hill Railway are under con- 
sideration of the York City Council. 

Dallas, Tex. — The Dallas Consolidated Electric Street 
Railway has asked the Council for a franchise for an ex- 
tension to the proposed union interurban terminal station in 
Dallas. 

Houston, Tex. — The Houston Electric Railway has asked 
the Council for a franchise to extend its tracks on San 
Felipe Street to the city limits in Houston. 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Mobile & Baldwin County Railroad, Mobile, Ala. — During 
1915 this company will build 60 miles of new track to con- 
nect Volanta, Bay Minette, Pensacola, Fairhope and Yerkon. 

Fresno (Cal.) Interurban Railway. — J. B. Rogers, presi- 
dent of this company, has agreed to change the routing 
of this line in Fresno to the southeastern city limits from 
K Street to L Street. The company will soon apply for 



80 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



a franchise along Inyo Street from K Street to L Street 
and along L Street to its southeastern limits, thence over 
private right-of-way to Hamilton Avenue in Fresno. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Work has 
been begun by this company on the reconstruction of the 
line from San Bernardino to Highland and Patton. The im- 
provements include new ties, heavier rails and complete re- 
ballasting of the line. 

San Francisco, Cal.— The Fifteenth Street and Park Hill 
Improvement Association has filed a petition with the 
Board of Works in San Francisco to extend Alpine Street, 
widen Fifteenth and other streets in the neighborhood and 
to acquire a right-of-way from Masonic Avenue and Levant 
Street to Pluto Street, so that a route for an extension of 
the municipal railway may be provided. The board has 
referred the petition to the city engineer. 

San Francisco (Cal.) Municipal Railway. — The Board of 
Works has awarded the contract for the construction of the 
California Street Municipal line in San Francisco to F. Ro- 
landi, San Francisco. Plans are being made to begin work 
at once on Second Avenue and Geary Street in San Fran- 
cisco. 

Sausalito (Cal.) Incline Street Railway. — The contracts 
for surveys, general plans and specifications have been 
awarded by this company to A. E. Roberts, and plans are 
being made to begin work about Feb. 1 on this incline rail- 
way from the bay front in Sausalito to the summit of the 
heights, 1000 ft. above Sausalito. The company will operate 
two electric, compensating cable cars and the power station 
will be located at the top of the incline. Capital stock, au- 
thorized, $50,000. Capital stock issued, $3,000. Officers: 
Allen H. Vance, Sausalito, president; George H. Harlan, 
secretary; F. A. Robbins, treasurer and A. E. Roberts, chief 
engineer, all of Sausalito. [E. R. J., Nov. 14, '14.] 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn. — Plans are be- 
ing considered by this company to extend its tracks in Nor- 
wich in five different directions, including the Maplewood, 
cemetery, Mohegan Park and Fitchville extensions. 

Columbus (Ga.) Railroad. — This company is asked to 
consider plans to extend its lines to Riverdale. 

* Boise, Idaho. — C. J. Franklin, Boise, Idaho; J. G. Brown, 
Galion, Ohio, and E. A. Pack, Weiser, Idaho, contemplate the 
construction of a 75-mile electric line over Blue Mountain 
from Boise to La Grande, Ore. 

Lewiston, Idaho. — Arrangements are being made to begin 
work about Feb. 1 on the 3-mile electric line to connect 
Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Wash. The repair shops 
will be located in Clarkston and power will be obtained from 
the Lewiston-Clarkston Improvement Company. It is 
planned to operate three cars. R. C. Dahlhjelm and A. G. 
Nortz are interested. [E. R. J., Dec. 12, '14.] 

City Railway, Mount Vernon, 111. — This company plans to 
build 2 miles of new track during 1915. 

Peoria (111.) Railway. — Plans are being contemplated by 
this company to double-track its Jackson Street line -to the 
city limits of Peoria. 

Rockford (111.) City Traction. — About 50 miles of new 
track will be built by this company during 1915. 

Kankakee & Urbana Traction Company, Urbana, 111. — 
Plans are being considered by this company to begin work 
in the spring on the extension to Paxton and south from 
Paxton. 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railway, Boone, la. 

— This company has purchased three 96-ft., deck-girder 
spans weighing approximately 176 tons from the Amer- 
ican Bridge Company. These are to be used in replac- 
ing temporary structures with permanent ones in the road- 
way near Boone. 

Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western Railway, Bonner 
Springs, Kan. — During the year this company plans to 
build its 25-mile line to connect Linwood, Eudora and Law- 
rence. 

Hutchinson (Kan.) Interurban Railway. — About 1 mile of 
track will be built by this company during 1915. 

Manhattan City & Interurban Railway, Manhattan, Kan. 

— About 1 mile of new track will be built in Manhattan 
during 1915 by this company. 



Louisville (Ky.) Railway. — Something over 1 mile of new 
street paving is to be done next spring on West Market 
Street in Louisville by this company. According to the 
terms of its charter, the company will be required to pave, 
with granitoid, the spaces between its double tracks, as 
well as a strip 2 ft. wide on each side of the tracks. The 
roadways will be of bituminous concrete and the gutters of 
brick. The cost of the improvement is estimated at about 
$65,000. 

Kentucky Utilities Company, Somerset, Ky. — Plans are 

being considered by this company for an extension between 
Somerset and Burnside, 7 miles. 

Southwestern Traction & Power Company, New Iberia, 
La. — This company plans to build its 60-mile line to con- 
nect New Iberia, Jeanerette, Berwick and St. Martinville 
during 1915. 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 

La. — During 1915 this company expects to construct 10.50 
miles of new track in New Orleans. 

Orleans-Kenner Electric Railway, New Orleans, La. — Con- 
struction is well under way on this line to connect New Or- 
leans, Southport, West Carrolton, Harlem, Shrewsbury, 
Harrihan and Kenner. The repair shop will be located at 
Harrihan and power will be purchased from the New Or- 
leans Railway & Light Company. The company will oper- 
ate four cars and will also furnish power for lighting pur- 
poses. Capital stock, authorized, $3,000,000. Capital stock 
issued, $250,000. Officers: E. A. Stanford, New Orleans, 
president; A. Fitzpatrick, vice-president; John Lorenz, 409 
Tulare Newcomb Building, New Orleans, secretary and 
treasurer, and E. J. Morris, superintendent. [E. R. J., Dec. 
19, '14.] 

*East Kildonan, Man. — The Public Utilities Commission 
of East Kildonan is considering plans for an electric rail- 
way from East Kildonan to Morse Place. 

Detroit, Almont & Northern Railway, Detroit, Mich. — 

This company has awarded a contract to Frank Bishop, 
Almont, Mich., to build an extension from Almont north 
to Imlay City, 8.5 miles. The company has completed 
work on 9.35 miles of first track, and about 1 mile of 
second track between Romeo and Almont. 

Minnesota & Central Minnesota Railway, Minneapolis, 
Minn. — This company, which is now building a line be- 
tween St. Cloud and Kimball, is considering plans to build 
through Ramey to the iron range if certain concessions 
are made by those interested in the proposition. E. G. 
Potter, 433 Andrews Building, Minneapolis, president. [E. 
R. J., June 27, '14.] 

Trenton, Lakewood & Seacoast Railway, Point Pleasant, 
N. J. — Completion by May 1 of the first link in a trans- 
State electric line is said to be assured through the awarding 
of a contract by this company to the Vandergrift Construc- 
tion Company. The company has a capital stock of $1,500,- 
000, and all but $250,000 is available for use in the construc- 
tion of the proposed line. The right-of-way extends along 
the wagon road the greater part of the distance to Lakewood 
from Point Pleasant. It is announced that the right-of-way 
for the entire cross-State line has been acquired, and that it 
is planned to make the run from Point Pleasant to Trenton 
in fifty-five minutes. The line will take the most direct 
route from Trenton to the seashore. The intention is to 
make it a freight as well as passenger-carrying line. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — The Public Service Commission, First 
District, has sent to the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, for its criticism and suggestions, the form of contract 
for the construction of Section No. 2 of Route No. 12, the 
Eastern Parkway subway in Brooklyn. This section extends 
from the end of the present construction, at Prospect Park 
Plaza out Eastern Parkway to a point 635 ft. east of the 
center line of Nostrand Avenue, and includes the spur turn- 
ing southeasterly into Nostrand Avenue for the Nostrand 
Avenue subway. The company will have ten days in which 
to consider the contract and return it to the commission 
with its recommendations, after which the Commission will 
adopt it and order advertisements for bids. 

Hudson Valley Railway, Glens Falls, N. Y. — During 1915 
this company plans to build about 1 mile of new track in 
Glens Falls. 



January 2, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



81 



Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company. — A 2-mile extension 
will be constructed by this company in Cincinnati during 
1915. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Rapid Transit Railway. — According to 
a statement by President Hopkins of this company the 
Ohio Public Utilities Commission will be asked to authorize 
an issue of $12,000,000 or $15,000,000 bonds to build the 
first two lines of the proposed subway system in Cleveland. 

Toronto Suburban Street Railway, Toronto, Ont.— During 
1915 this company plans to build 40 miles of new track be- 
tween Toronto and Guelph. 

Toronto, Ont. — A by-law will be submitted to the voters 
on Jan. 2, 1915, in Toronto for authority to build new civic 
lines in North Toronto and extend south from Earlscourt, 
Hill Crest and Wychwood districts, at an estimated cost 
of $455,000. R. C. Harris, City Hall, is Commissioner of 
Works. 

Willamette Valley Southern Electric Railway, Portland, 
Ore. — Officials of this company state that the line will be 
in operation before Feb. 1, 1915. The trolley wires have 
been strung from Oregon City to a point about 2 miles 
southwest of Molalla, and it is expected that the line will 
be completed to Mt. Angel within two weeks. G. B. Dimick, 
president. 

*Bristol, Tenn. — Plans are being considered to build an 
electric railway from Kingsport, on the Holstein River, 
across the counties of Sullivan, Washington, Greene and 
Cooke to Newport, Tenn. No names are yet given of those 
interested in the project. 

Carolina, Greenville & Northern Railroad, Greenviile, 
Tenn. — Work will be resumed in the spring by this com- 
pany on its 70-mile line between Kingsport and Green- 
ville. Power will be purchased from the Tennessee Eastern 
Electric Company, Greenville. Capital stock authorized, 
$1,500,000. Officers: H. S. Reed, 205 Grant Building, Los 
Angeles, president; James L. Calahan, 111 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y., vice-president; A. M. Blauvelt, 61 Broadway, 
New York; secretary; E. R. Eston, Greenville, treasurer; 
Kirby Thomas, 43 Exchange Place, New York, general 
manager and purchasing agent, and F. A. H. Kelly, Green- 
ville, Tenn., chief engineer. [E. R. J., Dec. 26, '14.] 

Knoxville Railway & Light Company, Knoxville, Tenn. — 
Plans are being made by this company to extend its lines in 
Knoxville. 

Beaumont, Tex. — Two plans are under consideration for 
a line through Chambers County. One is to route the line 
through Chambers County direct and the other to route 
the line from Houston to Beaumont, through Liberty County 
and extend a spur from Liberty to Anahuac. Edward 
Kennedy and associates are interested. [E. R. J., Dec. 
19, 1914.] 

San Antonio (Tex.) Traction Company. — Work has been 
begun by this company on Trevino Street to connect Main 
Plaza and Military Plaza in San Antonio. 

Southern Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — Double tracks 
are being laid by this company through Trinity Heights 
near Dallas, and plans are being made to lay new heavy 
rails on Third Avenue in Dallas. 

Southwestern Traction Company, Temple, Tex. — A 2.3- 
mile extension will be built in Temple by this company dur- 
ing 1915. 

Texas City (Tex.) Street Railway. — Work has been begun 
by this company on the extension east on Eleventh Avenue 
to Second Street and south on Second Street to Eighth 
Avenue and thence to the passenger pier in Texas City. 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Railway, Ogden, Utah. — Following 
the completion of the extensions between Lewiston and 
Smithfield and between Providence and Wellsville, through 
service was established recently between Lewiston and 
Wellsville by this company. Grading on the extension be- 
tween Lewiston and Preston is more than half completed, 
and the construction work on the link between Wellsville 
and Brigham has been begun. It is estimated that the 
entire line will be completed and through service established 
between Ogden and Preston by June 15, 1915. The line will 
be about 190 miles long. 

Hershey (Pa.) Transit Company. — This company has 
completed the first section of 5 miles of its line from 
Hershey to Elizabethtown, 10 miles. It is expected that 



the remaining 5 miles will be completed in 1915. H. N. 
Herr, Hershey, chief engineer. 

Warren (Pa.) Street Railway. — During 1915 this company 
plans to lay about mile of new track in Warren. 

Regina (Sask.) Municipal Railway. — About lVz miles of 
new track will be constructed in Regina during 1915. 

Sioux Falls (S. D.) Traction System. — During 1915 this 
company plans to build 1 mile of new track and to pave 3 
miles in Sioux Falls. 

Ogden (Utah) Rapid Transit Company. — During 1915 this 
company plans to build its 33-mile northern terminus to 
connect Wellsville, Mendon, Collinston, Deweyville, Honey- 
ville, Garland, Tremonton and Brigham City. 

Norfolk (Va.) Southern Railway. — Plans are being con- 
sidered by this company for an extension to Cape Lookout. 

Tacoma (Wash.) Municipal Railway. — Rapid progress is 
being made by this company on its new line in Tacoma. 
All the material is on hand and being installed. 

Charleston-Dunbar Traction Company, Charleston, W. Va. 
— About 18 miles of new track will be built by this company 
during the year 1915. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — This com- 
pany is receiving bids for the construction of a new pas- 
senger and freight station in Gardena. The building will 
be a Type "A" structure about 72 ft. x 30 ft., and much 
of the construction work will be of concrete. 

New York Municipal Railway Corporation, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. — The Public Service Commission, First District, has 
approved the plans and contract submitted by this company 
for the construction of the stations on the Sea Beach rail- 
road, as reconstructed for the dual system of rapid transit. 
The stations to be built are designated as: Eighth Avenue, 
Fort Hamilton Avenue, New Utrecht Avenue, Eighteenth 
Avenue, Twentieth Avenue, Twenty-Second Avenue, Kings 
Highway, Avenue U and Eighty-sixth Street. The suc- 
cessful bidder will be required to give a bond of $50,000 to 
begin work within ten days after the delivery of the con- 
tract, and to complete the same within six months from 
that date. The work will include the erection of complete 
station buildings, passages and stairs, with newsstands, 
ticket booths, etc., although the specifications differ for dif- 
ferent stations. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

East St. Louis Light & Power Company, East St. Louis, 
111. — This company will add to its substation equipment a 
1250-kw, 300-r.p.m., 2300-volt frequency changer set with 
synchronous motor panel. The order for the apparatus has 
been placed with the General Electric Company. 

New Bedford & Onset Street Railway, Wareham, Mass. — 

This company will place in operation new substation appara- 
tus consisting of 400-kw and 500-kw rotary converters, 
three 135-kva and three 165-kva transformers, switchboard 
and accessories. The equipment has been purchased from 
the General Electric Company. 

New York Municipal Railway Corporation, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. — This company will make additions to substation 
equipment comprising three 2000-kw and three 4000-kw 
rotary converters, nine 750-kva and nine 1400-kva trans- 
formers, switchboard apparatus and accessories, the contract 
to build all the apparatus having been awarded the General 
Electric Company. 

Toledo Railways & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio. — This 
company has ordered from the General Electric Company 
four additional 2000-kva, four 600-kva and four 300-kva 
transformers and switchboard euqipment. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. Va. 
— All contracts have been awarded by this company for its 
new power house near Hutchinson, W. Va. The new station 
will have 8600-hp capacity. The gas engines will be fur- 
nished by the Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the gener- 
ators by the General Electric Company. 

Nashville Railway & Lighting Company, Nashville, Tenn. 
— This company will place in operation in one of its sub- 
stations an additional 2000-kw three-unit motor-generator 
set which will be built by the General Electric Company. 



82 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 1 



Manufactures and Supplies 



ROLLING STOCK 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad, Highwood, 111., 

will buy immediately fifteen interurban cars. 

Stockton Terminal & Eastern Railroad, Stockton, Cal., ex- 
pects to use gasoline motor cars on its line. 

Wilmington, New Castle & Delaware City Railway, Wil- 
mington, Del., expects to purchase four semi-convertible cars. 

Long Island Railroad, New York, N. Y., is asking for bids 
on twenty all-steel trailers for summer use, about 55 ft. over 
all, of light-weight and flat roof construction. 

TRADE NOTES 

Automatic Ventilator Company, New York, N. Y., is fur- 
nishing its "A. R. I. E." type intake-and-exhaust ventilators 
for the twenty-four arched-roof, all-steel interurban cars 
which the Pressed Steel Car Company is building for the Pa- 
cific Electric Railway. 

P. & M. Company, Chicago, 111., has appointed Fred N. 
Baylies as Eastern manager with offices at 30 Church Street, 
New York City. Mr. Baylies was formerly assistant sales 
manager of the Aluminum Company of America, with office 
in Chicago, but has been a director of the P. & M. Company 
since its incorporation. 

Esterline Company, Indianapolis, Ind., has received an or- 
der to equip all the cars of the Mobile Light & Railroad Com- 
pany with "Golden Glow" headlights. This equipment was 
adopted after a thorough test extending over considerable 
period. The installation replaces present arc and incandes- 
cent headlight equipment. 

W. N. Smith, formerly electrical engineer of Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr & Company, has just completed a report 
on the power generation and distribution system of the San 
Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways. His headquarters 
are now in Watertown, N. Y. 

Charles H. Dodge, general Western sales agent, Taylor 
Electric Truck Company, of Troy, N. Y., has resigned to 
take effect Jan. 1, 1915. Mr. Dodge has been general West- 
ern sales agent for the past ten years and is widely known 
throughout the Central West district. Immediately follow- 
ing his resignation he expects to devote the greater portion 
of his time to private interests. 

Gifford-Wocd Company, Hudson, N. Y., engineers, found- 
ers and machinists, will open an office in Room 1038 Hudson 
Terminal Building, 30 Church Street, New York City. This 
office will be managed by A. W. Berghoefer, who will also 
have associated with him Joseph A. Boucher. The territory 
covered by this New York office will include New York City 
and the Hudson River up to and including Westchester 
County, New Jersey, southeastern Connecticut and south- 
eastern Pennsylvania, also including the southern states 
east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. This company is prepared 
to furnish machinery equipment for handling bulk material 
such as coal, boxes, barrels; also ice levelers and Eureka 
flange teeth for attachment to snow plows, etc. 

Northern Equipment Company, Erie, Pa., manufacturer of 
the Copes boiler feed water regulator and the Copes pump 
governor, reports that 1914 was the most prosperous year in 
the history of its business. Its sales exceeded those of its 
next best year by 9 per cent. This company has purchased 
the plant, equipment and business of the Erie Pump & En- 
gine Works. V. H. Dougherty, formerly with the Interna- 
tional Steam Pump Company, has been engaged to take 
charge of the centrifugal pump design. A consolidation of 
the two companies is being perfected and the new combina- 
tion will be known as the Erie Pump & Equipment Company. 
The officers of the new company are: E. W. Nick, president 
and treasurer; D. H. Du Mond, vice-president; V. V. Veen- 
schoten, secretary. John G. Pfadt, former president of the 
Erie Pump & Engine Works, is not with the new company. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has issued Catalog No. 21 describing its 
small d.c. and a.c. small motors. 



Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, 111., has issued 
a catalog describing and illustrating its Class N-SO and 
N-SG fuel-oil and gas-driven compressors and their applica- 
tion to the unit system of air-power plants. 

Edwards Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, has 
issued a folder describing and illustrating its iron and steel 
trucks for handling freight. A feature of the truck con- 
struction is the continuous-piece "V"-shaped frame, which 
gives unusual rigidity and strength. 

Busch-Sulzer Bros. Diesel Engine Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., has issued a catalog which contains curves, data and 
other results of a number of tests recently conducted for the 
purpose of determining the efficiency of the fuel oil engines 
of this company with unchanging and constant loads and 
also for the purpose of comparison with loads under fluctu- 
ating conditions. 

Roller Smith Company, New York, N. Y., has issued Bul- 
letin sheet No. 86 which contains an illustrated description 
of its new a.c. portable signal system testing volt-ammeter. 
The case of this instrument is of oak and handsome in ap- 
pearance. It is provided with a substantial leather handle, 
hinged cover and snap catch. The binding posts are heavy 
and have non-removable tops. Each binding post is legibly 
marked with a numeral corresponding to the scale value 
which is obtained when this binding post is employed. A 
zero adjuster convenient for manipulation is included. Par- 
ticular attention is called by the manufacturer to the method 
of indicating by diagrams on the scale the proper connec- 
tions for the various ranges and data covering the values per 
scale division. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has issued 
Bulletin No. 45602 dealing with the subject of protection of 
series lighting circuits by lighting arresters. The arresters 
described in the bulletin are two types, the horn type and 
the aluminum type. The former is designed for the protec- 
tion of series transformers and rectifiers against lightning 
discharge and similar trouble, and the latter particularly for 
the protection of cable circuits running from series arc rec- 
tifiers. Bulletin No. 42300 describes this company's line of 
small direct-connected generating sets of sizes ranging from 
2% to 75 kw. These generating sets are adapted for power 
and lighting in isolated plants and as exciters for a.c. gener- 
ators in central stations. Bulletin No. 42010 describes in 
considerable detail horizontal turbine sets of small capaci- 
ties ranging from 7 to 300 kw., direct current, and 100, 200 
and 300 kw., alternating current. They are adapted for sup- 
plying light and power in machine shops and for train light- 
ing. The turbines can be furnished for either condensing 
or non-condensing operation and in general for any steam 
pressure of over 80 lb. 

Western Electric Company, New York, N. Y., is distribut- 
ing the first edition of its 1915 electrical supply year book. 
A new feature incorporated in the book is the adoption of a 
complete series of list prices upon which a uniform basic 
discount applies, such a discount indicating to the holder of 
the catalog his approximate price on all the articles listed. 
The adoption of this system in place of the many and con- 
fusing manufacturers' lists and their wide variety of dis- 
counts makes this publication of especial convenience for ref- 
erence. The innovation enables the trade to determine at a 
glance approximate costs on any one of the many thousands 
of articles listed. It simplifies the complicated method of 
quoting prices and estimating costs, with which the industry 
has so long been burdened, and it should therefore material- 
ly reduce the cost of doing business to seller and buyer alike. 
To illustrate, no longer will the contractor who is called 
upon to estimate on jobs find it necessary to refer to one 
list price and carry in his mind one string of discounts for 
his wire, another for his porcelain, another for his schedule 
material, another for his fixtures, etc. With this book be- 
fore him, he can open at any page, apply a uniform discount 
and arrive at a price which he can safely figure represents 
his cost, or he can group the quantities of material he needs 
together with the total list prices applying thereon and 
again apply the uniform discount and have a working basis 
upon which to figure his profits on the job. 

Special effort has been made to render this book easy of 
reference as well as complete in its listings. Although con- 
taining 1200 pages besides an alphabetical index it is of 
unusually light weight for its completeness. 



Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Revi 



Vol. XLV 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 9, 1915 



THE Mayor Rose's message of Dec. 23, 

MENACE OF 1914, on the "jitney" (5-cent) bus 

THE BUS to the Los Angeles City Council is 

a sane presentation of the danger and money loss that 
confront electric railway and municipality alike if the 
bus is allowed to engage in city transportation without 
making the same relative compensation to the municipal- 
ity as does the electric railway. The figures presented 
by the Mayor, showing a possible loss to the railway of 
$750,000 a year, of which 80 per cent would return to 
the city in various ways, are startling. It is not often 
that a public official sees so clearly what the electric rail- 
way means to the people as a taxpayer, employer, pur- 
chaser and purveyor of a large amount of transporta- 
tion at low cost. As in other cities where a similar 
service has been begun, the buses compete only for the 
cream of the traffic. They do not transfer to other 
routes for the same fare, and they change their courses 
at pleasure. They are practically irresponsible in 
regard to accidents, and they pay no taxes, either in 
the form of cash or pavement maintenance. The ex- 
perience in Los Angeles is but a repetition of what has 
occurred in many foreign cities. In almost every case 
abroad the tramways suffered heavy losses before the 
law had caught up to the novel conditions introduced by 
the power bus. In many foreign cities the situation re- 
mains unameliorated. We hope that the American elec- 
tric railways will not have to wait too long for city coun- 
cils and state legislatures to protect them against such 
unfair competition, for in the end, as Mayor Rose, says, 
the people will be compelled to depend upon the street 
railways for the greater part of their transportation. 

ENGINEERS Style in writing has been com- 

AND pared to a window. The best win- 

ENGLISH d ow }g one which is so clear that 

the light passes through it as through an opening. When 
the window begins to attract attention, there is some- 
thing wrong with it. It is the same with style. It 
should be so clear as not to obstruct the flow of thought 
from the printed page to the mind of the reader. When 
the reader begins to notice the style, and his attention 
is distracted from the thought which the words are' 
intended to transmit, the writing is at fault. Unfor- 
tunately, most of our engineering schools do not give 
sufficient attention to instruction in rhetoric, or the art 
of expression. The science of engineering in its various 
phases has developed so rapidly that the courses of study 
in the technical schools have had to be confined very 
closely to engineering studies, and that of English has 
been neglected. Again, after he leaves college, the 
average engineer does not have much opportunity to 




No. 2 



in writing cleaV^lL^t^ei^ 



acquire ease m writing clear'^aiiUJCiiBerse English, and 
the work which he has to do in preparing contracts and 
specifications certainly does not help him in this respect. 
Yet an ability to write clearly is necessary if he is to im- 
press his ideas upon a large number of other persons. 
In this issue we take pleasure in publishing a well-writ- 
ten letter on the subject of the use of English, by a 
professor who tries to teach engineering students how 
to write. Every reader of this paper who has letters, 
shop orders, reports, technical papers, addresses or any- 
thing else to write can profitably give this subject care- 
ful attention. 

CRYSTALLIZING Whether the safety movement is 
THE SAFETY t j-^ treated merely as an 

MOVEMENT , , . . , , . , , 

ephemeral incident or is to be an 

established factor in the electric railway industry is a 
question which those who have undertaken a compre- 
hensive safety campaign should decide. Many roads 
have treated the safety crusade as a temporary propo- 
sition extending over a period of six weeks or more 
during which a most extensive canvass of the situa- 
tion is made, but little or no effort is put forth to place 
the movement on a permanent footing. The real value 
of a safety campaign is to be had only by making it con- 
tinuous and, to a certain extent, automatic. Of course, a 
permanent safety organization is a long step in this 
direction, but even with it interest will lag. It appears 
to us that the most enduring influence is to be had not 
only by providing mechanical remedies for the preven- 
tion of accidents that have occurred, but by compiling 
a permanent record of instructions for the benefit of 
the new employees. The new men are unacquainted 
with the conditions surrounding the causes of accidents 
in the past or the cures that were adopted for their 
elimination. The safety rule book recently issued by 
the Chicago Elevated Railways and mentioned in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 12, 1914, is an ex- 
ample of what may be termed the crystallization of a 
safety movement. Manifestly as the equipment and 
methods change, this book of rules will have to be 
amended so that it will form a record of past experi- 
ence at all times which will be of benefit to the new em- 
ployee. Further, it should become the duty of the em- 
ployee in any of the departments to familiarize himself 
with the rules pertaining to the particular work he is 
to do and thereby profit by the experience of those who 
have gone before. In conclusion, we merely wish to 
warn against the ever-present tendency to join in these 
various crusades because they are popular. If any 
movement is worth while it should be undertaken only 
with a view of maintaining continued interest. 



84 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



PROGRESS IN ELECTROLYSIS MITIGATION 

During the past year the subject of electrolytic cor- 
rosion of underground pipes has had unusual publicity. 
This does not indicate necessarily more attention on 
the part of the interests involved, but it shows a desire 
to permit the experience of one to be available to all. 
The subject is taking on a more scientific aspect, al- 
ways associated with the comprehensive solution of 
problems. As one surveys the past of the electrolysis 
controversy he is led to conclude that some of the rea- 
sons for the existence of a new epoch in this field are 
these: First, most of the more pressing technical elec- 
tric railway problems have been solved and attention is 
available for those less urgent ; second, the streets have 
become so filled, above and below ground, with tracks, 
pipes, conduits, etc., all of which form complicated re- 
turn paths for railway return currents, that some 
understanding regarding the rights of all parties con- 
cerned must be reached; third, it is generally recog- 
nized that such an understanding must be based on the 
possession of full information. There has been, no 
doubt, an attitude of suspicion and distrust on the part 
of owners of pipes and conduits on the one hand and 
on that of railway managements on the other, based 
largely on lack of such information. Corrective meas- 
ures involve expenditure, and neither side desires to 
make these unless convinced of responsibility and even 
then the methods proposed for relief must not be open 
to suspicion as to their effectiveness, reasonableness 
and permanence. Experts have differed in their plans 
for mitigating the trouble, hence their propositions 
have been considered experimental in character. 

An unfortunate, but natural, temporary element at 
the present stage of development is a seeming division 
of opinion as to the merits of two remedial methods, 
the insulated return feeder system and the pipe drain- 
age system. There is, however, a growing recognition 
of the fact that there is no one universal panacea. Con- 
ditions of soil resistivity and chemical composition, 
underground pipe layout, track and feeder distribution, 
etc., differ so widely that a plan successful and economi- 
cal in one city might be quite the reverse elsewhere. 
Some cities are so fortunate as to be built upon soil 
which inherently prevents electrolysis, whereas other 
soils invite it. In order to seem up to date and pro- 
gressive, however, it is quite possible that the govern- 
ing boards in the electrolysis-proof city might be in- 
duced to prescribe regulations suited and necessary 
only elsewhere. Hence again, the need for full infor- 
mation. 

That all pipe corrosion is not caused by stray cur- 
rents would be generally admitted, but it is very diffi- 
cult to prove that it was not so caused in any particular 
case. Conclusive statements, based on experiment, such 
as that printed in the issue of the Electric Railway 
Journal for Nov. 14, 1914, will do much to clarify this 
important phase of the question. 

There is no doubt that the formation of the national 
joint committee on electrolysis, with its representation 
of most of the important involved interests, is the best 



omen of progress which has appeared in recent years. 
A report of this committee is now in preliminary form 
and will be issued shortly. If this report commands the 
respect which the standing of the members of the com- 
mittee would lead us to expect, a potent influence for 
reasonableness and fairness will be exerted by it. A 
second factor, not distinct from the other, is the Na- 
tional Bureau of Standards, in its participation in elec- 
trolysis experiments on a commercial scale. The pur- 
pose of the bureau in these investigations is to secure 
data for the general welfare, and it enters upon them 
only when they promise scientific interest and data. 
Obviously the bureau advocates no particular method 
of return conductors. This great national institution 
can contribute materially to progress by occupying an 
influential, non-partisan position, furnishing accurate 
data upon the basis of which the several utilities can get 
together. With these co-operating agencies,* the joint 
committee and the national bureau, at work, with the 
vast store of information heretofore locked up in the 
archives of railway, water, gas, telephone and other 
companies made available, and with the scientific, pro- 
gressive spirit which is beginning to be manifest in 
full action, there is hope, not for a solution of the 
problem but for a normal attitude toward it. 



ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY AND RAILWAYS 

During the past decade the relations of the subject of 
engineering chemistry to the electric railway have 
broadened far beyond early conceptions of their scope. 
Operating men have become more interested in the quali- 
ties of material and supplies, and the keen search for 
more economical methods has opened new avenues of in- 
vestigation in connection with the purchase of equipment 
and products used in quantity in various departments 
of company service. It is this varied usefulness of 
modern chemistry which is emphasized in the article 
printed elsewhere in this issue on the practice of the 
Bay State Street Railway. Whether a large system 
elects to maintain its own personal chemical staff or to 
retain an outside firm in a consulting capacity, as is 
done in this case, it is evident that the old conception 
of the chemist's duties must be widened before the full 
benefits of the policy can be reaped. 

There are still many well-informed people whose con- 
ception of chemical engineering is limited to a vision 
of a narrow-chested, sallow-complexioned recluse whose 
only joy in life is to peer into beakers of malodorous, 
bubbling compounds in search of their contents, up in 
some dark cubbyhole under the roof where no one else 
will consent to work. It is a long stride from 
the attic to the conference room where the counsel 
of the chemical specialist is given in conjunction 
with the advice of the operating engineer and the in- 
vited criticism of the manufacturer, but the safe- 
guarding of materials and of the company pocketbook 
which are the results of this work indicate that the 
resources of modern science are sure to be called upon 
more and more in public utility operation as time 
passes. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



85 



THE SUBWAY ACCIDENT 

On the morning of Jan. 6 travel was interrupted in 
the New York subway and a number of passengers were 
injured, one fatally, as the indirect result of a cable 
blow-out. Smoke from a short-circuit in a splicing 
chamber forming part of the power distribution system 
and separated from the subway by asbestos-lined steel 
doors, found access to the subway and added to the 
excitement of passengers alarmed by the tying up of 
traffic. Undoubtedly a rigid inquiry will be instituted 
by the Public Service Commission and by the company 
to determine the best means of preventing a recurrence 
of a similar condition. Until this study has been made 
of the possibilities of the use of insulation other than 
that employed, methods of preventing the entrance of 
smoke or other noxious gases into the subway and their 
prompt removal when present, etc., it would be idle to 
give offhand opinions on the subject. 

The occurrence of an accident of this sort naturally 
raises a query in the minds of some, not only in New 
York but in other cities, as to the safety of subway 
travel. No one can investigate the statistics on this 
subject without being impressed with the notable im- 
munity from accidents enjoyed by these lines and the 
great degree of safety with which they are transporting 
vast numbers of people. For example, during each day 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company on its sub- 
way and elevated lines hauls a very much larger num- 
ber of passengers than all of the steam railroads in the 
United States haul during a year. For the year ended 
June 30, 1914, the Interstate Commerce Commission 
reported that as a result of train operation on the steam 
railroads, 265 passengers were killed and 15,121 were 
injured. During the previous year the figures were 
403 and 16,539 respectively. On the other hand, during 
the same year, with 400 times as many passengers, the 
Interborough killed no one and had no serious accidents 
to passengers on its trains. We are stating these facts, 
not as an excuse for any possible neglect of the com- 
pany to adopt precautions which will prevent accidents 
in the future, but because the public as a whole does 
not realize the small likelihood of accident to any indi- 
vidual passenger. Even a great many railroad men do 
not appreciate the remarkable extent of the safety pre- 
cautions which have been thrown around rapid transit 
service in cities. It is true that the average steam rail- 
road passenger travels a very much longer distance and 
is subject to a number of perils which are not present 
in urban operation. But, as opposed to this, passengers 
on rapid transit lines are subject to crowded condi- 
tions of cars and station platforms which are absent in 
steam railroad operation and underground transit is, 
of course, exposed to the peculiar dangers of this class 
of operation. 

The subway cars in New York are equipped with 
emergency lighting circuits fed from storage batteries 
for use in case of accidents involving interruption of 
service, and the accident in question indicates the 
great value of lights of this kind as an element of 
insurance against the panic and the importance not only 



of sufficiency in their design but also of their frequent 
inspection and periodical tests. This is the most im- 
portant lesson to be drawn from the information at 
present in hand. Only second in importance to the 
emergency car lighting is the lighting of the subway 
from a source of power independent of the main power 
supply. 



TEACHERS AND THE INDUSTRY 
Perhaps enough has already been said on the issues 
raised by the publication which criticised editorially 
the effort recommended by the public policy committee 
of the American Electric Railway Association to co- 
operate in sound public education on matters related to 
electric railways. From one point of view all that need 
be said was expressed in the editorial of the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 5. Since then prominent 
representatives of five institutions of learning have ex- 
pressed their approval of the plan of the committee 
and of the Journal's exposition and defense of this 
plan. None of these professors has evinced the slight- 
est fear of contaminating influences on the part of rail- 
way men. On the contrary, they substantially agree in 
the statement of Professor Rood of LaFayette College, 
that "certainly no one can deny that there is needed 
closer and better understanding between the electric 
railways and the public they serve. Any movement that 
makes for this should in every way be helped and not 
hindered." 

Professor Rood has also written at some length, and 
in the same vein, to the critic of the Neiv Republic who, 
as though to prove that a correct statement of this mat- 
ter cannot be secured in his columns, states that "it ap- 
pears to be a fair inference that the association proposes 
that courses of instruction dealing with such matters 
as capitalism, rates and franchises should be turned 
over to men who are in the employ of the companies or, 
at least, have given much of their lives to such employ- 
ment." No one has ever made such a proposition as 
this, so far as our knowledge goes. No courses of 
instruction were to be turned over to anybody outside 
of members of a faculty. It was simply proposed that 
as a part of courses of instruction there might be lec- 
tures which would frankly state the railways' point of 
view. Later on our critic announces that educational 
institutions must maintain "a strictly neutral position." 
Of course they must; so also must judges in our courts 
■ — yet we have never heard of a judge announcing that 
he wished to hear but one side of a case. 

All of the above is fairly obvious, and as was stated 
at the beginning, from one point of view this whole mat- 
ter might have been closed with our original editorial 
on the subject. This point of view, however, would 
ignore one of the most important principles of educa- 
tional effort, and that is that no injurious charge or 
statement should remain unanswered, however unrea- 
sonable it may be nor how oft repeated after it has once 
been refuted. If this policy had been systematically 
followed by electric railways there would not now be so 
much misinformation to counteract. 



86 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 2 

Inclosed Prepayment Cars for Baltimore 

The United Railways & Electric Company of Baltimore Has Placed in Operation Eighty-five Prepayment Cars 
Which Differ from Earlier Prepayment Designs Chiefly in the Change to the 

Fully Inclosed Platform 



On Aug. 1, 1914, the United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany of Baltimore began to place in service on the 
St. Paul Street, Linden Avenue, West Arlington, and 
Pikesville and Emory Grove lines a consignment of 
eighty-five prepayment semi-convertible cars received 
from The J. G. Brill Company and built under license of 
the Prepayment Car Sales Company. The general di- 
mensions of the new car are as follows: Length of 
platform, 5 ft. 8V2 in.; length over the corner posts, 
30 ft. 8 in. ; length over all, 43 ft. 9 in. ; maximum 
width, 8 ft. 5 in. These cars, although similar in a 
great many respects to the large number of pay-as-you- 
enter cars now in operation in Baltimore, have several 
new features, among them fully inclosed platforms 
with mechanically-operated doors and folding steps, the 
operating mechanism of which works in conjunction 
with the doors. Furthermore, the end wall of the bulk- 
head, which in other types of prepayment cars now in 
use in Baltimore contains both the main entrance and 



opened the rods turn about 90 deg., causing the door 
sections to part in the middle, one pair moving close to 
the corner post and the other pair moving to the vesti- 
bule. The door sections fold outward instead of inward 
in order to obtain the maximum platform space. 

The edges of the door sections, which are hinged to- 
gether, have an interlocking joint similar to a tongue 
and groove which keeps out the weather when the doors 
are closed. Where both pairs of doors meet, the edges 
of the same are fitted with heavy rubber tubing which 
acts as a resilient medium when the doors are closed. 
Each of the two door sections which meet on closing 
the doors is fitted at the top with a small case-hardened 
steel roller which passes between guide plates in the 
upper casing and plays an important part in the easy 
manipulation of the doors. 

On the platform, securely bolted to the end sill and 
4 in. off of the car floor center, is the conductor's com- 
bination door control stand and fare-box support. This 




emergency exit doors, has been supplanted by a large 
open archway extending from side to side of the car. 
This archway is finished off in cherry and adds greatly 
to the interior appearance of the car. 

Folding Doors and Steps, Seats and General Finish 

Entrance to the car is obtained by a set of folding 
doors of four sections which, when in a closed and 
locked position, fit against the side of the car platform 
and a casing located just beneath the edge of the plat- 
form hood extending from the car corner post to the 
vestibule. This main doorway, which serves the double 
purpose of entrance and emergency exit, affords a 47V2- 
in. opening when the doors are thrown to open position. 
Each of the four sections comprising the door has two 
panes of clear wired plate glass secured in place with 
wooden beading. At the corner post and near the vesti- 
bule there is a 1-in. round steel rod extending from the 
top door casing to about 8 in. below the platform, where 
both rods connect with the door-operating mechanism. 
The four door sections are divided into two hinged 
pairs. About one-half the thickness of the rod is im- 
bedded in one edge of each pair of door sections and is 
securely held at regular intervals by U-shaped plates 
about 2 in. wide. In other words, two door sections are 
literally hung on each of the rods. When the doors are 



stand consists of a piece of 2-in. pipe having a special 
casting on top and the lower end passing through the 
car platform. Through the center of this pipe passes 
a 1-in. round steel shaft with a system of bell cranks 
on the lower end to connect by means of rods to the 
door mechanism just described and to a large folding 
step. To the upper end of this shaft is fitted a handle 
similar in many respects to a controller handle and hav- 
ing a radius of 9 in. Near the top of the stand are two 
brackets upon which the fare box is hung. A folding 
step 12 in. wide and 4 ft. long works in unison with 
the doors at the main entrance. This step for about 
4 in. back from the front edge is covered with abrasive 
material for its entire length. The door-operating 
handle, which moves in an arc of about 180 deg., is ar- 
ranged to throw the cranks over dead center, thereby 
acting as a positive lock against anyone trying to open 
or close the doors without the aid of the proper handle. 

On the opposite side of the platform (motorman's 
right hand) are arranged a pair of folding door sec- 
tions, similar to those above described but affording a 
doorway 23 V2 in. wide when open. This is the regular 
exit door placed quite close to the vestibule and me- 
chanically controlled by the motorman. The remaining 
distance to the car corner post is taken up by a station- 
ary panel having clear glass in the upper half and four 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



87 



small beveled wood panels in the lower. The door when 
opened folds outward and back toward the car body. 
About 12 in. to the right of the motorman's air-brake 
valve and at about the level of the vestibule belt rail is 
located the motorman's door-operating handle. This 
handle fits the end of a vertical 1-in. round steel shaft 
which passes through the crown piece and is equipped 
on its lower end with a crank and rods to operate the 
exit door and folding step. The folding step just men- 
tioned is 12 in. wide by 25 in. long. It is made of wood 
and has a step tread about 4 in. wide and 25 in. long. 
Both the motorman's and conductor's operating han- 
dles are removed to the opposite end of the car on 
changing the direction of running. 

The vestibule from the belt rail to the floor is lined 
in natural cherry and has six large removable panels. 
The removable panel feature aids in repairing head- 
lights or anything which is apt to fall out of adjustment 
between the dasher and vestibule lining. At the trans- 
verse center of the hood is located a motorman's curtain 
of pantasote 20 in. in width which can be drawn down 
and which hangs 3 ft. 6 in. above the car platform. 

The seating of the car is an arrangement of four 
longitudinal seats extending the length of the first two 
windows at each corner, the rest of the car being fur- 
nished with fourteen transverse reversible spring rat- 
tan seats 36 in. wide. The aisle space between these 
rattan seats is 21% in. Out on the platform to the 
motorman's left a seat has been arranged capable of 
holding three passengers. This seat is 8 in. wide and 
3 ft. 9 in. long. When not in use it folds off to the left 
of the controller and against the vestibule post where it 
is held by a retaining hook. When in use (which is 
only possible on the front platform) it drops down to a 
height of about 19 in. above the car platform, parallel 
to and within about 4 in. of the main entrance doors. 
A lug on the end of the seat fits into a casting on the 
car corner post, and the middle of the seat is in turn 
supported by a bracket which unfolds from the under- 
side of the seat and rests on the platform. Unlike the 
rattan seats in the interior of the car, this platform 
seat is made up of a number of cherry wood strips 
heavily reinforced on the underside with %-in. chan- 
nels. The total seating capacity is forty-seven passen- 
gers, twenty-eight on the transverse seats, sixteen on 
the longitudinal seats and three on the platform seat. 




BALTIMORE INCLOSED CARS — FRONT EXIT, SHOWING HOW 
DOUBLE-SECTION DOOR FOLDS OUTWARD 




BALTIMORE INCLOSED CARS — INTERIOR SHOWING THE 
SEATING, ARM RESTS AND ARCHWAY 



The use of pressed steel pedestals, wall and aisle plates 
in the Hale & Kilburn transverse seats represents a 
saving of approximately 25 lb. per seat over seats of 
similar dimensions which are made up with malleable 
iron castings. 

The ceilings are covered with agasote, which has 
been sanded smooth and, after being painted light buff 
color, has a V2 in. aluminum black-edged stripe. The in- 
terior finish is natural cherry. The interior moldings 
are very plain to require the least work in keeping the 
car clean. 

Car Framing 

The wooden sills are 2 3 /4 in. x 6% in., and the steel 
sill plate 5/16 in. x I6V2 in. The sill plate by means of 
a drop-forged corner iron is held by rivets to the end 
sill which is a 10-in. channel. The center knees are 
securely riveted to the end sill by means of a gusset 
plate, thus forming a very substantial and stiff under- 
frame. A pair of 3 in. 5.5 lb. I-beam stringers extend 
from the intermediate crossing through the bolster to 
the 10-in. channel at the sill. These are securely riv- 
eted by means of angles and Z-shaped plates to a 10-in. 
channel and gusset plate near the platform. Where the 




BALTIMORE INCLOSED CARS — PEAR ENTRANCE AND EXIT 
COMBINED, ALSO POSITION OF FARE BOX 



88 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 




Singlu Throw Double fuse 
Beater Switch iii Metal Dux 
. Down Comer Post 



% FUkr between 
Floor and Dolstar 




Electr.r Journal 



BALTIMORE INCLOSED CARS — SECTION AT CAST-STEEL 
BOLSTER 

I-beam stringers meet the intermediate crossing fast- 
ening is made with angles riveted to the I-beams and 
then bolted to the crossing. The floor boards are all 
hollow back to reduce the weight. 

The car body bolster is made of cast steel in one piece. 
The bolster was designed by the United Railways & 
Electric Company to carry a specified center-plate load 
and with a large factor of safety. Holes in the bolster 
admit air pipes, I-beam stringers and hand-brake pull 
rods. The platform supports are made of light chan- 
nel irons. 

Sanders, Brake Rigging, Brakes, Trucks, Etc. 

The car has four sand boxes of the Dumpit type, two 
of which are placed beneath the platforms and two in 
the car under the longitudinal seats. The sand boxes 
at each end are operated simultaneously by means of a 
lever connected to a rocker shaft. 

The hand-brake rigging is a system of chain sheaves 




Circuit No.l Heaters :ios.l-G luclu. 

Elee. rie li;.. Journal 

BALTIMORE INCLOSED CARS — WIRING DIAGRAM OF HEATERS 



slack adjuster. This type of slack adjuster has made 
it feasible to change from daily to weekly inspections. 
Both the G governor and the Dl-F compressor have a 
number of special details required by the railway's 
specification. The compressor is suspended from the 
underframing at three points. Three brackets are 
bolted to the compressor near the top, two on one side 
and the other on the side opposite. These in turn fit 
into supports bolted to the car underframing. The 
motorman's valve is the three section type SV2, which 
is very readily disassembled without disturbing the air 
pipes. This valve has a special guard of home manu- 
facture to prevent grease getting on the clothing of 
passengers while standing on the rear platform. The 
brake cylinder is 10 in. in diameter. The total weight 
of the air-brake equipment, including all of the pipes 
and fittings, is about 1300 lb. 

The cars are mounted on Brill 27-GE-l trucks. The 
Symington journal boxes are of a type specially de- 
signed for the railway, using its standard check plates 
and bearings. The back of the box is fitted with an 
M.C.B. wooden dust guard. The journal box lids are 
of malleable iron. The axles are Cambria heat-treated 
steel 4Vi> in. in diameter with 4.885-in. gear seat and 
4-in. journals. Solid gears are used and are pressed 
on with from 45 tons minimum to 60 tons maximum 
pressure. The wheels are cast iron 33 in. in diameter, 
made by the National Car Wheel Company. The brake 
s shoes have separable 

heads and steel 
backs of the Ameri- 
can Electric Rail- 
way Association's 
standard design. 
The truck brake 
rigging is for the 
United Railways & 
Electric Company's 
standard slide brake. 
The approximate 
weight of the two 
trucks is 12,700 lb. 

Electrical Equip- 
ment and Light- 
ing 

The e 1 e c t r i c al 
equipment consists 
of four GE 200-1 
motors operated by 
two K-32-U2 control- 
lers. This motor i.« 



Only 1st, 3rd, 5th St 7th Transverse Scuts 
Equipped with Heaters & Heater Deflector 



BALTIMORE INCLOSED CARS — DETAIL OF HEATER LOCATION, INCLUDING GROUNDING 



which avoids an elaborate system of levers and pro- 
duces excellent hand-brake operation with a slight sav- 
ing in weight. The car body complete with foundation 
brake rigging, etc., weighs approximately 17,200 lb. 

The air brakes are the Westinghouse Traction Brake 
Company's SM-3 equipment in connection with a type F 



lighter in weight 
compared to those 
which are in service 
on other cars of this 
company's lines and is one of a new line of ventilated 
commutating pole motors. The motor is rated at 
32 hp on 500 volts and 38 hp on 600 volts. Be- 
sides the ventilating features, these motors have 
some additional novelties required by the railway's 
specifications, the most prominent of which are 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



89 



the field coil terminals, brush-holder design and im- 
proved method of lubrication for the axle bearings. 
The controllers also include some special features, the 
most important being the rearrangement of the con- 
troller connections to prevent excessive burning of 
controller fingers and segments. Each controller finger 
also has a renewable copper tip secured with a hex- 
agonal head slotted set screw and lock washer instead 
of being riveted. At the base of each controller finger 
is a casting fitted with set screws which comprises the 
ground terminal. The resistance as furnished consists 
of two boxes, one containing twenty-eight grids and 
the other eighteen grids. Fourteen tooth special 
grade hardened pinions made by the Tool Steel Gear & 
Pinion Company were used in connection with hard- 
ened sixty-nine tooth solid gears made by the same 
company. Both gear and pinion are 4V2 in. in width 
of face. 

The gear cases are of malleable iron. Two standard 
GE circuit breakers altered to meet the specifications 
of the railway are a part of this equipment. There are 
also one GE form A aluminum cell lightning arrester 
and one choke coil. The cables within the car are 
placed in a transit-lined cable box running the length 
of the car. The leads of the cables running to the con- 
troller, motor, resistance and ground are placed in con- 
duit, extending below the platform or floor of the car. 
The complete electrical equipment, including conduit and 
fittings, weighs approximately 11,000 lb. 

The cars have twenty-four 23-watt, 110-volt tung- 
sten lamps, twenty of which are burning at one time. 
Each platform has two lights on the transverse center 
of the hood, arranged to burn simultaneously with the 
front headlight. 

The cars have twelve Consolidated heaters, one under 
each longitudinal seat and one under every other trans- 
verse seat. Wires are run in conduit, having a condulet 
outlet at each heater. In addition to the two wires run- 
ning to each heater a third wire running to ground is 
bolted to the iron work of each seat, so that should the 
insulation break down in any one heater, and therefore 
short-circuit it, the main heater circuit fuse will blow. 
Details relating to the electric heater installation under 
cross-seats and to the heater wiring are shown in two 
drawings on page 88. The main single-throw double- 
fuse heater switch is located out on the platform 
in a metal box. Each heater is protected on top by a 
No. 16 iron deflector plate lined on the underside with 
1/16-in. sheet asbestos. At each intermediate foot a 
pearl push button is supplied in connection with a 
Faraday monitor buzzer at each end of the car for 
passengers' signals. The circuit is operated by a Pat- 
terson battery set model B-R-3 (three cells in series). 
The battery set, which is inclosed in a metal box and 
placed under one of the longitudinal seats, is kept locked 
at all times to prevent the stealing of the cells. All 
wires which form the lighting circuit are placed in 
grooved moldings. 

Fare Registration, Etc. 

Each car is supplied with one International Register 
Company's automatic coin-counting fare box of a type 
designed for Baltimore. The registration of fares is 
supplemented with two International R-7 registers. A 
register rod, which passes through the car, communi- 
cates by a small rod at either end with one of the 
registers ; the standard practice of the railway company 
is to use the forward register. The fare box is sup- 
ported near the top of the conductor's door control 
stand in such a way that when the car is reversed it 
can readily be lifted off and carried to the control stand 
on the other platform. The height of this stand above 
the platform is 4 ft. 



The installation of the complete electrical and air- 
brake equipment was made at the shops of the United 
Railways & Electric Company. As promptly as the 
cars were received from the car builder they were 
turned out fully equipped at the rate of two cars a day. 
The complete car weighs without passenger load 42,200 
lb., or a unit weight of 897.8 lb. per seated passenger. 
The complete specifications, covering all details in con- 
nection with the car body, trucks, electrical and air- 
brake equipments, were prepared under the direction of 
A. T. Clark, superintendent rolling stock and shops, 
subject to the approval of W. A. House, president. 



Way Department Rule Book to Promote 
Standard Practice 

In order to put in permanent, ready-reference form 
rules and instructions for the foremen and promising 
employees of the way department of the Chicago, 
Ottawa & Peoria Railway, one of the interurban prop- 
erties of the McKinley syndicate, W. F. Carr, engineer 
maintenance of way, has compiled a 200-page illus- 
trated booklet. The scope of the book is rather broad, 
since the way department supervises track and road- 
way, bridges and buildings, overhead trolley and trans- 
mission lines, as well as the signal system. The fore- 
men and other employees are required to take a written 
examination every six months to prove their familiarity 
with the rules applying particularly to their work. 
After the examination papers have been corrected, the 
men are drilled on those rules in which they proved 
weak. Of course, this method of instruction is used 
on a number of steam railroads, but it has seldom been 
employed on electric interurban railways. 

To give an idea of the scope of this rule book, it 
may ba described as containing definitions of the terms 
used to designate the work and equipment of the differ- 
ent branches, general rules governing the duties of the 
department heads and their subordinates, instructions 
regarding the standards of construction, maintenance 
and materials for the various parts of the road under 
the supervision of the several departments. For in- 
stance, in the track and roadway division directions are 
given for maintaining the roadbed, the ditches, bridges 
and culverts. Specifications for ballast, cross-ties, tie- 
plates, rails, joints, spikes and the installation of special 
work are furnished in detail. The rule book also 
contains instructions for lining, surfacing and gag- 
ing track, maintaining and adjusting switch lamps 
and derails, precautions against the approach of cold 
weather, interference with signal and interlocking track 
circuits, fire protection and patrolling the right-of-way. 
This information is followed by safety precautions re- 
garding hand signals, accident instructions and the 
proper way to operate hand and push cars. 

The data for other branches are of like nature. 
Standard methods of guy anchoring, cable splicing, 
tying-in transmission and telephone lines to insulators 
and overhead line crossings are illustrated. These illus- 
trations are necessarily small but show enough to re- 
fresh a man's memory. Full detail drawings to a larger 
scale also are furnished with the rule book to be re- 
tained in the foreman's office. 

Although this property has only 106 miles of track, 
requiring ten track foremen, one bridge and building 
foreman and one line foreman, it is believed that the rule 
book represents an economy measure. It assures the 
engineer of maintenance of way that the foremen have 
for ready reference rules governing the standards of 
their work, a practice which has the merit of decreasing 
correspondence regarding instructions and of holding 
each foreman to strict account regarding the character 
of the work. 



90 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



Chemical Engineering on the Bay State Street 

Railway 

Features of Practice in Connection with the Specification of Materials, Tests and Investigations of the Properties 
of Supplies — Results of Chemical Analyses Applied to Problems Bearing Upon the 
Efficiency of Equipment and Proper Use of Materials 



Through the courtesy of P. F. Sullivan, president of 
the Bay State Street Railway, the following account is 
given of some of the results obtained in turning over 
the problems of the company in the field of engineering 
chemistry to an outside organization in which are cen- 
tralized functions of testing and research outside the 
scope of the usual transportation company. The rela- 
tions of the chemist to the electric railway have greatly 
broadened within the past decade and have been re- 
ferred to from time to time in these columns. In the 
Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 29, 1913, the serv- 
ices engineering chemistry is performing in the field 
of electric traction were described comprehensively in 
an abstract of a paper read by Carl F. Woods at a 
meeting of the New England Street Railway Club. 
Many of the features of the work outlined by the au- 
thor applied with particular force to the Bay State com- 
pany, whose principal chemical problems have been cared 
for since 1906 by Arthur D. Little, Inc., of Boston, a 
large organization of chemists and engineers devoted 
to advisory, research and testing work in industrial 
chemistry. In subsequent paragraphs some of the de- 
tailed results of the services performed for the com- 
pany are given. 

Scope of Service Performed 

The Little organization consists of a staff of experts 
specializing in various branches of chemical engineer- 
ing and familiar with the problems of various electric 
railway departments, such as power supply, distribu- 
tion, line work, maintenance of way, construction and 
operation of equipment, and the purchase of material 
and supplies of all kinds. Some of these problems in- 
clude the selection of fuel and the treatment and test- 
ing of water for boiler feeding and other purposes; 
the study of bonding, investigation of electrolysis, 
choice of wires and cables, study of insulation, rails, 
structural material, timber preservation, and the pur- 
chase of everything from castings and bearing com- 
position to motors, conduit, paint and varnish. Since 
the relations between this organization and the com- 
pany began, the field of service has steadily grown 
larger, both by reason of the development of the staff 
organization and its increasing familiarity with the 
requirements of the company. A point has now been 
reached where the organization is virtually regarded as 
a company department, and the standardization of 
equipment and material which has been accomplished 
and the framing of scientific specifications brought 
about through co-operative work has placed the pur- 
chase and acceptance of material on a most efficient 
basis. Not only does the company purchase its mate- 
rial fully as cheaply as before these services were in- 
augurated, but it has the added advantage of getting 
entirely satisfactory material with a vast saving in time 
to the company's officers. All new materials and sup- 
plies are submitted to the consulting chemists before 
being passed upon by the officials of the company ; sam- 
ples of materials purchased in insufficient quantities to 
justify specifications are tested and reported upon be- 
fore action is taken by the purchasing department; and 



the service includes the preparation of numerous spe- 
cial reports upon investigations undertaken on behalf 
of the railway. 

Standardization of Specifications 

The preparation and maintenance of specifications is 
one of the most important features of the work. At the 
beginning of these relations the railway company had 
practically no standard specifications, but in the past 
few years a large number of these have been prepared. 
These cover almost every variety of material used on 
the system, and they are filed in loose-leaf books. Be- 
fore they are finally drafted it is customary to consult 
with representative manufacturers and to receive their 
suggestions and comments, every effort being made to 
formulate final specifications of a common-sense char- 
acter which are sufficiently inclusive to admit general 
bidding and at the same time be expressive of the 
latest practice. So far as possible all specifications are 
drawn to conform to the published standards of the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association, 
the American Society for Testing Materials, and the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, but they 
are altered freely, when necessary, to conform to scien- 
tific advance or other conditions. 

An example of the thoroughness with which the spec- 
ifications are written is given in the title of a set "Prep- 
aration of Cross-arms for Painting." These provide for 
two coats of the company's standard gray paint. The 
priming coat is required to be mixed in the proportions 
of 1 gal. standard paint, 3 qts. of the company's stand- 
ard raw linseed oil, and 1 qt. of the company's standard 
turpentine. Another representative specification deals 
with the application of reinforcing sleeves to iron poles 
that have been weakened by corrosion near the surface 
of the ground. The sleeve consists of a standard lap- 
welded iron pipe 36 in. long, 1 in. greater in inside diam- 
eter than the pole exterior diameter, cement being 
grouted into the space between pole and sleeve and the 
top calked with lead. Cross-arm braces formerly gave 
the company trouble through breakage, and analysis 
showed that poor grades of iron or scrap steel 
were being supplied. Steel or wrought iron is 
new specified as the proper material, and this is 
galvanized before going into service. The company now 
requires that flat braces shall have a tensile strength be- 
tween 48,000 lb. and 60,000 lb. per square inch, angle 
braces ranging from 55,000 lb. to 65,000 lb. To pre- 
vent the application of brittle material the company 
prescribes a cold bending test of 180 deg. around a 
diameter equal to the thickness of the brace without 
fracture on the outside of the bent portion, bending 
by pressure or by light blows. Analyses of sample 
braces, with this simple physical test, now protect the 
company from inferior material. Also the specifications 
for eyebolts in line construction provide that the tensile 
strength shall be at least 48,000 lb. per square inch, in- 
cluding the strength of the eye, nut and thread, and 
that the bolt shall bend cold 180 deg. around a diameter 
equal to its own without outside fracture. As a result 
of these investigations the company is enabled to buy 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



91 



suitable steel at no greater cost than was charged for 
the scrap material. 

Special Researches and Routine Analyses 

Examples of the service rendered the company through 
tests and investigations are indicated by the following 
points drawn from reports: A certain make of steel 
track bolt was purchased by the company at an advanced 
price, with the expectation of improved service. It was 
found on test that the bolts did not receive proper heat 
treatment in the mill, and there was a wide variation in 
physical characteristics. The tensile strength varied 
as much as 100,000 lb. per square inch for different 
bolts, with corresponding fluctuations in yield point and 
elongation. Some of the bolts were so hard that they 
could hardly be machined. In this case the small ton- 
nage prohibited inspection at the mill and it was essen- 
tial in this case that each bolt should have satisfactory 
qualities — not the average of the shipment. In its set- 
tlement, the company, on advice of its consulting chem- 
ists, paid the price for untreated bolts, of which the 
new bolts were at least the equal in point of service, 
and the manufacturer bore the expense of the treatment 
that had proved unsuccessful. 

In another case the chemists recommended the ac- 
ceptance of rails with a carbon content of from 0.65 per 
cent to 0.80 per cent instead of from 0.70 per cent to 
0.85 per cent as specified by the American Society for 
Testing Materials, grade B. The reason was that the 
lower permissible carbon content was offset by nickel 
and chromium in the steel which was offered. 

Wire and Cable Tests 

Two samples of steel binding wire for armatures were 
tested, the respective diameters being 0.027 in. and 
0.045 in. The former had a tensile strength of 268,500 
lb. per square inch, and the latter, 314,310 lm., the re- 
spective elongation in 10 in. being 1.9 per cent and 
1.5 per cent. The laboratory reported that this mate- 
rial did not meet the specifications, as the elongation 
was less than 2 per cent in 10 in. It pointed out that 
the determination of elongation on this small wire is 
difficult, but it was done with great care and in view of 
the high tensile strength of the wire the chemists were 
of the opinion that the wire was not of the grade con- 
templated in the specifications, previous wire having 
shown an elongation of 3 per cent and 4 per cent, the 
tensile strength being around 200,000 lb. This was re- 
ported a more ductile wire than the former material, 
and while excessive tensile strength was not objection- 
able in itself if accompanied by proper ductility, it was 
very difficult to obtain a wire with great strength which 
would not tend to be brittle and consequently to cause 
trouble in use. 

A three-conductor, rubber-insulated, armored sub- 
marine cable was found to be 1 per cent undersize. This 
was not serious. The specific gravity of the rubber 
compound was 1.64 against a requirement of 1.75. This 
was considered objectionable, not so much in relation 
to the life of the cable as to the fact that the cable 
contained less rubber per foot than was specified. 
Closer adherence to the specifications was recom- 
mended. In another case a No. 0000 19-strand, water- 
proof, rubber-covered cable which was accepted was 
found to have had but one braid although two were 
specified. Again, a 13,000-volt paper-insulated cable 
was found to be 1/32 in. thin in insulation, due to an 
error in the factory. The discovery of this condition 
prevented serious trouble. 

Some flameproof No. 12 and No. 14 wire was found 
to have a tensile strength of insulation much below 
that ordinarily purchased by the railway company, the 



rubber tearing readily along an apparent seam. The 
wire was considered capable of giving good service, but 
acceptance was not advised on competitive bids. An in- 
vestigation of the deterioration of rubber-covered wire 
and cable in stocl: disclosed samples with a marked ten- 
dency to open a.ong the seam. The dielectric strength 
was satisfactory. The investigation confirmed the 
claims of manufacturers using the strip process in in- 
sulation production. In many of the samples the insula- 
tion split through at the point of the seam on bending 
the rubber back upon itself, because the rubber on age- 
ing takes a permanent set, so that any attempt to fold 
back the rubber on itself brings severe strains on the 
rubber. The splitting was found to be a condition un- 
likely to occur in service. The tests showed a reason- 
able maintenance of electrical qualities in the samples 
of old cable tested, contradicting the claims of another 
manufacturer to the effect that a large part of the wire 
was deteriorating at a dangerous rate in the stock de- 
partment. 

An analysis that was made on resistance wire for car 
heaters indicated that the material was "Monel" metal, 
made from a natural alloy of 70 per cent nickel, 1.5 per 
cent iron and 28.5 per cent copper, well adapted to serv- 
ice as resistance wire, strong and ductile, comparatively 
free from corrosion. Another test was a comparison 
of canvas-jacketed wire and weatherproof cable, in the 
500,000-circ. mil size. The canvas-jacketed wire re- 
sisted abrasion (against an emery wheel at a stated 
pressure) better than the cable. On account of the tight 
weave and the hardness of the compound the material 
wore slowly through but did not rip apart. It was equal 
to the weatherproof cable on the bending test. The 
weight per thousand feet was also less with the canvas- 
jacketed wire. A two-braid canvas jacket was consid- 
ered equivalent to a three-braid covering of the weather- 
proof type, but the insulation, like that of weatherproof 
wire, could not be depended upon after lengthy service, 
so that a trial installation was advised of the canvas- 
jacketed wire. 

Extended studies of trolley wire have been made for 
the company, parallel with the investigations of the 
American Electric Railway Association. It was found 
that 99 per cent of the breaks occurred at the ear due 
to stoppage of wave motion at that point. A represent- 
ative of the consulting chemists rode for many days 
on the car-top, studying the behavior of the wire in 
service, and it was found that the breaks could be great- 
ly cut down by purchasing wire under specifications 
that called for proper strength and ductility. It was 
found that with frequent feed taps, phosphor bronze 
trolley wire of 45 per cent conductivity was satisfac- 
tory, 60 per cent conductivity wire being used where the 
feeds were less frequent, and 97 per cent conductivity 
for country service. 

Electrolysis 

In the field of electrolysis an important investigation 
took place recently which absolved the railway company 
from responsibility in a neighboring city where an iron 
gas pipe passing beneath the track developed a leak. 
The local gas company attributed the leak to stray cur- 
rent from the railway. Surrounding the pipe was found 
a heavy incrustation, and it developed that the 
company had made a practice of salting a switch 
immediately above the pipe. The pipe was found 
to have a very poor butt-weld. The railway com- 
pany was called upon to settle for damages. An 
analysis of the incrustation showed it to be mainly 
composed of sodium carbonate, the presence of which 
could only be explained by electrolysis of the salt solu- 
tion soaking down from the tracks. However, the chem- 



92 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



ists pointed out that when an electric current passes 
through a salt solution the chlorine migrates to the 
positive and the sodium to the negative pole. The 
chlorine is liberated and corrodes the steel. The sodium 
when liberated at the negative pole, unites with water 
to form sodium hydrate, which in turn is finally con- 
verted into sodium carbonate. In the case in point the 
sodium carbonate was found at the pipe or negative 
pole, which proved at once that current was passing, 
not from the pipe to the rail, but vice versa, so that the 
leak had to be attributed to some other cause than to 
the escape of stray railway currents. 

Boiler Compounds 

Analyses of boiler compound were made which showed 
a composition of 97 per cent water and 3 per cent 
molasses, costing 50 cents per gallon. In another case 
a boiler compound was found to contain about 50 per 
cent of soda ash, 30 per cent of tannin and 20 per cent 
of water. The compound was capable of removing 
scale, but it sold for 8 cents per pound, whereas the 
ingredients could have been purchased at not over 2 
cents per pound. Another compound turned out to be 
a mixture of seaweed pulp and caustic soda. As a result 
of such investigations the proper chemical treatment of 
feed water has been standardized, and the company now 
buys suitable chemicals in bulk, samples being regu- 
larly tested at the laboratory. 

Timber Preservation 

Under timber preservation, the chemists have in- 
spected creosoting plants in other states, consulted with 
the U. S. Forest Service, reported on the large economies 
offered by the preservation of wood and prepared draw- 
ings for a proposed creosoting plant. In a creosote test 
the oil showed 2.8 per cent more distillation up to 250 
deg. Cent, than was specified, and a residue at 360 deg. 
or about 3.5 per cent in excess of the specifications. 
The report pointed out that if it had been possible at 
the time to obtain plenty of oil to meet the exact re- 
quirements, it would have been inadvisable to accept 
the sample offered, but in view of the difficulties exist- 
ing it was thought best to accept the tender, the oil 
tested giving fair evidence of its adaptability to the re- 
quired service. 

Paints and Lubricants 

The study of paints is another field in which a large 
amount of work has been done for the railway company. 
The public demand for clean, well-kept cars necessitated 
durable colors and long-wearing varnish. Chemical 
investigations have shown whether the body color is 
brightened up with an aniline dye which will rapidly 
fade in service; whether the chrome yellow, supposedly 
of high grade and imported, is really lead chromate or 
a mixture of this with clay and barytes; whether the 
turpentine is produced by steam distillation of gum or 
is refined kerosene; whether the varnish is composed 
of pure linseed oil, high-priced gums and turpentine, or 
is a solution of rosin in cottonseed oil thinned with 
naphtha. Again, chemical investigation has insured 
that varnish is not rapidly dulled by washing with clean- 
ing powders that contain free alkali, or by pasting signs 
on the dasher with paste cut with borax. 

As a result of studies of graphite paint under storage, 
the company was led to specify 15 per cent of graphitic 
carbon, with an increase of silica, to prevent trouble 
from the packing down of paint in barrels during ex- 
tended periods of non-use in which opportunity for 
settlement occurred. In an analysis of red lead, which 
contained 67.83 per cent of red lead and 30.1 per cent of 
litharge, the report pointed out that while the lead was 
not adulterated with any foreign substance, the large 



amount of litharge was undesirable. A second sample 
was sought for analysis before taking final action. 

In the same way journal brasses were found to con- 
tain 76.85 per cent copper, 11.45 per cent lead, 10.07 per 
cent tin, 0.75 per cent phosphorus, and 0.3 per cent zinc. 
Although the brass did not meet the strict requirements, 
being 0.46 per cent in lead above the specification, ac- 
ceptance was advised. Another brass analyzed, how- 
ever, showed 2.6 per cent excess zinc and was rejected 
for this reason. Wiping solder containing 0.67 per cent 
antimony, 59.05 per cent lead and 40.28 per cent tin was 
accepted, as it met the specifications except in impuri- 
ties, which were 0.17 per cent in excess. A soldering 
salt containing 0.43 per cent ammonium chloride, 82.61 
per cent zinc chloride and 12.70 per cent common salt 
was rejected on account of the use of common salt in- 
stead of ammonium chloride in adequate amount. 

Even index cards for office service have been com- 
pared at the request of the railway company. The ac- 
ceptable card was of better stock, containing 80 per cent 
rag against 20 per cent in the poorer card. The former 
was very hard, had little flexibility and while no 
stronger than the poorer card, was better adapted to 
frequent handling. 

The foregoing illustrations represent but a small 
part of the service rendered the company, but they 
show how varied the work is and demand a wide range 
of capacity in the consulting organization. A certain 
amount of team play is as essential in dealing with the 
chemical problems of the electric railway as is a staff 
embracing specialized qualifications. The problems 
of the railway operator are more and more to be solved 
by scientific methods, and the increasing interest of 
public utilities in research and in routine testing and 
the growing reliance of the storekeeper and the pur- 
chasing agent, the executive officer and the engineer 
upon the findings of the laboratory are evidence of the 
value of the appeal to physical and chemical analyses, 
the ultimate object of which is to enable the railway 
company to give a better service at a reduced cost. 



Statistics on Coal and Metal Production 
in 1914 

The United States Geological Survey in the Press 
Bulletin for January, gives interesting statistics cover- 
ing the production and consumption of coal, lead, cop- 
per, zinc, gold and silver in the United States for 1914. 
The reports covering coal, lead and copper are for the 
entire country, while those for gold, silver and zinc 
cover individual states. Thus, in the entire country, 
there were produced 510,000,000 short tons of coal, 
which is a decrease of 60,000,000 tons, as compared with 
1913. The production of lead was 537,079 short tons, 
which is nearly 100,000 tons in excess of any previous 
year. In Arizona, Utah, Montana and Nevada the re- 
ports covering gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc showed 
increases in some and decreases in others, as compared 
with the 1913 yield. 



The Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Company oper- 
ates the entire line through the principal streets and 
suburbs of Honolulu, Hawaii. In the early construc- 
tion of the line red cedar ties were laid, but since 1903 
redwood has been used exclusively after treatment with 
a preservative, since it was found the redwood decayed 
quickly unless protected. Red-cedar poles have given 
satisfaction, a butt preservative treatment being ap- 
plied. The company also has successfully used Douglas 
fir paving block in the business district of the city. An 
extension of the line 4 miles to the United States naval 
station at Pearl Harbor is contemplated. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



93 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Teachers and the Industry 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Boston, Mass., Dec. 28, 1914. 

To the Editors: 

I have been interested in the discussion in your col- 
umns, based upon the editorial in your issue of Dec. 5, 
on "Poisoning the Wells." It seems to me that there 
can be no just ground for criticism of teachers of en- 
gineering and economics making the closest study of 
the practical difficulties which must be overcome in 
operating electric railways or other public service 
plants. Purely theoretical considerations in either en- 
gineering or economics are not adequate to enable any 
man to work out the relationships which should exist 
between public service companies and the public. 

But such relationships can only be worked out by 
engineers, economists and sociologists who will study 
the ideal considerations, and who, at the same time, will 
study the practical limitations under which the ideal 
considerations must be applied. These practical limita- 
tions are mostly determined by the limitations of physi- 
cal plant but also relate to the limited possibilities of 
human effort. 

I am not sure what the public relations committee 
of the American Electric Railway Association, to which 
the editorial refers, may have had in mind, but it may 
be accepted as an axiom that the study of the operating 
conditions of actual electric railways by engineers, econ- 
omists and sociologists who are members of the fac- 
ulties of our educational institutions will be good for 
both the public and the companies, but mere social 
intercourse cannot bring the desired results. That is to 
say, hard study, performed for the purpose of trying 
to arrive at all the facts which affect the relations of 
the public and the public service companies, is the 
only way to accomplish any desirable result. 

Dugald C. Jackson, 
Professor of Electrical Engineering. 



Effects of Incorrect Starting Resistances 

Boston Elevated Railway Company 

Boston, Mass., Dec. 21, 1914. 

To the Editors: 

The article by F. Castiglioni in the issue of the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal for Dec. 26, page 1382, recalls 
to the writer an experience of about seven years ago 
with car starting resistances. These were mentioned in 
a discussion at the 1907 convention of the American 
Electric Railway Association and were referred to in 
the issue of the Electric Railway Journal for Nov. 2, 
1907, page 916. 

In the early days, and indeed up to the relatively later 
years of progress in the means and methods of electric 
traction, the somewhat retarded state of development 



of the motor and control equipments, coupled with the 
rapidly increasing duty required of them, brought on 
numerous operating troubles that kept the maintenance 
man in "hot water" continually. Not the least of such 
troubles were the results of an incorrect adjustment of 
starting rheostats, magnifying as it did an already 
overloaded condition of the motors, and overbalancing 
the relation between etching and polishing of the com- 
mutator so necessary, especially in motors of the older 
types, for operation free from flashing troubles. 

The limitations of the old packed or coiled-ribbon 
rheostat, after many years of use, were forcibly brought 
to the attention of the engineers of operating and manu- 
facturing companies, with the result that the present 
form of cast-grid rheostat was developed and quickly 
supplanted the older type. The new type, being of the 
unit form of construction, lent itself most readily to 
variations in adjustment of steps, and so it came about, 
especially where the equipment units were divided up 
and under the charge of a large number of maintenance 
men, that rather wide divergences from the proper re- 
sistance arrangements crept in. 

About seven years ago conditions on the surface lines 
of the Boston Elevated Railway system with respect to 
motor flashing began to be so severe on the older equip- 
ments that, after an investigation, it was decided to in- 
quire thoroughly into the resistance arrangement on 
each type of equipment, especially as very uneven accel- 
erations were being experienced on some equipment. A 
graphic ammeter was purchased and used with very in- 
teresting results. The corrections which we were able 
to make in the resistance arrangements through the aid 
of the records obtained with this device amply repaid 
the efforts and expense involved, by the great improve- 
ment in car acceleration, motor commutation, motor 
maintenance, etc., that resulted. 

Three examples of how we were enabled to smooth 
out the accelerating current peaks are given by the 
curves shown herewith. In these the dotted lines show 
the former current consumption and the solid lines the 
consumption after revision of the grid connections. 

The horizontal heavy lines on these curves in the 
series and multiple positions refer to the one-hour cur- 
rent ratings of the motors at 500 volts and, taken in 
connection with the average currents during accelera- 
tion, serve in a general way to show the duty on the 
motor in comparison with its rating. 

The first comparison considers a closed car, equipped 
with two GE-58 motors and K-10 controller, on which 
the gear ratio had been reduced in order that the car 
might maintain its place on a route with higher speed 
motors. It furnishes a marked example of an incor- 
rect resistance arrangement. The current peaks en- 
countered in accelerating on a hill, as this curve shows, 
were so severe that the rate of acceleration had to be 
considerably reduced and the time protracted in order 
to keep the current peaks within the fuse capacity. 
After the arrangement was changed a reduction on the 



24( 











h 










h 




h 































































































/ i 








































1 












' — 









































10 



Z5 



30 



15 20 
SECONDS 



25 



30 



240 




10 15 20 

SECONDS 



5 10 15 20 
SECONDS 

EFFECTS OF INCORRECT STARTING RESISTANCES — GRAPHICAL CURRENT RECORDS ON BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY 



94 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



last step in multiple from 285 amp to 200 amp, or 30 
per cent, was effected and in addition the current in first 
multiple position was increased. 

The second comparison refers to a closed car with a 
trailer, the motor car being equipped with four GE-70 
motors and K-28-A controller with normal gear ratio of 
4.06. In this case the high current peak in multiple ap- 
peared on the point next to the last. By the change it 
was considerably reduced, as were also the peaks on the 
two points on either side of it. Again in the chart a 
very material increase will be noticed in the current on 
the first multiple position. 

The third comparison is that of the improper and 
the proper adjustments of rheostat steps for a nine- 
bench open car with two WP-50 motors and a K-10 con- 
troller. The motors on this car had been geared to a 
higher speed in order to enable them to keep up with a 
faster schedule and this, with the poor arrangement of 
resistance, resulted in extremely high current peaks, 
especially on hills, which this and the other two curves 
show. It will be seen that in this case, correcting the re- 
sistance arrangement has brought the current peak on 
the last step in multiple down from 232 amp to 180 amp, 
a reduction of 22.4 per cent. This was largely accom- 
plished by raising the current on the first position in 
multiple, which it will be noticed has been raised from 
about 60 amp to 90 amps, an increase of 50 per cent. 

The writer remembers one particular case in which 
the resistance arrangement in use was such that the 
commutators of the motors rapidly became so bad that 
the armatures had to be taken out and the commutators 
sand-papered every two weeks to keep the motors run- 
ning. After the resistance arrangement had been cor- 
rected the motors continued in service indefinitely and 
the trouble from this cause was entirely eliminated. 

John W. Corning, Electrical Engineer. 

Bettering the Use of English 

Tufts College Engineering School 

Tufts College, Mass., Jan. 1, 1915. 

To the Editors r 

Although it is no longer difficult to find engineers 
who write notably well, or whose evident desire at least 
it is to use good English, there are still many in the pro- 
fession who, if they were to speak frankly, would con- 
fess that they do not think the game worth the candle. 
The grounds on which such writers justify their atti- 
tude are almost always the same. May I have space in 
your columns for a word about each of what I have 
found to be the four stock excuses? 

1. Words, they tell us, at best are poor means of 
expressing technical ideas. Inevitably the engineer 
compare verbal language with the mathematical cal- 
culations, tables, drawings and graphs of various sorts 
that he uses, and in contrast with the directness and 
accuracy of these forms of expression "English" may 
seem uncertain, coy and hard to please. In such com- 
parison two things may be overlooked. First, ideas 
expressed in mathematical or graphical forms, and ideas 
that should be expressed in English are of distinctly 
different sorts. Second, while the engineer has spent 
many hours of hard labor learning to use mathematical 
language, for instance, he has very likely contented him- 
self with such powers of expression in English as he 
was "born to." Unquestionably all ideas that can be best 
expressed in mathematical or graphical form should be so 
expressed, and not in English. But there are ideas that 
can be adequately expressed only in verbal language. 
The writer on technical subjects needs first to select 
carefully the proper form in which to express each idea, 
then to treat those to be expressed verbally with the 
same painstaking respect he shows those given the 



more peculiarly engineering forms. If he is still trou- 
bled by limitations, he will find them in his powers of 
expression rather than in the English language. 

2. Others tell us that technical writing is too difficult 
for the ordinary engineer. Unquestionably it is no 
easy matter for one who has special knowledge so to put 
himself in the place of those who have not as to make 
himself clear. Neither is it easy to reconcile the amount 
one feels should be said with the inevitable time or 
space limitations. Yet the problems that arise in these 
ways are no more serious for engineers than for others ; 
and aside from these difficulties engineering writing is 
relatively an easy matter, simple and obvious the mo- 
ment the problems of expression are squarely faced. 
One who does not believe this needs but to compare the 
technique of any form of scientific writing with that of 
poetry, of the short story, or of the drama. Considering 
that written language is the means by which the engi- 
neer markets his most valuable product, is there any 
greater necessity for a poet to learn to write poetically 
than for an engineer to master the art of writing accu- 
rately and effectively? 

3. Most commonly, perhaps, we are told that "any 
engineer will understand." Perhaps he will; engineers 
are accustomed to crack hard nuts. But misunderstand- 
ings occur more frequently than we like to admit, for 
engineers, like the rest of us mortals, at times deceive 
even themselves into thinking they get the meaning, 
lest they confess themselves to be dull. Even if the 
reader gets the meaning fully, that is by no means 
enough. He should not be asked to go back and reread 
or otherwise to labor over the subject simply because of 
the inability of the writer to put it, from the start, accu- 
rately and clearly. It is much easier to hit at an idea 
than to work out exact expression, but generally when 
a writer has taken the pains to find the best way of 
saying just what he means, he is fully repaid for his 
efforts in the increased accuracy of his own under- 
standing. Even if it were not so it would be poor 
economy, in order to save time in composition, to put an 
unnecessary burden on each individual one of his read- 
ers. The subject on which one is writing may be itself 
difficult for the reader to understand, just as a compli- 
cated piece of machinery may be difficult to learn to 
operate; but the writer is no more justified than the 
manufacturer in putting his product on the market in 
such shape that it has to be reconstructed in order to be 
mastered. 

4. In the last place, a variety of misuses have been 
allowed to pass current in technical writing for the 
reason that it has been assumed that engineers do not 
care for style. Similarly, business men used to fill their 
letters with unwarranted abbreviations, ellipses of 
words grammatically necessary, and incomplete or wob- 
bly-constructed sentences, and glory in these things be- 
cause they thought them to express that distinctly 
American quality of "snappiness." But what was rug- 
ged strength in a frontier country becomes mere boor- 
ishness in a more highly-developed community. In these 
days the best concerns send out letters that bespeak 
business firmly enough established to do whatever is 
undertaken in the best form. The rapid advance this 
country is making is nowhere more notable than in the 
more perfect finish of the material output of American 
engineers. Should any engineer be satisfied at present 
with a shirt-sleeves style of writing? 

The general problem of bettering our American use 
of English is serious. Our schools grasp at the shadow 
of the latest fads and lose the substance ; they have con- 
fused work and play till often athletics is the only thing 
eagerly entered into, the one thing efficiently managed. 
The literature read by the largest number of our people 
takes its chief delight in the vulgar and in the abuse of 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



95 



slang which parades vain repetition to cover absence 
of thought. Everywhere there is need for a strong stand 
for good English. The familiar words of Henry of 
Navarre are to the point: "Go hang yourself, brave 
Crillon. We have fought at Aries and you of all men 
were not there!" The fight for accurate thinking, for 
exact and adequate expression is a strong man's battle. 
To whom should it be a greater reproach than to an en- 
gineer if we could say, "And you of all men were not 
there!" Samuel C. Earle, 

Professor of English and Modern Languages. 



General Crop and Business Conditions 

In Spite of the European War a Steady Improvement Is 
Expected 

The committee on statistics and standards of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States of Amer- 
ica has just issued a report on "General Crop and 
Business Conditions, as of Dec. 12, 1914." The report 
contains a map giving graphic illustration of conditions 
in the various industries and of the prospects for busi- 
ness during the first three months of 1915. This map 
is reproduced in the accompanying form, together with 
a few notes from the report, for the reason that the 
financial condition of electric railways is so intimately 
connected with the general prosperity of the communi- 
ties served. 

While acknowledging the widespread and depressing 
effects of the European war on industrial and commer- 




CHART FORECASTING GENERAL UNITED STATES BUSINESS 
CONDITIONS FOR FIRST THREE MONTHS OF 1915, 
BASED ON REPORTS OF DEC. 12, 1914 



cial conditions, the report is generally reassuring. Con- 
ditions in the South, while slowly improving, still pre- 
sent a serious problem. Elsewhere the feeling gathers 
strength that a steadily improving future is immedi- 
ately ahead. Crops in general have been good. The 
entire wheat crop shows an increase of 12% per cent 
over that of last year. Some sections are planting win- 
ter wheat for the first time, and if the war continues 
until spring, the acreage planted in grains will exceed 
that of all former years. The sugar cane crop promises 
to be a good one and to command remunerative prices. 
The fruit yield was unusually large, but a large portion 
is being held in many localities as prices have been low. 

The cattle business is confronted by a serious handi- 
cap in the fact that there is great difficulty in obtaining 
loans on cattle. The industry is further unfavorably 
affected in the Central West, owing to the quarantine 
resulting from the foot and mouth disease. The sheep 
and wool industry is reported as in excellent shape. 
Large purchases of horses at good prices have been 
made by European governments. 

Many factories which have been idle are preparing 



to start up and more men are being taken on by fac- 
tories which have been running with decreased forces. 
The flour mills have been fortunate in being affected 
only slightly by the general depression. Some cotton 
and textile mills are also favored to a lesser extent in 
this connection, although cotton mills, while fairly busy, 
are said to be accumulating goods. 

General mining conditions are poor. This is espe- 
cially true of the phospate mines of Florida, which for- 
merly shipped most of their product to Europe. Many 
mines are closed down and the remainder running from 
one-quarter to one-half time. Exceptions to this gen- 
eral depression are zinc and lead. The oil business 
varies from poor to fair because of low prices and the 
falling off in demand. The lack of building has caused 
many lumber mills to close down and others to run only 
two to four days a week, and has likewise closed many 
of the stone, slate and marble quarries. These condi- 
tions, however, are now beginning to mend and orders 
are showing some increases. 



Subway Accident 

The most complete tie-up in the history of the New 
York subway occurred at 8 o'clock on the morning of 
Jan. 6. It lasted until 4 p. m. when partial service was 
recommenced, the full service not being restored until 
the early morning hours of the next day. The accident 
was caused primarily by a short-circuit in the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company's high-tension cables 
laid along the south side of Fifty-third Street at the 
point where they cross the subway tracks under Broad- 
way. The dense smoke from the resulting fire in the 
cable manholes alongside of the tubes made its way into 
the subway and caused a serious panic, together with 
many cases of partial suffocation in three south-bound 
trains which had been stalled through lack of power 
just north of the blaze. One woman passenger died on 
the way to the hospital. 

Near the point where these trains became stalled is a 
ventilating opening, and through this most of the 
trapped passengers were carried to the surface by the 
city firemen. The latter were called to the scene of the 
accident one hour and fifteen minutes after the short- 
circuit occurred. 

Power at reduced voltage was supplied to outlying 
sections of the line for about half an hour after the 
first short-circuit, and then all power went off. This 
indicates the gradual progress of the fire in the cable 
manholes, the latter communicating with the subway 
tube by means of steel doors which were insufficient to 
keep the smoke from the burning insulation out of the 
subway. The final cutting off of all power put out the 
emergency lights that are mounted on the subway walls, 
although these are supplied from a circuit separate 
from that supplying propulsion current. All of the cars 
in the subway are equipped with emergency lights 
operated by storage battery. These were thrown in 
circuit in the cars stalled at Fifty-third Street and 
assisted the egress of passengers. Investigations into 
the causes of the accident have been begun both by the 
District Attorney's office and by the Public Service 
Commission, First District. 



A student branch of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers was inaugurated at the West Virginia 
University, Morgantown, W. Va., on the evening of Jan. 
7. The exercises consisted in a demonstration of the 
electromechanical equipment of the Engineering Build- 
ing and an address by V. Karapetoff on "Some Recent 
Developments in the Field of Electricity." W. E. Dick- 
inson, professor of electrical engineering, is in charge 
of the branch. 



96 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 2 

Census Report on Electric Railways 

Statistics on the Development of the Industry Are Given — There Was a Decrease of 10 Per Cent in the Number 

of Railways Generating Their Own Power — Track Statistics 



Statistics of the electric railways in the country for 
the forthcoming census report were obtained by the 
Census Bureau, Department of Commerce, for 1912. 
This census was taken in accordance with the policy of 
the bureau to make a five-year census of the industry, 
the two preceding counts having been made in 1907 and 
1902. Since the last census was taken the bureau has 
been compiling and analyzing the figures, and its report 
will soon be published. Through the courtesy of the 
bureau some advance figures from the forthcoming re- 
port are presented, the statistics being subject to some 
slight changes and corrections by the bureau if found 
necessary upon revision. The figures represent all rail- 
ways, other than steam roads in operation, during any 
portion of 1912 in continental United States. The can- 
vass did not cover Alaska or the insular possessions. 

In 1912 there were 21 cable roads, 13 using cable ex- 
clusively and 8 cable in conjunction with other powers. 
Of the 13 exclusively cable roads, 2 were street railway 
lines in San Francisco; the others were inclined plane 
roads in different parts of the country. There are only 
9 lines using animal power exclusively. The longest has 
but 3 miles of track. 

Statistics of the electrified steam roads are not in- 
cluded in the general statistics for electric railways. 
The statistics also exclude those of the Chicago Tunnel 
Company, a narrow-gage electric tunnel mining line at 
Bingham, and a short electric road owned by the state 
of North Dakota. The latter is the only line owned by 
any state. During 1912 the only lines owned by munici- 
palities were one in Monroe, La., and one in San Fran- 
cisco. The latter went into operation just before the 
close of 1912. 

Where a railway company was engaged in other busi- 
ness and it was possible to separate the results of opera- 
tion, this plan was followed. A notable case where it 
was not possible to do this was in the case of the Hud- 
son & Manhattan Railroad, which owns the Hudson 
Terminal Buildings. 

The reports as a rule are for the calendar year. This 
was the case with 817 of the 975 operating companies; 
114 were for the year ended June 30, 1912. It was im- 
possible to draw any sharp line of demarkation between 
the urban and interurban roads. For this reason while 
track has been divided into "city and suburban" or 
"interurban," no attempt has been made to classify the 
traffic under these divisions. 

Development of the Industry 

Electric power is used on 99.7 per cent of the total 
trackage. There has been a large increase in horse- 
power capacity during the year. In 1907 there was 
6,618,011 hp and in 1912 11,903,699 hp, or an increase of 
69.1 per cent. In 1912 the horsepower of steam engines 
and steam turbines was 8,116,086; of gas and oil 
engines, 135,225 ; water power, 2,942,388. The kilowatt- 
hours generated during the year were 17,585,662,014, or 
an increase of 65.4 per cent over 1907. The miles of 
track were 41,064 as compared with 34,381 in 1907. The 
employees were 282,461 as compared with 221,429 in 
1907, and the number of passenger cars were 76,162 as 
compared with 70,016 in 1907. Some other general fig- 
ures made up from the first report issued by the census 
were published in the issue of this paper for March 21, 
1914. 



The bureau reports that the number of revenue pas- 
sengers carried per mile of track indicates a steady in- 
crease in density of traffic, being 232,556 in 1912, 
216,522 in 1907 and 212,258 in 1902. The expenditure 
for power purchased almost doubled, being $24,546,530 
in 1912 and $12,342,258 in 1907. The income per pas- 

Table I — Income and Expense per Revenue Passenger 



1912 1907 1902 
Cents Cents Cents 

Gross income 6.14 5.78 5.25 



Transportation revenue 5.45 5.25 4.95 

Passenger revenue 5.27 5.14 4.90 

Other transportation revenue 0.18 0.11 0.05 

Nontransportation income 0.69 0.53 0.30 

Operating expenses 3.49 3.38 2.98 



Gross income less operating expenses 2.65 2.40 2.27 

Deductions from income 2.00 1.86 1.63 

Net income 0.65 0.54. 0.64 



Table II — Ten Longest Electric Railway Systems 

miles OF 
A 



' 7^ > 

Line Track 

Bav State Street Railway, Massachusetts 754.73 941.79 

Ohio Electric Railway, Ohio 601.00 669. 10 

The Connecticut Company, Connecticut 592.80 803 09 

Pacific Electric Company, California 552.48 970.80 

Public Service Railway, New Jersey 484.90 809.50 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, Pennsylvania. . . . 436.62 619.72 

New York State Railways 337.05 576.95 

Pittsburgh Railways, Pennsylvania 334.58 594.30 

Chicago Railways, Illinois 244.00 515.00 

Boston Elevated Railway, Massachusetts 237.78 500.52 



Table III — Relation of Traffic to Population, by Geographic Divisions: 
1890 to 1912 
average number of revenue passengers 
per inhabitant 

, A ( 

INCREASE SINCE 

Division Census Total Urban prior census 

Popula- Popula- , A s 

tion tion Total Urban 



Popula- Ponula- 











tion 


tion 




1912 


100 


252 


15 


8 




1907 


85 


244 


25 


68 




1902 


01 


176 


28 


67 




1890 


32 


109 






Geographic 












Divisions: 














1912 


155 


226 


16 


8 




1907 


139 


218 


28 


40 
96 




1902 


111 


17S 


67 




1890 


44 


82 








1912 


174 


271 


18 


14 




1907 


156 


257 


35 


52 




1902 


121 


205 


48 


66 




1890 


73 


139 




East North Central. . . . 


1912 


115 


250 


24 


15 




1907 


91 


235 


31 


81 




1902 


60 


151 


33 


60 




1890 


27 


91 




West North Central . . . 


1912 


66 


249 


11 


10 




1907 


55 


239 


22 


84 




1902 


33 


155 


14 


58 




1890 


19 


97 




South Atlantic 


1912 


49 


237 


7 


5 




1907 


42 


232 


15 


73 




1902 


27 


159 


16 


88 




1890 


11 


71 






East South Central. . . . 


1912 


31 


215 


4 


* 




1907 


27 


233 


12 


93 




1902 


15 


140 


7 


54 




1890 


8 


86 






West South Central . . . 


1912 


29 


177 


5 


* 




1907 


24 


193 


11 


80 




1902 


13 


113 


3 


29 




1890 


10 


84 






Mountain 


1912 


54 


215 


6 


* 




1907 


48 


239 


15 


82 




1902 


33 


157 


11 


51 




1890 


22 


106 








1912 


158 


309 


26 


* 




1907 


132 


320 


45 


98 




1902 


87 


222 


25 


43 




1890 


62 


179 







*Decrease in average number. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



97 



senger has also shows an increase, as indicated in 
Table I. 

The average operating company had 52.12 miles of 
track and 78 cars. It operated 1,938,202 passenger- 
car-miles, carried 9,810,436 passengers and employed 
290 men. Of 975 operating companies, 408 operated less 
than 10 miles of track, 421 more than 10 and less than 
50 miles of track; 89 more than 50 and less than 100 
miles, and 59 companies operated 100 miles or more. 
Table II shows the ten railway companies reporting the 
greatest mileage for 1912, ranked according to length of 
line. 



Table IV — Per Cent Distribution of Income Between Expenses and 
Invested Capital 

1012 1007 1002 1890 

Cross income- of oppratin? companies 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

Exnenses other than interest and rentals, . . 65.1 64.6 62.4 72.5 

Operating expense 86. 8 58. 5 56 . 8 67 . fi 

Other expenses 8.3 6.1 5.6 4.9 

Returns on invested cnnital 33.1 32.2 31.7 22.7 

As interest on funded and floating debt 

and raortraws 16.7 14.8 15.2 8.8 

As rent of leased lines and terminals 7.6 11.2 10.2 2.8 

Asdividends 8.8 6.2 6.3 11.1 

Surplus 1.8 3.2 5.9 4.8 

Table V — Track Mileage, Classified by Character of Motive Power. Ownership, 
and Location 

per cent of 
increase] 



Kind 

Total 41,064.82 34,403.56 

Main track 38,383. 62 32 ,485 . 87 

Boad or first track 30,437.86 25,547.19 

Second (including third, etc.) 

tracks 7,895.76 6,938.68 

"Sidings and turnouts, including 
track in car hams, storage 

yards, etc 2,731.20 1,917.69 

Classif cation 
By character of motive power: 

Electric 40,808.39 34,059.69 

Electric line transmission 40,704.91 34.034.19 

Overhead trollev 38,958.06 32,501.71 

Third rail 1,395.13 1,209.78 

Conduit trollev 351.72 322 .70 

Gas-electric motors 38 .81 22 .50 

Storage batteries 64.67 3.00 

Cable 56 41 61.71 

Animal 57.52 136 11 

Steam 76.34 105 06 

Gasoline motors 66 .16 40 .99 

Bv ownership: 

Owned 33,416.86 27,458.97 

leaseds 7,647.96 6,922 54 

Operated under trackage 

rights 1,284.82 692.2,8 

From electric railway 

companies 1,051.19 692.28 

From steam roads , 233 . 63 (s) 

By location: 

(o) Surface 40,532.02 33,966.40 

Elevated 420.10 306.59 

Subways and tunnels . . 112.70 70 . 57 

(6) On public thorough- 
fares 26,271 10 23,431.72 

On private right of way. 14,793.72 10,971 84 

(c) City and suburban lines. 24,699 .02 (7) 

Interurban lines 16,305.80 (7) 



1907- 1902- 
1912 1907 



19.4 52 4 



21,681 94 
16,651.58 



5,030.36 



21,901.53 
21 ,899.06 
21,290.09 
342,91 
266.06 

"2!47 
249.69 
259.10 
169.61 
26. 06 

19,038.98 
3,534 78 



559.68 

559.68 

(5) 

22,263.58 
308.94 
W 



18,774.92 
3,802.07 



18.0 
19.1 



13.8 



49.8 
53.4 



42.4 111.3 



19.8 
19.6 
19.9 
15.3 
9.0 
72.5 

—8.6 
-57.7 
-27.3 
61.4 

21.7 
10.5 



85.6 
51.8 



19.3 
14.6 
59.7 



12.1 
34.8 



55. 

55.5 

52 4 
252.7 

21.8 
....3 

-U. 
-47.4 
-38.5 
... .1 

44. 

95.2 
8 

23. 

7 

23. 



52. 
18.6 



24. 8 
188.6 



M 
(7) 



1A minus sign ( - ) denotes decrease. 
iCompressed air. 

alncludes trackage rights from steam roads. 
Jncluded under "Leased track." 
[Figures not available. 

iFigures not available; included under "Surface." 

7Reported in 1907 and 1902 as within and without city limits; figures not comparable. 



Table VI — Per Cent Distribution of Miles of Track, According to 
Location 

on public thorough- on private rights of 

fares way 

Division > ■ • . , 

1912 1907 1902 1912 1907 1902 

United States 64.0 08.1 83.2 30.0 31.9 16.8 

Now England 83.4 88.3 90.9 16.6 11.7 9.1 

Middle Atlantic 66.3 68.9 84.7 33.7 31.1 15.3 

East. North Central 52.4 55.3 76.6 47.6 44.7 23.4 

West North Central 70.0 73.6 86.4 30.0 26.4 13.6 

South Atlantic 65.6 67.1 73.1 34.4 32.9 26.9 

East South Central 73.1 76.8 84.3 20.9 23.2 15.7 

West South Central 73.9 88.3 89.3 20.1 11.7 10 7 

Mountain 67.8 81.2 94.5 32.2 18.8 5.5 

Pacific 54.0 61.8 84.6 46.0 38.2 15.4 



Table III shows the average number of revenue pas- 
sengers per inhabitant, the urban population being based 
on the population of cities of 8000 and more, including 
New England towns. 

In the analysis of gross income there has been a 
notable increase in "operating income other than pas- 
senger," due to the growth of freight, mail and express 
business and the sale of current. In 1907 the passenger 
business amounted to 91.4 per cent of the total but in 
1912 the percentage was only 88.6. Table IV shows the 
percentage of distribution of the income between ex- 
penses and invested capital. 

Power Equipment 

In 1912 50.8 per cent of the railways had their own 
powar plant equipment as compared with 61 per cent in 
1907. The average capacity per unit for steam engines 
increased from 602 hp to 947 hp and of turbines from 
2125 hp to 3166 hp between 1907 and 1912. Of the 
total power capacity of generators those supplying alter- 
nating current increased from 45.4 per cent to 69.3 per 
cent, but those supplying direct current decreased from 
54.6 per cent to 30.7 per cent. Statistics based on com- 
panies which neither bought nor sold electrical energy 
show a kilowatt-hour consumption per car-mile in 1912 
of 3.80 as compared with 3.26 in 1907, and a cost of 
generation per kilowatt-hour of 0.55 cent in 1912 as com- 
pared with 0.65 cent in 1907. 

Track 

Table V gives statistics of the track classified by char- 
acter of motive power, ownership and location. Of this 
track 95.5 per cent was operated by overhead trolley, 3.3 
per cent by third-rail, 0.9 par cent by conduit trolley, 0.2 
per cent by storage batteries and 0.1 per cent by gas- 
electric motors. 

In addition to the figures given in Table V, 1284 miles 
were operated by the electrified divisions of the steam 
railroads. Of these 669 miles were operated by overhead 
trolley and 515 miles by third-rail. Table VI shows the 
percentage distribution of miles of track according to 
location. 

Abstracts of other statistics for the census reports 
will be published in later issues. 



Address on Safety Work 

In an address before the Louisville Commercial Club 
recently, Frederick H. Elliott, secretary of the Safety 
First Society of New York, made some interesting com- 
ments regarding the elimination of the accident hazard 
in street traffic. He described the efforts of the so- 
ciety to secure legislation prohibiting the crossing of 
streets by pedestrians except at intersections, explain- 
ing that most accidents are caused by attempts to cross 
in the middle of the block. He approved the plan of 
"safety zones" recently adopted in Louisville and de- 
scribed in the Electric Railway Journal. He fav- 
ored the pay-as-you-leave system, saying that the plan 
which is in use in Cleveland had expedited street rail- 
way traffic 20 per cent. 



The Commercial Club of Columbia, Mo., received re- 
cently a letter from William B. McKinley, president of 
the Illinois Traction System, as a result of which the 
members have expressed their purpose to help in the 
repeal of a Missouri law limiting the ownership by for- 
eign corporations of stock in Missouri concerns. The 
letter stated that this law was the most effective barrier 
against the development of interurbans. 



98 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



Moving Picture Films in Safety Education 



The Public Service Railway is Using Original Films in 
Training Employees and the Public 

In the issue of the Electric Railway Journal for 
Sept. 19, 1914, on page 523, mention was made of the new 
reels of moving picture film which have just recently 
been made by the Edison Company for and in co-opera- 
tion with the Public Service Company of New Jersey. 
These films were shown at the close of the first regular 
meeting for the season of the Public Service Company 
section of the American Electric Railway Association 
and at the Atlantic City convention also. 

The films were designed for use in an educational 
campaign which the company has been conducting in 
connection with the "safety first" movement. The Pub- 
lic Service Company was one of the first, if not the 
first, of the Eastern street railway companies to take 
up the "safety first" idea in a comprehensive and sys- 
tematic manner. For about two years it has main- 




job, through the phases of instruction until he is put 
in charge of a car. The other reel shows boarding and 
leaving accidents, mishaps due to disregard of traffic 
regulations, and the price paid by the thoughtless who 
jump on or off moving cars or cross in front of speed- 
ing vehicles without looking where they are going. 

The pictures are unusually faithful as to detail and 
teach a powerful lesson. The Public Service Company 
controls the films and, as its problems are duplicated 
on every large railway system, it is ready to co-operate 
with other companies in arranging for the showing of 
the pictures wherever they may be of service in the 
promotion of safety. 



Influence of Titanium on Segregation 

According to a recent article by F. A. J. FitzGerald 
in Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, a recent 
examination of data from reports on 155 heats of rail 
steel, of which about one-half were titanium-treated, 




MOTION PICTURES IN SAFETY EDUCATION — SCENES SELECTED AT RANDOM FROM THE PUBLIC SERVICE RAILWAY FILMS 



tained a department for the education of its trainmen 
and of the public at large along lines that tend to the 
elimination of preventable accidents and the conserva- 
tion of life and limb. 

An effective part of the work accomplished by the 
company has been through the medium of lecturers who 
discuss safety measures in the public schools and before 
civic and church societies. The talks of the lecturers 
are illustrated with stereopticon views and motion pic- 
tures. The latter have been found to be far the more 
popular, and taking advantage of the possibilities thus 
opened up the railway people engaged the Edison Com- 
pany of New York to stage a series of "accidents" and 
incidents which would bring home the "safety first" 
idea, in a graphic manner, to young and old alike. The 
character of the reels may be gleaned from their titles, 
"The Life of a Motorman" and "How Most Accidents 
Occur." 

The first-named reel is of particular interest to train- 
men and also has points of appeal to the public. It por- 
trays the life of a motorman from his application for a 



showed that there was comparatively little difference 
between the carbon contents of the rail-head and of the 
web in the treated rails. In the untreated rails, how- 
ever, no less than 64 per cent of the heats showed an 
excess of carbon in the web amounting to more than 
12 per cent over that in the head. This difference of 
12 per cent was suggested as a limit above which rails 
should be rejected on account of segregation, when ap- 
plied to "A" rails, or those taken from the heads of the 
ingots after a 9 per cent crop. With seventy-seven 
heats of titanium-treated rail it was found that 87 
per cent would fall within the 12 per cent limit. 

A more detailed examination of the seventy-seven 
heats in which titanium was used clearly showed the in- 
fluence the amount of titanium added has on the results. 
According to the advice of the Titanium Alloy Manu- 
facturing Company the amount of ferro-carbon-titanium 
used should be such that the quantity of metallic titani- 
um added to the steel is 0.10 per cent. This, however, 
was not followed, as in some heats only 0.075 per cent 
was added and in some as little as 0.053 per cent. The 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



99 



following table shows the effect of the amount of titani- 
um added: 



Titanium added, 


Total 


Heats within 12 per cent limit 


Per cent 


heats 


Number Per cent 





78 


28 36 


0.053 


7 


3 43 


0.077 


39 


33 84 


0.10 


31 


31 100 



This seems to show that in order to get the best re- 
sults at least 0.10 per cent of metallic titanium should 
be added to the rail steel. 



Boston Elevated Center-Entrance Trailer 

This Car Contains Several New Features, and was Designed 
Specially for Service During Rush Hours 

A new type of rolling stock will shortly be placed 
in service by the Boston Elevated Railway in the shape 
of 100 center-entrance surface trail cars, largely for 
use in rush hours. The design of such large trailers 
for city service is unusual, although the utilization of 
existing equipment in handling peak-load traffic on the 
trailer plan is common to many companies and was 
tried experimentally by the Boston company a number 



The end construction is to be reinforced to resist crush- 
ing in case of collision. 

The general dimensions of the cars are given in the 
following table: 



Length over bumpers 48 ft. 2 V, in. 

Length over end posts 40 ft. 10 "in. 

Distance center to center of bolsters 24 ft. in 

Width over eaves, lower deck 8 ft. >/. in! 

Widtli over eaves, upper deck 5 ft. 5% In. 

Width over window rails 8 ft. 5% in. 

Width inside at seats 8 ft. 2 1 /, in. 

Width of aisle 2 ft. 4 in. 

Height from rail to top of roof 10 ft. 11% in. 

Height from rail to car eaves 9 ft. 5% in. 

Height from rail to top of floor 2 ft. 5 in. 

Height from rail to floor of well : 15 in. 



Safety treads are to be provided between stanchions 
on the car floor and they will extend the full width of 
the door opening, 6 ft. 6 in. The cars will be equipped 
with air brakes, and double sliding doors pneumatically 
operated, and two illuminated signs, one over each side 
door, will be provided. The interior finish will be of ma- 
hogany and each car will be equipped with fourteen 
Perry ventilators. There are to be ten cross-seats and 
two longitudinal seats on each side of the car, stationary 
end seats also being planned as shown. There are to 
be twenty-eight cross-seat heaters and four panel heat- 
ers per car, the latter being placed in risers from the 




— 48 2! 2 — Overall 

BOSTON TRAILERS — PLAN AND ELEVATION OF NEW CENTER-ENTRANCE CARS 



Electric liy.Jaurnul 



of years ago. The decision to add specially designed 
trailers to the present motor-car equipment was reached 
a short time ago, following conferences with the Massa- 
chusetts Public Service Commission and after an inves- 
tigation of the feasibility of utilizing this class of 
rolling stock in Boston. The board has given its 
approval to the general design illustrated herewith. 

The center-entrance feature will consist of a well 
extending across the car for the full width of the door 
openings, the floor being 15 in. above the rail and being 
connected with the floor of the car body proper by 
ramps which have a rise of 4 in. in a length of 4 ft. 
The low-step feature and central compartment will be 
similar in appearance to the design used in the articu- 
lated cars now in service at Boston. No end or vesti- 
bule doors are to be provided. The cars will have 
straight sides from sill to window rail, but the sides 
will be tapered toward the center of the car from win- 
dow rail to eaves. The entire underframe will be of 
steel, the posts and siding being of composite construc- 
tion. The roof is to be of wood supported at the well 
by stanchions and at the ends of the monitor by headers, 
with a steel truss between stanchions and headers. 



well to the main floor of the car. A removable railing 
of white enameled wrought-iron pipe is to extend from 
the permanent stanchion at the center of the door open- 
ing toward the center of the car. Wiring will be in 
conduit, with heater switch cabinets under the longi- 
tudinal seats. The Consolidated push-button signal 
system will be installed. The upper deck will have no 
headlining, but the lower deck will be lined with 3/16 
in. agasote. 



Out of the 1000 or more employees of the Insull trac- 
tion lines of the Middle West Public Utilities who com- 
peted in the contest to suggest the best "safety first" 
design for use in the company's campaign to reduce 
accidents, Herbert Hobsom, of Jeffersonville, motor- 
man on the city line of the Louisville & Southern In- 
diana Traction Company, has won the second prize, 
which is $15. His design was in the form of a circle, 
in the outer ring of which appears the words, "In Time 
of Safety Prepare for Accidents." In the center was 
a design fashioned like the dial of a clock with the let- 
ters in "Safety First" being distributed around the 
edge of the dial as on the face of a watch. 



100 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



American Association News 



Biographical Sketches of the Officers of Two Company Sections Are Given — Program for Mid-Winter Meeting 
Is Being Completed — Activities of Various Committees — Coming Committee Meetings 



PUBLIC SERVICE RAILWAY COMPANY SECTION 
OFFICERS 

P. F. Maguire, who was recently elected president of 
company section No. 2, has been active in company sec- 
tion work for several years, having served on a number 
of important committees. He has had a varied experience 
in electric railway work, having entered the employ of 
the Plainfield (N. J.*) Street Railway as conductor in 
December, 1896. After three years' service he was 
appointed an inspector and four years later was made 
assistant division superintendent of the E. T. & C. J. 
Division. One year later he was promoted to the posi- 
tion of division superintendent. In April, 1906, Mr. 
Maguire entered the employ of the maintenance of way 
department of the Public Service Railway Company, 
Newark, N. J., where, after three years' service, he was 
appointed executive clerk, which position he still holds. 
Mr. Maguire has taken up his duties with energy and 



capacities until he resigned in 1906 to become instructor 
of motormen for the Long Island Railroad. He did this 
at the time of the installation of the third-rail system 
on that company's branch operating between Brooklyn 
and Jamaica and Rockaway Beach, L. I. In 1907 Mr. 
Cook was promoted to the position of foreman of repair 
shop of the same company, being located at Morris 
Park, L. I. He resigned this position in 1909 prepara- 
tory to becoming master mechanic of the Eastern 
Division of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company, Indianapolis, Ind., operating an in- 
terurban line between Indianapolis and Dayton and the 
street railway lines in Richmond and Newcastle, Ind. 
He severed his connection with this company in 1912 to 
become general foreman of shops and production with 
The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company. 

The secretary of The Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company section, H. G. Abendroth, achieved fame 




P. F. MAGUIRE A. T. WARNER 

President Public Service Com- Secretary Public Service Com- 
pany Section pany Section 

enthusiasm, and he had the encouraging and record- 
breaking attendance of 418 persons at his first meeting. 
In addition to his electric railway association inter- 
ests Mr. Maguire is a member of the New York Rail- 
road Club. 

The secretary of the Public Service Railway Company 
Section is A. T. Warner, who is also secretary of the 
Public Service Railway Athletic Association. Mr. 
Warner graduated from Lafayette College in June, 
1910, as an electrical engineer and immediately there- 
after entered the employ of the Public Service Railway 
as a cadet engineer. He completed the two-year course 
which is laid out by the company for the purpose of 
training young men for service in the department for 
which they are best fitted, and was in due course as- 
signed to work as traffic investigator in the transporta- 
tion department in 1912 and still holds that position. 



OFFICERS OF THE MILWAUKEE COMPANY 
SECTION 

W. W. Cook, who was recently elected president of 
The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company 
Section, is thirty-three years of age. He was a Con- 
necticut boy, but began his electric railway career at 
the age of twenty-three with the Manhattan Elevated 
Railway Company in New York City, serving in various 



W. W. COOK H. G. ABENDROTH 

President Milwaukee Company Secretary Milwaukee Company 
Section Section 

last year by winning the medal for the best paper deliv- 
ered before a company section during the association 
year 1913-1914. As will be remembered the title of this 
paper was "Overhead Charges in Valuation." Mr. Aben- 
droth was a Milwaukee boy, receiving his primary edu- 
cation in schools of that city. He graduated from the 
University of Wisconsin with the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts in 1911. Like many graduates of the university 
he secured practical experience with the Railroad Com- 
mission of Wisconsin, serving in the statistical depart- 
ment from September, 1911, to June, 1913. At the lat- 
ter time he joined the accounting force of The Milwau- 
kee Electric Railway & Light Company and has since 
been a member of the valuation staff. 



MID-WINTER CONFERENCE AND ANNUAL 
ASSOCIATION DINNER IN WASHINGTON 

The program is rapidly assuming its final form. 
President Woodrow Wilson has agreed to take part in 
the program and Andrew J.' Montague, representing the 
third district of Virginia and formerly governor of 
that state, will address the associations. As previously 
announced, Timothy S. Williams, president Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company will speak upon the Code of 
Principles. 

As this issue of the Electric Railway Journal goes 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



101 



to press the details of President Wilson's participation 
in the program have not been definitely settled, but he 
has agreed to speak either at the conference or at the 
dinner. At least one other prominent government offi- 
cial will also speak. It is expected that this will be 
determined on Monday. 

An important feature of the dinner will be the an- 
nouncement of the names of the company and indi- 
vidual winners of the Brady medals. While the de- 
tailed announcements and the distribution of the com- 
mittee report will be deferred until a short time later 
it has been considered fitting that the first statement 
should be made to the Railway Association at this time. 
The announcement of the winners will be made by a 
prominent representative of the American Museum of 
Safety. 

President E. H. Baker of the Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, has sent letters to all members urging the at- 
tendance of executives and other representatives of 
member companies. Secretary H. G. McConnaughy has 
sent out application forms for use in making dinner 
reservations. The dinner will be held in the grand ball- 
room of the New Willard Hotel, at 7 p. m., Friday, Jan. 
29. The tables will seat eight each. The price of the 
dinner will be $10 per plate. 



MEETING OF AMERICAN ASSOCIATION EDUCA- 
TIONAL COMMITTEE 

This committee met on Jan. 4 in New York with the 
following in attendance: H. A. Bullock, secretary New 
York Municipal Railway Corporation; A. M. Buck, rail- 
way electrical engineering department University of 
Illinois; V. Karapetoff, electrical engineering depart- 
ment Cornell University, and H. H. Norris, associate edi- 
tor, Electric Railway Journal, chairman. A repre- 
sentative of the International Correspondence Schools 
was also in attendance by invitation. The committee 
went over plans for co-operating with the schools in 
carrying on the courses of instruction outlined in. the 
committee's Atlantic City report. The schools reported 
that students are already enrolling in the new courses. 
The committee particularly discussed plans for familiar- 
izing the students with parts of the engineering manual 
of the association. A study was also made of the ways 
in which the American Association committee can co- 
operate with the corresponding committees of the affili- 
ated associations. 



JOINT COMMITTEE ON BLOCK SIGNALS 

In the list of appointments to sub-committees of the 
joint committee on block signals for electric railways, 
printed in the issue for Dec. 12, the names of G. N. 
Brown and C. H. Morrison were given as those of the 
sub-committee to consider the A. I. E. E. standardiza- 
tion rules. The sub-committee consists of G. N. Brown 
and J. M. Waldron. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON LIGHTNING 
PROTECTION 

President L. P. Crecelius of the Engineering Associa- 
tion has appointed the following to serve on the commit- 
tee on lightning protection: D. E. Crouse, representing 
the committee on power distribution, Maryland Electric 
Railways, chairman; F. R. Phillips, representing the 
committee on equipment, Pittsburgh Railways; E. J. 
Blair, representing the committee on electrolysis, Metro- 
politan West Side Elevated Railway, and J. Leisenring, 
representing the joint committee on block signals for 
electric railways, Illinois Traction System. 



NATIONAL JOINT COMMITTEE ON LINE CON- 
STRUCTION 

The national joint committee on overhead and under- 
ground line construction has just announced its plans, 
which were formulated at the last meeting, mentioned 
in the issue of the Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 
19, page 1350. The committee plans to prepare specifi- 
cations, suggest lines of practice or recommend modifi- 
cations of existing regulations relating to: (1) Under- 
ground and undergrade crossings; (2) crossings of 
electric wires over electric railway tracks; (3) cross- 
ings of trolley contact wires; (4) overhead crossings of 
wires or cables of telegraph, telephone, signal and other 
circuits of similar character over steam railroad rights- 
of-way, track, or lines of wire of the same classes; (5) 
overhead crossings of electric light and power lines, and 
( 6) parallel lines. 

Specifications covering subject No. 4, already pre- 
pared by an earlier joint committee representing various 
interests, are now being considered for adoption by the 
national joint committee. Subject No. 5 has been cov- 
ered by the present standard specifications, the edition 
adopted and published by the American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association being the latest revision. 
The other subjects are new, and specifications relating 
thereto will have to be prepared by the committee. 

Both the American and the Engineering Associations 
are represented in the joint committee, of which G. W. 
Palmer, Jr., Bay State Street Railway, is vice-chairman. 
The chairman is Farley Osgood, Public Service Electric 
Company, and the secretary is R. D. Coombs, 30 Church 
Street, New York. 



MEETING OF AMERICAN ASSOCIATION COM- 
MITTEE ON VALUATION 

The new committee on valuation met for organiza- 
tion, as announced, on Jan. 7 in New York. Committeee 
members present were: H. H. Crowell, Grand Rapids, 
Mich.; Gerhard Dahl, New York; J. G. Mortimer, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. ; C. S. Sergeant, Boston, Mass. ; Martin 
Schreiber, Newark, N. J. ; J. N. Shannahan, Hampton, 
Va. ; B. E. Tilton, Syracuse, N. Y., and C. G. Young, 
New York. 

Messrs. Allen, Doolittle and Clark, representing the 
Association, were also present. 

After discussion of the scope and plans of work be- 
fore the committee two sub-committees were appointed 
as follows: On scope, Messrs. Dahl, Crowell and Young, 
with Mr. Mortimer as adviser; to consider a bibliog- 
raphy of the subject of valuation, Messrs. Shannahan, 
Schreiber and Tilton. 



COMING COMMITTEE MEETINGS 

Jan. 11, Chicago (Congress Hotel), 10 a. m., sub- 
committees of the joint committee on block signals for 
electric railways will hold meetings as outlined in the 
issue of the Electric Railway Journal for Jan. 2, 
page 61. J. M. Waldron, Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, and J. W. Brown, Public Service Railway, are 
co-chairmen of this committee. 

Jan. 26, 27, New York, 10 a. m., meetings of the sub- 
committees of the block signal committee, postponed 
from Jan. 4 and 5, as outlined on page 1393 of the issue 
of this paper for Dec. 26, 1914, will be held at associa- 
tion headquarters. 

Jan. 27, New York, 10 a. m., Engineering Association 
committee on equipment, W. G. Gove, Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company, chairman. ( See outline of work, 
Electric Railway Journal, issue of Dec. 26, 1914, 
page 1393.) 



102 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



Equipment and Its Maintenance 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical 
Practices in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

(Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will be Paid for at Special Rates.) 



Equipment Defects — Hand-Operated Con- 
trollers — Contacts, Fingers, Springs 
and Bases — I 

BY C. W. SQUIER, E.E. 

In the writer's seven articles on control connections, 
only different arrangements of resistance and various 
schemes of control have been considered, and an effort 
has been made to show how different operating require- 
ments have necessitated the great variety of control 
connections. 

The equipments on cars as operated to-day have de- 
veloped from the single motor to two and four-motor 
equipments, and from single car to train operation. 
This has necessitated changing from hand-operated to 
power-operated controllers and from non-automatic to 
automatic types. The connections previously discussed 
may apply to any of these manually-operated or auto- 
matic types. In the discussion of the diagrams the terms 
switch or contacts were used to designate the apparatus 
necessary for carrying and breaking the required cur- 
rent, and these may be either a contact finger rubbing 
against a segment or a power-operated switch as condi- 
tions may require. 

The next consideration will be the apparatus itself 
together with a discussion of some of the troubles that 
have come to the writer's attention. This apparatus 
falls into two classes — hand or manually-operated and 
automatic. Automatic acceleration is a desirable thing 
to have. In some cases it is a necessity while in others 
the complication which it involves is not warranted. It 
should be understood that manually-operated apparatus 
cannot produce automatic acceleration although such 
apparatus may be either remote or locally controlled. 
After it has once been set in operation automatic ac- 
celeration can be produced only by apparatus over which 
the operator has no further control other than the 
ability to shut it off entirely. 

Manually-Operated Controllers 

The most common form of hand-operated controller 
is that which is generally known as the drum controller. 
This has been built in many different forms and sizes, 
has given good results and has done wonderful work 
when the abuse to which it is continually subjected is 
considered. The different connections are made by fin- 
gers which come in contact with copper segments on a 
drum as it is rotated by the controller handle. The seg- 
ments are connected together in the various combina- 
tions necessary to close the circuit from one finger to 
the next. 

As the fingers and contact segments make and break 
all the connections, they are the foundations about 
which all the other controller parts are built. Thus 
the operating mechanism is for the proper operation of 
the drum, the star wheels and pawls insure the stoppage 
of the drum in the definite positions necessary for the 
proper combinations, the blow-out coils and arc shields 
prevent excessive arcing at the fingers and contacts, the 
interlocking mechanism prevents improper combina- 



tions and the connection boards and terminals facilitate 
making the outside connections to the fingers. 

To insure proper contact between the fingers and the 
contact segments, it is necessary that the fingers be 
pressed firmly against the contacts. For this end the 
finger springs provide the necessary pressure as well 
as the required flexibility for making and breaking the 
circuit. The accompanying halftone shows a contact 
finger with spring, shunt and base such as is most com- 
monly used with "K" and "L" controllers. The princi- 
pal troubles experienced consist of excessive wear or 
burning on the ball of the finger, broken fingers, weak 
tension in the finger springs, broken or cracked finger 
springs, loosening or bad threading of adjusting screws, 
poor contact between the finger springs and base and 
broken or loose finger bases. 

Finger Adjustment 

The burning of the fingers may be caused by lack of 
sufficient contact pressure or by improper adjustment. 




CONTACT FINGER, SPRING AND BASE 

Fingers should be adjusted so that they will have about 
3/32-in. lift as they come in contact with the segments, 
and care should be taken to see that uniform pressure 
and contact is maintained throughout the complete rota- 
tion of the drum. The contact tips take the arcing 
caused by opening the circuit when the drum is thrown 
to the "off" position and these require more frequent 
renewal than the remaining contact segments. Hence 
it sometimes occurs that after new tips have been in- 
stalled, the fingers if adjusted to give the proper lift 
and tension on the tips will be found to have improper 
contact on the remainder of the segments, due to their 
being worn thinner than the new tip. 

The practice of tapping the ends of the contacts with 
a hammer to bend them down should never be resorted 
to as this is liable to start cracks in the contacts which 
later will cause them to break at the weakened points. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



103 



The tapping also is liable to strip the threads on the 
segment screws or those in the casting to which the con- 
tacts are fastened. Where it is found that proper con- 
tact pressure on the worn part of the segment cannot 
be obtained with Vs-in. lift of the finger on the tip, it is 
better to replace the segments also, as these are worn 
beyond their useful life. If this cannot be done due to 
lack of material, the segments may be shimmed up by 
using thin soft copper strips such as those employed 
for finger shunts. 

Fingers should also be adjusted so that they will line 
up vertically with each other. In most hand controllers 
there are at least four fingers, and sometimes more, that 
should make and break the circuit at the same time on 
the first point. In order to secure this condition as the 
contacts burn away, the controller man frequently 
changes the adjustment of the fingers so that some will 
have scarcely any lift and give too light contact pres- 
sure, while others may have from 5/16-in. to %-in. lift 
and as a result may be liable to stub and break or tear 
off. This practice should be discouraged, and the con- 
tacts should be fitted to make contact uniformly with 
all fingers having approximately the same lift. 

Fingers should also be adjusted to line up horizontal- 
ly with their respective contacts, and not project either 
above or below the contact surfaces, as indicated in one 
of the accompanying drawings, nor make contact across 
the contacts as shown in the sketch alongside. They 




IMPROPER ALIGNMENT OF FINGERS 



should also make contact across their entire width and 
not, as sometimes happens, rest simply on one edge. 

Care should be taken that the fingers make and break 
contact in their proper order, and that they register 
properly on each notch. Fingers or springs which do 
not extend far enough, or which extend too far, do not 
permit proper clearance between the finger tip and the 
end of the contact segment immediately preceding or 
following this finger. 

For ordinary hand controllers the pressure of the 
fingers against the contacts should be not less than 5 lb. 
nor more than 9 lb. A small spring balance should form 
a part of every controllerman's outfit, but a man soon 
becomes accustomed to testing the contact pressure with 
his fingers and will not need to use the spring balance 
except when there is some doubt as to the necessary 
pressure. Emery cloth should never be used for clean- 
ing burned contacts or blistered fingers. Sandpaper is 
far better, because the emery if not carefully removed 
is liable to cause short-circuits and burn-outs. 

In replacing controller contact tips care must be used 
to make sure that the tips fit the ends of the contact seg- 
ments properly and do not leave a wide crack, as this 
causes excessive wear and burning at such points. 

Contact segments on both main and reverse drums 
should be lightly lubricated on each inspection with 
vaseline or compressor oil applied with a felt pad. In 
one special method of keeping the contacts lubricated, 
as used on some controllers, use is made of a felt pad 
which is saturated with oil, the contact segments rub- 
bing against the pad as the drum is operated. One of 
the principal objections to this method is that dirt and 
copper dust from the contacts accumulate on the pad, 



thus making it a partial conductor of current and a 
promoter of short-circuits and grounds. 

Broken Fingers 

Fingers are broken, in most cases, when their con- 
tact surfaces become pitted and fused so that they stub 
when making contact. A few operations of the con- 
troller drum then bend the finger or spring so that it 
catches under the contacts and is broken. Cracks are 
sometimes started by straightening fingers in order to 
lengthen them. The controllerman, for example, finds 
a finger that does not make contact quite soon enough 
bcause the end of the contact tip is burned away. In- 
stead of putting on a new tip, he finds it much easier to 
rotate the drum until the finger rests on the contact. 
Then by striking the finger a sharp blow on the curved 
portion, it is lengthened by straightening it slightly. 
This practice is bad even though it is accomplished 
without cracking the finger, because the next time a con- 
tact tip is installed, the finger will be found too long to 
make contact properly. 



A Study of Car-Heating Requirements 

BY AN EQUIPMENT ENGINEER 

Very few data on the heating of street railways cars 
electrically are available in technical literature. The 
following facts obtained from tests made on the heating 
equipment of a modern city car may, therefore, be of 
interest. The car tested was of the monitor-roof, pay- 
as-you-enter type, having in addition to the heaters in 
the car body, one in each vestibule attached to the center 
bulkhead between the body end doors. The platform 
heaters were so connected that they were in service 
when the car-body heaters were taking the maximum 
current. All heating was by direct radiation. The 
following are the essential data with respect to the car 
tested : 

Cubical contents of car body 1930 cu. ft. 

Total exposed surface, body only 1125 sq. ft. 

Total capacity heaters in body at 500 volts 7200 watts 

Platform heater capacity, each at 500 volts S 00 watts 

Percentage of glass area to total exposed surface 18.5 per cent 

During the tests the body end doors were closed, and 
the platform doors were arranged as during the opera- 
tion of the car on the street, that is to say, one platform 
was closed completely and the other had its folding 
doors open. The outside walls of the car were of 
wooden sheathing and the inside finish of cherry with 
an air space between. The roof was of %-in. poplar 
boards with a painted canvas outer covering. The 
upper and lower deck ceilings were of a prepared 
headlining material. The floor in the aisle was of 
a single layer of %-in. pine, and on each side of 
the aisle was a double floor of material with build- 

ing felt between. 

Two tests were made, one with and one without double 
windows. An ammeter and voltmeter were in circuit 
during both tests to measure the energy consumption of 
the heaters. The average of both tests was substan- 
tially 7430 watts which varied only with the fluctuation 
of the line voltage. Both tests were made with the car 
at rest and no passengers. In the first test, made with- 
out the double windows on the car, the following re- 
sults were obtained : 

Temperature rise heaters working continuously at 
maximum capacity, 33 deg. Fahr. 

Time to reach maximum temperature, about two 
hours. 

In the second test made with double windows on the 
car, the following were the results: 

Temperature rise heaters working continuously at 
maximum capacity, 39 deg. Fahr. 



104 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



Time to reach maximum temperature, about one hour 
and thirty-eight minutes. 

All temperature readings were taken with accurate 
thermometers. In both tests the car was placed with 
the long axes north and south. The wind velocity during 
the tests ranged from 10 m.p.h. to 14 m.p.h. 

During the first test the direction of the wind at the 
beginning was from the southwest, shifting after one 
hour from the west and at the end of the test it was 
from the northwest. During all of the second test the 
wind was from the north. The average barometer read- 
ing was 29.26 in. during both tests. The wind and 
barometer data were obtained from the local govern- 
ment weather bureau. The wind data were important 
since observations have shown that the velocity and di- 
rection of the wind have a very material effect on the 
temperature rise possible with any given heating equip- 
ment. The effect of the wind was greatest when blow- 
ing at right angles to the car and least when blowing in 
the direction of the car movement. 

The graphs shown in the accompanying illlustration 
give the general shape of the time-temperature rise 
curves. The loss of heat from a car occurs by reason 
of conduction, radiation and direct loss, as when the 
warm air escapes through open doors or the cracks 
around sashes and floor trap doors. The graphs show 



ture of the air in the car becomes practically constant 
and the maximum temperature rise possible with the 
heating equipment is obtained. 

From the results of the tests the following data are 
secured : 



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































$ 


c 


























































































































































































































































































<> 










































































































































































Y 






















































































































r 


























































\ 















































































































































































4 8 12 10 CO 21 28 3L 31 30 JO .4 iu V. 5. Ml C4 US U iti 80 84 88 92 s)0 104 i 116 

TimtinMliiutia 100 108 120 

£tcctric Ry.jQu.rn il 

COMPARATIVE TIME-TEMPERATURE CURVES FOR CAR WITH 
AND WITHOUT DOUBLE WINDOWS 

that the temperature in the car rises rapidly at first, 
then the rate of rise decreases until the maximum is 
reached. At this point the heat losses are equal to the 
heat input and the temperature of the car remains rela- 
tively constant. The amount of heat loss depends to a 
large extent upon the "temperature head" or the dif- 
ference in temperature between the inside of the car 
and the outside air. The rate of temperature increases 
with constant energy input and is affected by the con- 
ductivity of the walls, floor, roof and windows of the 
car. The conductivity in turn depends upon the com- 
position and thickness of the materials employed and the 
amount of air space between them. 

Referring to the graphs further, it is believed that 
the temperature difference increases rapidly at first, 
because the "temperature head" is small and therefore 
practically all of the heat units are available for heat- 
ing the inclosed air, the temperature of which quickly 
rises. As the "temperature head" becomes larger, the 
amount of heat available for heating the inclosed air, 
and thereby raising its temperature, decreases, because 
of the increasing loss through the walls of the car. 
Thus the rate of rise in air temperature falls off till the 
point is reached where the "temperature head" is suffi- 
cient to force through the walls of the car all of the 
additional heat generated. At this point the tempera- 





Without 


With 




Double 


Double 




Windows 


Windows 


Watts per cubic foot of car body 


3.85 


3.85 


Watts per square foot of exposed surface. 


... 6.60 


6.60 


Degrees rise per kilowatt of total heater 


ca- 






4.44 


5.25 




0.68 


0.58 



These data can, of course, be applied only to cars hav- 
ing substantially the same volume and exposed area as 
the one tested. By heat loss factor is meant the B.t.u. 
loss per square foot of exposed surface per 1 deg. Fahr. 
temperature difference per hour. 

It will also be observed that under the conditions of 
the tests, it is possible for the heating equipment to 
maintain a temperature difference 6 deg. Fahr. greater 
with double windows than without them. Moreover, 
the maximum temperature difference is reached sooner 
in the car with double windows. While these data are 
correct only for the conditions under which the tests 
were made, they are, however, useful in indicating what, 
in a general way, may be expected of electric car heat- 
ing equipment (direct radiation) with particular refer- 
ence to the possible temperature rise. 

As an example, suppose it is desired to equip a car 
with direct radiation of the electric type, sufficient in 
capacity to maintain a temperature in the car of 45 deg. 
Fahr. when the lowest outside temperature to be ex- 
pected is 10 deg. Fahr. and moderate winds prevail. In 
the example the car selected is generally similar in con- 
struction to the one tested and has an exposed car-body 
surface of 1000 sq. ft. ; a percentage of glass area to 
total area of 18.5 and double windows. From this state- 
ment of the problem the temperature difference is 35 
deg. Fahr. Applying the heat loss factor in the fore- 
going table for a car with double windows, the total 
B.t.u. loss per hour is as follows: 35 X 1000 X °- 58 
= 20,300 B.t.u. Dividing by 3412, the equivalent of 1 
kw-hr., it is found that 5.92 kw of electric heater 
capacity is required to maintain 35 deg. Fahr. tempera- 
ture difference under the conditions set forth. 

Since this result is based on the heat losses obtained 
from a standing test, it would not be quite correct for 
a car in regular service. Observations indicate, how- 
ever, that the effect of the ordinary opening of doors on 
the car temperature is practically offset by the heat 
units given off by the average passenger load. If this 
is true very little additional capacity should be re- 
quired to take care of this factor, and to this should be 
added enough to make the total capacity necessary an 
even multiple of standard heat units. In this example 
6.4 kw may be selected. To utilize this capacity six- 
teen heaters of the ordinary 400-watt, 500-volt rating 
would be required. 

As previously stated, however, care must be taken in 
applying the data derived herein to the solution of any 
car heating problem. If the conductivity of the walls, 
floors and roof, the percentage of glass area to total 
exposed area and wind velocity are materially different 
from those in the tests described, the heat loss factor 
and other derived data will have to be modified accord- 
ingly. It should also be noted that observations show 
that cars constructed with the arch roof are capable of 
being kept warmer with a given amount of heater capac- 
ity than cars of substantially the same volume but with 
the monitor roof. This is accounted for by the reduc- 
tion in the area of exposed glass and the elimination of 
the cracks around deck sash which cause a direct loss 
of heat. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



105 



Location of Trolley Wire on Curves — II 

BY S. L. FOSTER, CHIEF ELECTRICIAN UNITED RAILROADS OF 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Elevation of Outer Rail — The trolley wire on curves 
where the outer rail has been elevated for safety at 
high speeds should be moved in from the center further 
than the height of the trolley wire and the dimensions 
of the car and trolley pole alone require. The reason 
for this will be clear from an inspection of Fig. 5, where 
r, r = the rails normally at the same level 

r' = the outer rail elevated 

g = the gage of the track 

T = the trolley wheel when the outer rail has no 
elevation 

T' = the trolley wheel when the outer rail is elevated. 

By lifting one side of the car by the elevation of the 
outer rail the trolley wheel tends to be thrown over to- 
ward a point above the inside rail of the track curve. 
If it is prevented from following this tendency its sides 
will assume an angle to the trolley wire and scrape it as 
the car proceeds around the curve. If the trolley wire 
is moved the same amount as the elevation of the side 
of the car tends to move the trolley wheel, the sides of 
the wheel will still remain parallel to the trolley wire 
and the wheel will roll along the curved wire with the 
same friction as it did before the elevation of the side 
of the car. 

In Fig. 6 in the similar triangles ABC and abc let 
AB be the amount that the trolley wheel will be moved 
away from the center of the track by elevating the outer 
rail and which the trolley should be moved for least 
friction. Then 

BC =the height — h — of the trolley wire above the rail 
in feet 

ab =the elevation of the outer rail, e, in inches 
be =the track gage, g, in feet, 
and we get 

AB : ab = BC : be 

or 

AB = — in inches. 

9 

To reduce this expression to feet it must be divided by 

12, giving—--. 

12g 

The accompanying table has been calculated on the 
assumption that 4 ft. 8V2 in. is the track gage. 

Additional Distance in Inches Necessary to Move the Trolley 
Wire on Curves on Account of the Elevation 
of the Outer Rail 

Elevation Height of Trolley Wire Above Rail 

of Outer , * ^ 

Rail in In. 18 Ft. IS. 5 Ft. 19 Ft. 19.5 Ft. 20 Ft. 20.5 Ft. 

1 4 4 4 4 4 4% 

1 V> 8 6 6 6 6«> 6 V 

2 ' 7 V, 8 8 8% 8% 8 V 

2% 9V 10 in 10% 10% 11 

3 11% 12 12 12V> 12 V 13 

3V. 13% 14 14 14% 15 " 15 

4 15% 16 16 16% ' 17 17V 

4% 17 IS IS 18 V 19 19% 

5 19 20 20 20V 21 22 

5% 21 21 y. 22 23 23 V 24 

6 23 23 V 24 25 25% 26 

Constant 3.82 3.93 4.03 4.14 4.25" 4.35 

The constant given at the bottom of each column and 
which is equal to the height of the trolley wire above the 
rail divided by the gage of the track, is the factor by 
which the elevation of the outer rail must be multiplied 
in each case in order to get the table figure. Where the 
conditions are uniform throughout a line or system the 
proper constant can be given the lineman with a 5-ft. 
level, and he can readily determine the necessary addi- 
tional movement of the trolley wire required on account 
of the elevation of the outer rail. 



The full distance that the trolley wire should be 
moved from the center of the track on a curve in which 
the outer rail is elevated is thus : 



R 



1 . C — F ■■ (h- v) + 



eh 
12g~ 
(11) 

The quantity under the radical except R- is peculiar 
to the conditions that will probably be general on all 



T 





' ? 




1 




i 




1 




i 


h 


1 




i 




I 




i 




i 
i 


e f - 


i 
i 




FIGS. 5 AND 6 — EFFECT OF ELEVATION OF OUTER RAIL; 
SHIFT OF TROLLEY WHEEL POSITION DUE TO RAIL 
ELEVATION 

curves in all parts of the city system involved and can 
be calculated once for all and called K or constant. 
The formula then becomes, 

p h 

R—^/R- — K + ^- (12) 



120 



or in city work where there is usually no elevation of 
the outer rails on curves, 



R—\/R' 



K. 



(13) 



Where 



Example : Take a double-truck car in which 

b (wheelbase of each truck) = 4.0 ft. 

B (center to center of trucks) = 23.0 ft. 

C (trolley base to center of car roof) = 5.6 ft. 

I (length of the trolley pole) = 13.6 ft. 

/; (height of trolley wire above the rail) = 19.0 ft. 

i (height of trolley base above the rail) = 12.0 ft. 

g ( gage of the track) = 4.71 ft. 

R (radius of the center line of track) = 150.0 ft. 

e (elevation of the outer rail) = 5.0 in. 

Thus 



K 



WW 



(7 + V—(h 



= 4 + 132.25 — 31.36 + 184.96 — 49 = 240.85. 

It should be noted here that the items in the formula 
by whose change the most rapid variation in the total 
can be brought about are C and I, these factors vary- 
ing as their squares. 

The distance the trolley wire should be inside the 

center of the track (r — \/R~ — K-\--~ \is 

150-VC150) 2 - 240.85 +^-^^- 

or 0.81 + 1.68 = 2.49 ft. or 2 ft. 6 in. 

It should also be noted at this point how important 
the elevation is. In this case it was the basis for mov- 
ing the trolley wire three times as far in as would have 
been the case had there been no elevation of the outer 
rail. 



106 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



Sandbox Opened By Fender Trip 

BY A. R. JOHNSON, ASSISTANT TO SUPERINTENDENT OF 
EQUIPMENT, THIRD AVENUE RAILWAY, NEW YORK 

As a practical contribution to safe operation, the 
Third Avenue Railway, New York, has installed on its 
cars a simple mechanism which automatically opens the 
sandbox when the fender gate is tripped. This device 




SKETCH SHOWING TRIPPING LEVERS FROM FENDER TO 
SANDBOX 

calls for a *4-in. x 1%-in. strap, clamped to the gate 
bar and hung close to the gate, as shown at "1" on the 
accompanying sketch, and a second strap attached to 
the sand plunger bar as shown at "2." When the fender 
gate is tripped strap "1" springs up, striking strap "2" 
and thereby forces the sandbox rod forward to re- 
lease sand. The sand continues to flow until the fen- 
der is reset, which operation also closes the sandbox. 

Use of Metallic Salts for Pyrometric 
Purposes 

A new method for measuring temperatures wherever 
heat is applied has just been developed by the Carl 
Nehls Alloy Company, Detroit, Mich. This consists in 
the use of different metallic salts which are made into 
molecular mixtures that will melt down at different tem- 
peratures throughout the range between 200 deg. and 
1330 deg. Cent. They may be used in place of the more 
costly pyrometers and also to check pyrometers. Then 
a cylinder is placed at the end of the thermo-couple and 
when it melts the pyrometer should read the same as 
the temperature marked on the "Sentinel." 

One way is to cast the salts into solid cylinders, 7/16 
in. in diameter and % in. long. Each one is wrapped 
in a paper on which is printed its correct melting tem- 
peratures in degrees Centigrade. For all temperatures 
below 932 deg. Fahr. these "Sentinel" pyrometers can 
be used in an airtight glass tube. The salts can be used 
over and over again, as they melt each time the tempera- 
ture rises above the one marked on the cylinder and 
become solid again the moment the temperature falls 
below this degree. 

The salts are also canned in the form of a paste. 
Pastes with various melting temperatures can be daubed 
along a steel bar and inserted into furnaces, ovens, re- 
torts, flues, steam pipes, etc., to find the temperature at 
which they are operating. The salts that melt down and 
those that remain solid will indicate the temperature, 
which will be between the two. By using a long bar one 
can determine whether the temperature is uniform in 
the front and back, top and bottom, or corners of a fur- 
nace, ovens, kiln, etc. 

This is asserted to be the only method that will give 
the exact temperature of tools heated in a forge fire. 
A paste is selected that represents the correct harden- 
ing temperature for the tool, daubed on the tool and 
when the latter is heated to this temperature the salt 



will melt and the tool can be taken out of the fire for 
quenching. This work is made easier if the tool is sur- 
rounded by a piece of sheet steel or is inserted in gas 
pipe, as that keeps the paste from coming in contact 
with the fuel. 

A handy way' of using the cylinders is to plug one 
end of a tube or rod and drop in a cylinder. A small 
rod can then be lowered into the tube and made to rest 
on the salt. When the salt melts down the rod will 
lower and thus indicate that the melting temperature 
of the salt has been reached. This is very useful for 
finding the temperatures of molten metals like bab- 
bitt mixtures, etc. 



Sheet-Steel Pilot for Interurban Gars 

Sheet-steel pilots have been in service for more than 
seven years on the trucks of the Chicago, Lake Shore & 
South Bend Railway's cars. During that period not a 
single pilot has been replaced, although some have been 
bent slightly out of shape, but were restraightened at 
small cost. These pilots are made of %-in. boiler plate, 




SHEET-STEEL PILOT — VIEW OF CAR WITH STEEL PILOT 



20 in. wide, mounted on a V^-in. x 2-in. x 2%-in. T-iron 
frame. Three strap-iron brackets % in. x 4 in. in sec- 
tion support the pilot on the front end of the truck 
frame, connection being made by using the truck 
pedestal bolts. As the pilot is mounted on the truck it 
follows the track in a way similar to the life guard on a 
street car. Its substantial construction causes it to 




SHEET-STEEL PILOT — VIEW SHOWING METHOD OF MOUNT- 
ING ON TRUCK 



resist a heavy impact and deflect the body from the 
track. Since it is mounted about 4 in. above the top 
rail, it also serves as a snow plow until the snow has 
drifted badly. In one of the accompanying illustrations 
the method of mounting this steel pilot on the truck is 
shown, and in another illustration the location of the 
pilot relative to the rail and drawbar is illustrated. 



January 9, 1915] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL , 107 



Electric Railway Legal Decisions 



CHARTERS, ORDINANCES, FRANCHISES 

Arkansas. — "Jim Crow" Cars — Conductors Authorized to 
Compel Compliance with Rules. 

Under the law as given in Kirby's Dig., Sec. 5658-5663, 
street railway companies are required to operate separate 
cars for the white and colored races or else to separate the 
white and colored passengers in cars operated fcr both by 
setting apart a portion thereof for each race, and the con- 
ductor may "require" any passenger to change his seat when 
necessary, and a passenger so spoken to must take the seat 
so assigned, and any person refusing to do so shall leave 
the car, or, remaining thereon, shall be guility of a mis- 
demeanor, etc. It was held that a street railway company 
may designate what portion of cars shall be occupied by 
white passengers, and what portion by colored passengers, 
and that a conductor may use necessary force to compel a 
passenger to comply therewith, the word "require" being 
synonymous with "compel." (Little Rock Ry. & Electric Co. 
v. Hampton, 165 Southwestern Rep., 290.) 
Georgia. — Ejectment— Force Justifiable. 

The presiding judge charged that the conductor on an elec- 
tric car had authority to arrest disorderly persons, according 
to Sec. 926 and 927 of the Penal Code of 1910, and that then 
he had a right to strike them or use other such force as was 
necessary to protect himself from injury; held, that in the 
light of the pleading and evidence, the giving of this charge 
furnishes no ground for a reversal. (Georgia Ry. & Electric 
Co. v. Wheeler., 80 Southeastern Rep., 993.) 
Illinois. — Difference Between Elevated and ftreet Railways 
So Great that City Cannot Regulate Fares Under 
Statute. 

Corporations organized under the Railroad Law (Hurd's 
Rev. St. 1912, Chap. 114) to operate elevated railroads for 
the carriage of passengers only are not street railroads, 
within the purview of Cities and Villages Act (Hurd's Rev. 
St. 1912, Chap. 24, Sec. 62) Art. 5, Sec. 1, CI. 42, author- 
izing municipalities to regulate hackmen and other carriers 
using the street, and to fix their compensation. Even though 
part of the right-of-way of elevated roads is through the 
city streets, they differ from the other means of trans- 
portation mentioned in that they maintain regular stations 
for the reception and discharge of passengers and do not 
stop at any point, as is the custom with street railways 
and hackmen. Hence the municipality cannot, on the the- 
ory that the elevated railroads are street railroads, regu- 
late their charges. (Metropolitan West Side Electric Ry. 
v. City of Chicago, Northwestern Electric R. R. v. Same. 
South Side Electric R. R. v. Same, 104 Northeastern Rep., 
166.) 

Indiana. — Power of Street Railway to Condemn Land for 
Interurban Passenger and Express Terminal. 

While one public service corporation may not condemn 
property for the use of another in the absence of express 
legislative authority, a street railway company which has 
been required to permit cars of interui'ban companies to be 
transported over its lines, pursuant to Burns' Ann. St. 1908, 
See. 5632, may condemn property for a terminal thereby 
rendered necessary. 

Since it is lawful for an express company to transport 
property over an interurban railroad company, the latter 
may condemn property necessary for a terminal to handle 
such business. (Eckart et al. v. Ft. Wayne & N. Y. Traction 
Co., 104 Northeastern Rep., 762.) 

LIABILITY FOR NEGLIGENCE 

Alabama. — Assumption of Risk by Passenger of Jerks. 

Passengers on electric street cars assume the risk of in- 
jury from ordinary jars and jolts incident to car operation, 
when conducted with due care and in the usual manner. 
Where a lady passenger left her seat and stepped into the 
aisle, while the car was in motion, and then fell down and 
injured one of her knees, held, that she cannot recover 
damages from the railway company, where the preponder- 
ance of the evidence shows that the motorman operated 
the car with due care, and that it came to a stop, with no 
unusual jar or jolt. (Vincent v. New Orleans Ry. & Light 
Co., 64 Southern Rep., 654.) 



Illinois. — Liability for Injuries to Animals When Fences 
Are Not Installed. 
Where a railroad company neglects to fence its road as 
required by Hurd's Rev. St. 1911, Chap. 114, Sec. 62, it is not 
contributory negligence defeating a recovery for an owner of 
adjoining land to permit stock to go upon the land adjacent 
to the right-of-way. (Hartzell v. Alton, Granite & St. 
Louis Traction Co., 104 Northeastern Rep., 1080.) 

Kansas. — Contributory Negligence of Passenger Not Bar 
to Recovery in Some Cases. 
A finding that the conductor of an electric street car was 
guilty of such wantonness as to authorize a recovery against 
the company, regardless of any question of contributory 
negligence, is authorized by evidence that he ran his car, 
without stopping, past a station and upon a bridge, knowing 
that a man was riding outside of the car in such a position 
that he would necessarily be struck by a beam of the 
bridge and severely, and probably fatally, injured. (Har- 
bert v. Kansas City Elevated Ry. Co., 138 Pacific Rep., 
641.) 

Massachusetts. — Termination of Relation of Passenger and 
Carrier When Passenger Leaves Car. 
Defendant elevated railway company maintained an as- 
cending track leading to a station, the incline being bounded 
by a wall constructed of stone blocks 26 in. wide. The top of 
the wall was level, but there was no railing on the incline 
between the track and the edge of the wall. There were 
steps leading from the station platform to the incline. A 
preceding car having become disabled on the incline, dece- 
dent, a passenger, left the following car and started to walk 
up the incline to the station platform, and in some way fell 
or was pushed over the wall and received injuries from 
which he died. There was evidence that passengers had 
occasionally so alighted before, but there was nothing to 
indicate that the steps at the end of the platform or the 
incline were intended for the use of passengers. Held that, 
when decedent left his car before it reached the station plat- 
form, he ceased to be a passenger, and was at most a bare 
licensee, and hence no recovery could be had for his death 
because of alleged simple negligence of the railway company 
in failing to protect the wall by a barrier. (Hyams v. 
Boston Elevated Ry. Co., 104 Northeastern Rep., 370.) 

Massachusetts. — Injuries from Controller Blow-out. 

Plaintiff's decedent, a passenger, was burned by a shower 
of sparks from the controller box, causing the car to come 
to a sudden stop and hurling her from her feet against a 
seat. Plaintiff sued in three counts, for negligence (1) in 
operating the car, (2) in permitting the use of a defective, 
unsafe and dangerous mechanism, and (3) for failing to 
properly inspect the car. Held, that it could not be ruled 
as a matter of law that such an occurrence was one of the 
things which might be expected to happen if the mechanism 
was in proper condition, and that plaintiff was entitled to 
go to the jury on the second and third counts, but that the 
evidence did not show negligent operation and that the 
court, therefore, erred in submitting that count to the jury. 
(Bresnahan v. Boston Elevated Ry., 103 N. E. Rep., 300.) 

Massachusetts. — Negligence Imputed to Boy Six Years Old. 

In an action for an injury to a boy six years old, run 
over by a street car while playing in the street, the evi- 
dence was held to sustain a finding that the boy was guilty 
of contributory negligence. (Godfrey v. Boston Elevated 
Ry. Co., 102 N. E. Rep., 652.) 

Massachusetts. — Contributory Negligence — Act Caused by 
Fright— "Due Care." 
St. 1907, chap. 392, authorizes recovery from a street 
railway company, whose servants in the conduct of its 
business negligently caused the death of a person not a 
passenger or employee who exercised due care. But there 
fould be no recovery for the death of a boy who, without 
actively exercising care, ran in front of a street car, even 
though he was at the time suffering from fright, since 
under the statute the injured person must be actively and 
actually in the exercise of diligence; "due care" in the 
statute meaning something more than negative and passive 
freedom from fault, and requiring reasonably intelligent 
and energetic attention to safety. (Bothwell v. Boston 
Elevated Ry. Co., 102 N. E. Rep., 666.) 



108 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 2 

News of Electric Railways 



RAPID TRANSIT PLANS FOR CINCINNATI 

Four Plans Presented, All Involving Use of Canal Bed — 
Comments by Professor Swain and President Schoepf 

City Engineer Krug of Cincinnati, on Dec. 31, presented 
to Mayor F. S. Spiegel four schemes for rapid transit in that 
?ity, with the canal bed as an important feature of each. 

Scheme No. 1, or the Canal Street Belt Line, suggests 
;hat the two-track line start at Canal and Vine Streets and 
follow the canal in a subway to a point about 1000 ft. north 
)f Ludlow Avenue, with the exception of three short sec- 
dons which would run in the open because of sharp bends 
in the canal line. Wherever the line crosses the canal as a 
result of the deflections it is to be built as a subway in 
order to allow the passage of the proposed boulevard over it. 
The length of the line is 15.56 miles, with 6.50 miles in 
subway, 0.63 mile in tunnels and 8.43 miles in the open. 
There will be twenty bridges of a total length of 2206 ft. 
and 6100 ft. of concrete trestle along the Ohio River bluff. 
Fourteen stations, about 1 mile apart, are specified, of 
which the Canal Street station is the largest, as it is in- 
tended for baggage and small packages. 

Scheme No. 2 proposes a two-track subway, auxiliary to 
No. 1, 1.31 miles in length. It leaves the main line at Canal 
and Plum Streets, runs south on Plum to Fifth Streets, east 
on Fifth to Main and north on Main to Canal Street, where 
it would connect with the main track. Two stations are 
planned for it. 

Scheme No. 3 includes No. 1, except that part east of 
Plum Street on Canal Street and under Mt. Adams to near 
Eden Park reservoir. Instead, it is suggested that from 
the intersection of Plum and Canal Streets the line run 
south on Plum Street to Fifth, east on Fifth to Walnut, 
north on Walnut to Ninth and east on Ninth Street and 
under Mt. Adams to connect with Scheme No. 1 near Eden 
Park reservoir. This has been designated as the Ninth 
Street belt line and would make the entire line 16.31 miles 
in length. There are a number of changes in stations men- 
tioned also. 

Scheme No. 4, or the Pearl Street belt line, also includes 
Scheme No. 1 with the exception of the portion east of 
Walnut Street on Canal Street and under Mt. Adams, and 
in its place suggests that from the intersection of Canal and 
Walnut Streets the line run south on Walnut Street to 
Pearl, east on Pearl and Martin Streets and private prop- 
erty to a point near Eden Park reservoir. A portion of this 
substituted part would be subway and the remainder would 
be a steel trestle, with the necessary changes in the location 
of the stations. It would be 16.46 miles in length. It is 
said that this last plan will give about the same service as 
Nos. 1 and 2 combined and that its construction will entail 
a smaller cost, with the added advantage that the Kentucky 
lines may use the subway if this becomes necessary. 

Engineer F. B. Edwards estimated the cost of Scheme 
No. 1 at $10,959,895. Scheme No. 2, if built in connection 
with No. 1, will involve a cost of $1,609,475. Built as a 
separate unit, the cost would be about $3,504,109. The esti- 
mate for Scheme No. 3 is $11,993,880 and of No. 4, $11,033,- 
528. Engineer Ward Baldwin has fixed the cost of rolling 
stock, power station and equipment at $2,160,000, but if the 
downtown loop is built it will bring the cost up to $2,456,000. 

Professor Swain, Boston, consulting engineer, reviewed 
the report before it was made public. He considers it rea- 
sonable throughout. He has further given his approval to 
scheme No. 1 and has expressed the opinion that it will 
serve the purpose of the special committee and the city as 
well as any other that can be devised. Professor Swain 
agrees with the committee that Schemes Nos. 1 and 2 taken 
together will make an ideal transit plan. No. 3 he con- 
siders out of the question and No. 4 omits so much of the 
lowntown loop that it cannot be considered in any way 
iqual to the combination of Nos. 1 and 2, notwithstanding 
;he fact that it costs less and has the redeeming feature 
of extending further down into the city than the others. 
Professor Swain suggests that a combination of Nos. 1, 2 
and 4 be considered, with the omission of certain portions 
that duplicate. A better plan than that suggested by Nos. 



1 and 2 might be worked out with no increased cost, he says, 
and this is the object of the investigation. Professor Swain 
discusses the ways in which the cost may be reduced and 
suggests that the engineers study the plan to discover minor 
changes that will tend to this result. 

The Rapid Transit Commission, appointed by Mayor 
Spiegel, consists of E. W. Edwards, president; William 
Cooper Proctor, Dean Herman Schneider of Cincinnati Uni- 
versity, George F. Dieterle and George Puchta. The inves- 
tigation was made under the direction of the commission, 
and the purpose is to find a way for bringing all interurban 
cars to the center of the city and provide a better service 
on existing roads. For this reason Professor Swain sug- 
gests that any line that is built should be operated by the 
Cincinnati Traction Company. 

W. Kesley Schoepf, president of the Cincinnati Traction 
Company, is quoted as saying that the cost of construction 
at this time, in his opinion, is practically prohibitive. He 
added, however, that he would not be able to express a 
positive opinion until he had had time to study the report 
in detail. Some time ago he expressed the belief that 
such an improvement, to cost about $6,000,000, might be 
financed and that it would be a success if it could be made 
to solve some of the problems of local transportation. 



SERVICE IN BROOKLYN 

President Williams on the Grand Jury — Commission Report 
of Service — Company's Reply 

Timothy S. Williams, president of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
Rapid Transit Company, issued a statement on Dec. 31 
dealing with the investigation of the company by the 
Grand Jury. He said that the basis of the information 
obtained by the company in regard to the investigation was 
secured through the newspapers despite the fact that Grand 
Jury proceedings were secret and that it was a misdemeanor 
to divulge any information as to what transpired in the 
Grand Jury room. Not having been served with any sub- 
poenas the company did not feel that in making its state- 
ment it could be charged with divulging information which 
the law holds sacred. Mr. Williams assumed that the Grand 
Jury was acting under its general power to investigate any 
statement of facts which it deemed of importance to the 
community. If any pertinent facts bearing upon the trans- 
portation problem which were not already generally known 
to the public could be elicited at the inquiry, or if any meas- 
ures could be suggested to alleviate admitted discomforts 
of the present period of transition from inadequate facili- 
ties to facilities adequate to Brooklyn's needs, the company 
would be the first to welcome such disclosures or sugges- 
tions. On the other hand, if it should appear that those 
charged with the duty of providing transportation for 
Brooklyn had endeavored consistently and as successfully 
as the conditions permitted to fulfil their obligations, Mr. 
Williams felt that a presentment should appear certifying 
the facts. Mr. Williams remarked parenthetically that, as 
the company was not advertising its statement in the news- 
papers, the accusation could not be brought against it that 
it was trying to influence the newspapers of Brooklyn by 
paid advertising. 

Subsequently, Joseph Johnson, chief of the transit bureau 
of the Public Service Commission of the First District of 
New York, made public his conclusions in connection with 
the inquiry which the commission had been conducting into 
the service of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. These 
were summarized under twelve heads, and to each one Mr. 
Williams replied specifically, giving such facts and figures as 
seemed to him to be necessary to substantiate the case of the 
company. 

In answering Mr. Johnson, Mr. Williams said in part : 
"The report now given out, so far as we know, has not 
been considered or approved by the commission. It is en- 
tirely an ex parte statement of the former campaign man- 
ager for the chairman of the commission, who is receiving 
a large salary from the city, and who, according to our 
information, feels that he should begin to give some public 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



109 



evidence of his official existence. The commission, however, 
is responsible for Mr. Johnson's report being made public 
in advance of its consideration by them or in advance of the 
completion of their formal hearing, and the inference is 
plain from such a procedure that even they are somewhat 
desirous of meeting the present avalanche of public criticism 
against them by an appearance of official activity. Indeed, 
we have been told, in substance, that the commission dislikes 
any voluntary attempts on our part to satisfy public com- 
plaint but would prefer to have the public credit of correct- 
ing the evils by their official orders. Their action, therefore, 
in publishing this partially untruthful, entirely ex parte, and 
generally unfair report, is evidently an attempt to divert 
against the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company the public in- 
dignation that seems likely to wipe the present commission 
out of existence. To any person who has known the general 
policy and practice of procrastination and indecision, as I 
have known it in my experience with the Public Service 
Commission in the carrying out of the formalities required 
by the dual system contracts, in order to get into operation 
as speedily as possible some substantial measure of 
transportation relief, it is laughable to hear the commission 
or its employees talk of any lack of co-operation on our 
part or of any unnecessary delays on our part in trying 
to furnish that relief." 

This statement provoked Mr. Johnson to retort that if 
his report had done no more than to show the keen hostility 
of Mr. Williams to any set of men who presumed to criticise 
his management it had served a good purpose. He said 
that the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company would have a fair 
opportunity before the commission to try to disprove the 
conclusions. 

On Jan. 4 Mr. Williams gave out another statement, 
supplementing his reply to the criticisms of the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit service by Mr. Johnson. He said that the 
grievance of the company against the publication of Mr. 
Johnson's report was, first, that it was not based upon facts 
in all cases; second, that it condemned the company for evils 
for which the commission itself was responsible; third, that 
the summary of it as given out by the commission was not 
justified in many cases by such of the supporting figures 
as had been furnished to the company. Mr. Williams said 
that the company had not up to that time received a copy 
of the report, but that if the figures were as inaccurate as 
some that had been brought to the company's attention, they 
would illustrate unpleasantly some of the methods of the 
commission. 

The Brooklyn Eagle quoted Chairman McCall of the com- 
mission in its issue of Jan. 5 in part as follows: 

"The report of Mr. Johnson was prepared in absolutely 
good faith by the head of our transit bureau and its findings 
are a result of the investigations of paid experts who have 
been in our employ for a long time. It is now before the 
commission for its judicial consideration and I decline to 
comment upon it in any way. When the question corner 
before us Colonel Williams will then be given an opportunity 
to present his case in the regular way. If we find that the 
weight of evidence is that Chief Joh^on's report is in 
error then we will throw it out completely." 



MR. DOHERTY TO RETURN TO TOLEDO 

City Solicitor Thurstin, of Toledo, Ohio, announced on Jan. 
4 that he will ask the Council for an ordinance to provide 
for a bond issue of $4,000,000, the proceeds to be used for 
the purchase of the local street railway under the munici- 
pal ownership ordinance adopted by referendum vote last 
August. Some time ago the franchise committee announced 
the completion of another franchise which its members 
asked the Toledo Railways & Light Company to consider, 
and on Jan. 4 members of this committee received a com- 
munication from Henry L. Doherty, chairman of the board 
of directors of the company, stating that he will be in the 
city soon to consider the draft of the ordinance which the 
committee prepared. 

Federal Judge Killits has set Jan. 23 as the date for 
rendering his decision in the case of Negley D. Cochran 
and the Toledo Newspaper Company, recently tried before 
him on the charge of contempt of court in connection with 
the publication of statements to which the court took excep- 
tion. Counsel for the defense have until Jan. 9 to file briefs. 



SEATTLE MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP VOTE ON 
MARCH 2 

In committee of the whole the City Council of Seattle, 
Wash., decided on Dec. 30 to submit to the voters at the 
general election on March 2 a proposition to purchase the 
Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway within the citiy limits. 
The proposition provides for an initial payment to the re- 
ceivers of the company of $200,000 in 4% per cent street 
railway bonds and subsequent payments each year for 
twenty-eight years of 20 per cent of the gross earnings of 
the property. For the first ten years, the receivers are to 
pay annually into the city treasury from the 20 per cent of 
gross earnings received by them the sum of $15,000 and 
for the next eight years $20,000 a year. For the remain- 
ing ten years, the receivers are to be paid the full 20 per- 
cent of the gross earnings, unless the total payments to 
them amount to $1,500,000, in which case all payments are 
to cease, and the property be finally deeded to the mu- 
nicipality. By this agreement, the city will obtain the prop- 
erty without any investment except of bonds and receive 
from the company during the first eighteen years of the 
contract, a total of $310,000 divided into annual payments, 
with which to pay and retire the bonds and to make such 
extensions and betterments to the line as may be neces- 
sary. The proposition of purchase further provides for the 
dismissal of suits instituted by the city and counter suits 
brought by the receivers. After the corporation counsel 
has passed upon the terms of the proposition the Council 
'will pass an ordinance accepting the offer of the receivers. 
This will be followed by the adoption of a resolution sub- 
mitting the question to the voters on March 2. 



UNION STATION SERVICE IN KANSAS CITY-OTHER 
MATTERS 

At a recent Council committee hearing held to consider 
the subject of providing adequate traffic facilities around 
the new Union Station, P. J. Kealy, representing the Metro- 
politan Street Railway on the board of control which, under 
the new franchise, will eventually manage the property, 
said the prospective street railway traffic should be con- 
sidered in planning streets. He was quoted as follows: 

"The South and Southeast are developing very rapidly, 
especially in that district where small homes may be built 
on 25-ft. lots. Transporting those people by street cars 
will soon become a serious question. We now have only 
Main Street as a street leading straight through the busi- 
ness district from the extreme north to the far south. I be- 
lieve that within five years a part of this traffic will have to 
come downtown over a line on McGee Road. We now have 
as much street car congestion at Thirty-first and Main 
Streets as at Fifteenth Street and Grand Avenue. As this 
traffic comes north through the Main Street cut and by way 
of the station it cannot all be carried over the Main Street 
Viaduct. Some of the cars will have to go over Twenty- 
third Street to either Grand Avenue or McGee Street and 
thence downtown. The building of a line on Twenty-third 
Street will be necessary in a comparatively short time. The 
rounding of the corner at Twenty-third Street and West- 
port Road to permit the cars to get through that narrow 
throat will be necessary." 

Street cars in Kansas City ran on the evening schedules 
New Year's Eve until 3 a. m., when the owl car service was 
begun. Heretofore the owl car schedules began at 1 o'clock 
on New Year's Eve as on other nights. The traffic during; 
the later hours this year was heavy, indicating, it is said, 
the advance in cosmopolitanism of the city. The holiday 
traffic otherwise was about normal, considering the steadily 
increasing business. 

It is expected that cars will run over the new Twelfth 
Street viaduct to the stock yards and implement jobbing 
district in the West Bottoms about Jan. 15. Tracks were 
laid on the viaduct as it progressed, and the approaches 
are now being installed. The "stock yards" electric line 
has helped to serve the district by a circuitous route during 
construction. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway in its newspaper dis- 
play space on Jan. 1 used the face of a clock with the hands 
close to 12, with the injunction "A good new year's re- 
solve: Wait till the car's stop! Look before crossing car 



110 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



tracks!" There are pictures of a crowded street corner and 
two cars bound in opposite directions. 

C. W. Green, Mayor of Kansas City, Kan., has announced 
that a bill will be prepared for presentation to the Kansas 
Legislature giving the city power to purchase or acquire 
street railway tracks and lease them to public service cor- 
porations. The franchise of the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way in Kansas City, Kan., has eight years to run; public 
ownership of the system is said to present difficulties be- 
cause of the close relation of the Kansas City, Kan., system 
with that in Kansas City, Mo., where a new franchise has 
been granted but waits the fulfilment of its terms by the 
company. 



RATE INJUNCTION ASKED IN MISSOURI 

Springfield Gas & Electric Company Carries Rate Case to 
Federal Court on Ground of Constitutionality and 
Unfairness of Public Service Commission 

The Springfield Gas & Electric Company, Springfield, Mo., 
has begun a contest against the order of the Missouri 
Public Service Commission establishing lower electric rates. 
The original brief in this case and the decision of the com- 
missioner were abstracted in the Electric Railway Journal 
of May 2 and July 11, respectively. After the denial of an 
appeal by the commission, the company has omitted the 
prescribed course of appeal through the state courts and 
is now asking the federal court for an injunction against 
the enforcement of the order. The proceedings involve the 
question of the commission's fairness in its conclusions and 
the constitutionality of the act creating the commission. 
The application for injunction was made to Judge Van 
Valkenburgh at Kansas City, who called in Judge Hook and 
Judge Pollock. Judge Hook presided at a hearing on Dec. 
29, the result of which was the granting of ten days' time 
for the filing of a brief by the commission. 

The company contends that the valuation placed upon 
the property by the commission was ridiculously low and 
that the commission made no allowance in the valuation for 
going concern value. A question is raised as to the right 
of the commission to exclude from valuation of property 
items which the company asserts are necessary to its suc- 
cessful operation. The company has a steam power plant, 
held for emergencies but seldom used, the current being 
bought from a hydroelectric concern. The exclusion of this 
plant from the valuation, and the exclusion of other items 
such as administration expenses paid to a New York hold- 
ing company, is alleged to have reduced the valuation to 
such a point that the company making ostensibly 7 per 
cent actually can earn on the prescribed rates only 3 
per cent. 

The question of constitutionality arises over the right 
given by the law to the commission to consider, in pre- 
paring a decision, information outside the evidence pre- 
sented at the hearings. The allegation is made that the 
commission in this case considered evidence that the company 
had no opportunity of answering. Whether or not proof 
can be adduced of the weight given such outside informa- 
tion, the fact that the commission may use such outside 
information warrants the reasonable assumption that such 
outside information was used. 

W. G. Busby, counsel for the commission, stated that the 
commission hoped the court would not find it necessary to 
grant the restraining order, because the commission had 
given the matter careful consideration and believed it was 
justified in its decision. J. T. Neville and E. C. McAfee 
of Springfield also appeared for the commission. The com- 
pany was represented by John M. Olin, Madison, Wis., and 
W. D. Tatlow, Springfield. 

This Springfield case was the first the Public Service 
Commission decided involving the methods of valuation 
and principles to be followed in valuing a property. It 
established a precedent as to what the commission deemed 
was a fair return on invested money and the direct power 
of the commission to fix rates. The commission, after an 
exhaustive hearing, cut down the claimed valuation of 
the company materially and ordered an outright reduction 
in electric light rates from 15 cents per kw-hr. to 8 cents. 
Although only the electric light rates of Springfield were 
involved, the order was construed as blazing the way for 
rate making in all Missouri cities. 



SIGNAL AND STEEL CAR RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED 
BY NEW YORK COMMISSION 

The following resolutions were adopted by the Public 
Service Commission of the First District of New York 
on Jan. 5: 

"Resolved that it is the sense of the commission that 
the elevated railroad lines of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company should be equipped with a signal system which 
will prevent collisions, and that the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company be required to make an investigation and 
report to the commission within sixty days on such speed 
control, cab signaling or other improved signaling devices 
that will allow the minimum headway on the elevated rail- 
roads and provide the greatest factor of safety. 

"Resolved that Mr. Gibbs, consulting engineer to the 
commission, and Mr. Wilder, electrical engineer, be asked to 
advise the commission whether an all-steel car body, hav- 
ing approximately the dimensions of the wooden cars oper- 
ated on the elevated roads in Manhattan and the Bronx 
by the Interborough Company and having three doors on 
each side of the car, with the necessary couplers, curtains, 
etc., but without trucks, electrical equipment or air brakes, 
can be built for operation on the elevated lines having a 
weight not to exceed the weight of the heaviest wooden 
cars now operated on such lines." 



CHICAGO ELEVATED VALUATIONS 

In response to a request from the Chicago local trans- 
portation committee, the commissioner of public service has 
made a valuation of the elevated railway system. Little 
significance attaches to the valuation, however, since a 
controversy has arisen between the local transportation 
committee and the commissioner of public service because 
he has failed to prepare the valuation in accordance with 
the committee's request, namely, to bring it up to date 
and to omit intangibles. This valuation as submitted is 
entirely new, and intangibles have been included. The pur- 
pose of this valuation was for use in connection with the 
merger of the surface and elevated lines, upon which actual 
steps toward the beginning of the subway system is said 
to depend. The public service commissioner's figures on 
the physical value of the property are as follows 

Cost new Present value 

Metropolitan $19,591,973 $16,323,744 

South Side 14,871,381 12,215,138 

Northwestern 15,127,558 12,575,892 

Chicago & Oak Park 4,282,672 3,044,510 

Total $53,873,584 $44,159,284 

Taxes 150,000 150,000 

Total $54,023,584 $44,309,2S4 

Overhead charges, IS per cent 9,724,245 7,975,671 

Grand total $63,747,829 $52,284,955 

In connection with intangible values the report states that 
they will vary between $5,000,000 and $20,000,000. A com- 
parison of this valuation with that made by the harbor and 
subway commission in 1912 shows that there is approxi- 
mately $1,500,000 difference, the public service commission- 
er's cost now being that much greater and its present value 
being that much less than the figures included in the harbor 
and subway commission valuation. 



CINCINNATI SUBURBAN FRANCHISE 

The street railway committee of the City Council of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and representatives of the Cincinnati, New- 
port & Covington Railway conferred on Jan. 2 on the pro- 
posed new franchise. The committee informed the com- 
pany's representatives that it would recommend to council 
a rate of fare of 3 cents between the suspension bridge 
across the Ohio River and Fourth Street in Cincinnati. 
The rate on the Newport division and between all points 
in Newport and Covington and Cincinnati will be 5 cents. 
The committee insisted on the payment of $65,000 to the city 
in settlement of the claim against the company for car 
license fees. The company offered to compromise at $40,000. 
The company is to pay $12,000 as a franchise tax during 
the current year and 3% per cent is then to be added to 
this amount during the life of the franchise. The city de- 
sires to reserve the right to allow any other company to- 
use the company's tracks on terms to be agreed upon be- 
tween the companies or by arbitration. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



111 



CLEVELAND RAILWAY MATTERS 

On Dec. 29 members of the Cleveland City Council made a 
trip over the North Randall Street Railway, which the 
Cleveland (Ohio) Railway has asked permission to purchase 
for $146,000. The line was built with private capital and 
connects the Broadway line with the Forest City fair 
grounds at North Randall. It is 3^ miles in length. The 
Cleveland Railway, under the present arrangement, is 
guaranteed 6 per cent on the investment required in 
operating cars on the line. The North Randall line is said 
to have earned 14 per cent on the investment last year. 

Councilman Stolte entered objections to the purchase of 
the North Randall line by the Cleveland Railway on the 
ground that the city will never be able to purchase the 
property if its value continues to increase so rapidly. 

The street railway committee recommended a reduction in 
fare from 5 cents to 3 cents between London Road and Dill 
Road. This leaves the fare between London Road and the 
Public Square 6 cents. London Road is in Nottingham, a 
village that has been annexed since the Tayler ordinance 
went into effect. Mr. Witt explained that special school 
tickets may be provided under the ordinance, where diffi- 
culties are encountered in the annexation of suburban towns. 

An ordinance was introduced in the City Council on the 
evening of Dec. 28, authorizing the company to build a 
double track on Euclid Avenue between East Twenty-second 
and East Fortieth Streets, known as "Millionaires' Row." 
The measure was referred to the committee on street rail- 
ways. Peter Witt, street railway commissioner, and Di- 
rector of Public Safety Sidlo have obtained consents of 
a number of owners of abutting property, and Mr. Witt 
believes that cars will be in operation over the proposed 
new section of track by July 4, 1915. 



SEATTLE MUNICIPAL RAILWAY SUIT 

On a charge that officers of the city of Seattle have 
illegally expended thousands of dollars on the Highland 
Park & Lake Burien Line of the Seattle (Wash.) Municipal 
Railway, known as Division "C," lying outside the city 
limits of Seattle, and that the city is about to expend more 
of the public funds unlawfully Attorney-General W. V. 
Tanner has asked for an injunction against further dissi- 
pation of the moneys in the general fund of Seattle for the 
purpose of maintaining or operating the Lake Burien line. 
The necessary papers were served on the city comptroller 
and the city treasurer on Dec. 28. 

Mr. Tanner begins his complaint by stating that C. W. 
Clausen, state auditor, who is ex-officio chief inspector 
and supervisor of the bureau of inspection and supervision 
of the public offices of the State of Washington, as such 
officer received during 1914 from George A. Liebes, a state 
examiner under his jurisdiction, a report in which Mr. 
Liebes detailed the facts upon which the suit is brought 
by the attorney-general. According to the report of Mr. 
Liebes, he went thoroughly into the records and accounts 
of the Lake Burien line and found that 4% miles is outside 
of Seattle; that between March 7, 1911, and June 30, 1914, 
Seattle expended $20,491 for construction, part of which 
was spent on the portion of the road beyond the corporate 
limits. 

Mr. Tanner alleges that the money so spent was derived 
from the sale of the general bonds of Seattle and from 
loans from the general fund, but that the books of the 
city failed to show the exact amount so expended and that, 
therefore, the exact amount is unknown. He says that 
between March 7, 1911, and June 30, 1914, $9,000 was trans- 
ferred from the general fund of the city for the purpose 
of meeting the operating expenditure of Division "C," of 
the Municipal street railway system, but that the books of 
the city also fail to show what sums were spent inside and 
what outside of the corporate limits. Mr. Tanner finally 
cites in his complaint a paragraph from the state examiner's 
report which states that the sums expended exceed the 
revenues of the car line and that the warrants issued and 
cashed are illegal because the city has no authority to 
operate or maintain a street railway outside of its corpo- 
rate limits. The attorney-general, however, does not ask 
that the warrants heretofore issued and paid be nullified, 
but prays that the city comptroller and the treasurer be 



enjoined from expending other public money on the Lake 
Burien line outsiue of tiie city limits of Seattle. 



PUBLICITY IN ATLANTA 

A Figure of Speech Recently Expressed Put Into Effect by 
Georgia Railway & Power Company 

The policy of discussing the company's affairs frankly 
with the public has been developed by the Georgia Railway 
& Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., through a series of ad- 
vertisements designed to continue indefinitely, appearing 
once each week in each of the three Atlanta newspapers 
and in the local labor journal. The seventh of the series 
was published in the week between Christmas and New 
Year's day. In the advertisements the company confines 
itself to some specific topic which it discusses with an air 
of intimacy and without reserve, emphasized typographi- 
cally by the intermittent use of italics or bold-face type. 
The definite motive is to interest the public through sub- 
ject and style, to win its confidence through sincerity, and 
to cement its good-will by logic. In one sense, "The 
Window," as the discussion has grown to be termed, is 
the company editorial; in another, it is an expression of 
the company's personality; in another, it is the brick-on- 
brick building of a barrier against unintelligent criticism 
and unsympathetic suspicion. 

The opening of "The Window" was a concrete expression 
by W. T. Waters, advertising manager of the Georgia Rail- 
way & Power Company, of a figure of speech by Ivy L. Lee, 
executive assistant of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who said in 
the Electric Railway Journal of Oct. 10: "What the public 
wants is a window through which it can look into the affairs 
of public service corporations, and so long as this vision is 
denied the public will be very suspicious as to what is going 
on in the windowless houses." 

Further than the time schedule and the underlying policy, 
no plan was prearranged for "The Window" series of the 
Georgia Railway & Power Company. The topics were left 
to be selected each week from the matters then in the 
public mind. A drawing was made, in stipple and line, of 
a window without sashes or panes, with "The Window — 
Look In" sculptured in the stones at the top. Etchings 
measuring two columns by QVi in. were made from this, 
the one for the labor journal being three columns in pro- 
portion. In the mortise representing the window space 
was given the setting for the body of the advertisement, 
its hand-set caption, and the company's signature. The 
cut and type style have not yet been perfected to a point 
accepted as permanent, the effort being to select the best 
of each and adhere to them without variation thereafter. 
A uniformity with its own effect is being sought in these 
advertisements. 

The first of the series was published on Nov. 19, under 
the caption "Are You Looking?" It was the introductory, 
the keynote. The caption of the second was "Serving You," 
and that was a declaration of the vital connection between 
good service and good-will. The caption of the third was 
"An 1894 Nickel." The text of that was reproduced in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 19, page 1366. The 
fourth was headed "Baiting Corporations"; the fifth, "Pleas- 
ing Everybody" (in the matter of heat in cars); the sixth. 
"When the Cars Stop," and the seventh, "Our Business. 
Too," the relation being to petitions then pending before 
the State Railroad Commission for authority to curtail 
expenses by reductions in extra or tripper car schedules. 
Each of these was rewritten under a different caption for the 
labor journal columns appearing each week-end. 

The effect of the series was noticeable before it had been 
running a month. The impression seems to be growing in 
the public mind of Atlanta that there is no disposition on 
the part of the company to hide anything; that it feels no 
fear of publicity; that it is seeking publicity, in fact; that 
it wants to make known its side of matters under discus- 
sion; that it asks nothing but fair play and a hearing of 
all the evidence. The effect of the series has been manifest 
even in a direction not deliberately anticipated. The news- 
papers themselves have realized that the company will rent 
the papers' own megaphones to address the realers, and that 
therefore it is to the best interest of the papers to be accu- 



112 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



rate whenever they discuss the company's affairs. "The 
Window" is distinctive by the very reason of its appearance 
on a newspaper page. It "stands out," in newspaper par- 
lance, no matter what its surroundings. 



SAN FRANCISCO MUNICIPAL RAILWAY 

Stockton Street Municipal Tunnel Completed and New Line 
Opened to Exposition Grounds 

On Dec. 29 regular service was inaugurated on the Stock- 
ton Street line of the San Francisco Municipal Railway 
system, and an elaborate program was carried out in cele- 
bration of the completion of the tunnel that made the line 
possible. The new line has 2.56 miles of double track, and 
runs from Market and Stockton Streets through the Stock- 
ton Street tunnel and via North Beach to the Van Ness 
Avenue entrance to the exposition grounds. From this 
point it makes a wide loop through Fort Mason military 
reservation over the same track that is to be used by the 
Van Ness Avenue line of the Municipal Railway. 

The tunnel is 911 ft. long. It was built by the munici- 
pality at a cost of about $500,000 to eliminate grades on 
a direct route from the business district to Chinatown and 
the, North Beach section of the city. It has a width of 55 
ft., and is arranged to accommodate pedestrians and 
vehicular traffic as well as the double track railway. The 
ceremonies which marked the inauguration of service 
through it were under the auspices of the Down Town Asso- 
ciation, and the Mayor, city engineer and other representa- 
tives of the city and civic bodies took part. Eight of the 
new municipal cars were required to accommodate the 
official party and bands. Luncheon was served en route to 
the Fort Mason terminus of the line, where Major-General 
Arthur Murray received the party with a military band and 
detachment of troops. 

Ten cars were put on the new line, and receipts for the 
first and second days were $293.75 and $297.55, respectively. 



Grosser Bill at This Session. — It is reported that the 
Crosser bill authorizing the District of Columbia to take 
over the electric railway systems within the district will 
be taken up at the present session of Congress. 

Catalogs Wanted. — A. Lancelevee, Rues Louis Blanc and 
Marguerite, Oran, writes that he is anxious to secure from 
American manufacturers catalogs and bulletins of railway 
material, wheels, air brakes, springs, trolleys, etc., for 
possible use in connection with electric railway undertakings 
in Algiers and Tunis. 

Covington Ordinance Unconstitutional. — The city ordi- 
nance of Covington, Ky., prohibiting cars of the Cincinnati, 
Newport & Covington Railway, which cross the Ohio River 
to Cincinnati, from carrying one-third more passengers than 
the seating capacity, was annulled as unconstitutional by 
the Supreme Court of the United States on Jan. 5. The 
court held that the ordinance was a burden on interstate 
commerce. 

Montreal Franchise Extension Urged. — By a vote of 176 
to 159 the members of the Montreal Board of Trade have 
reaffirmed a resolution that the city should take immediate 
steps to extend the franchise of the Montreal Tramways 
on an equitable basis.. The opponents of this resolution 
argued that the time is inopportune and that a commission 
of experts should be appointed to report on the question. 
The Montreal Builders' Exchange has also passed a resolu- 
tion in favor of a speedy settlement of the question. 

Chicago Railways Expenditures. — The City Council of 
Chicago, 111., has authorized the city comptroller to certify 
the certificates for construction work completed by the Chi- 
cago Railways. The company has done $1,140,000 of con- 
struction work, against which temporary bond certificates 
have been issued. Certification of the work accomplished 
was withheld by the city comptroller because of a contro- 
versy which has now been settled. Bonds of the company 
to cover the expenditures made will be issued as usual. 

Franchise Values in New Jersey. — A meeting of the 
mayors of a number of cities in New Jersey was held at 
the Newark City Hall on Jan. 4 to decide upon what steps, 
if any, could be taken to secure a change in the ruling of 



the Court of Errors and Appeals on franchise valuations 
in rate making. Among the suggestions made was one that 
if these values are to be included in the establishment of 
rates they were proper subject for taxation by the mu- 
nicipalities. Another meeting will be held Jan. 15 to con- 
sider legislation to secure this result. 

Bill Filed for Dorchester Tunnel. — Representative Sulli- 
van of Boston has filed a bill with the Secretary of State 
of Massachusetts for the construction by the Boston Transit 
Commission of a tunnel from Andrew Square, Dorchester, 
to the junction of Dudley Street, Columbia Road and 
Stoughton Street, and thence to the intersection of Bowdoin 
Street and Geneva Avenue, and from that point to Codman 
Square. The proposed tunnel will provide a rapid transit 
route looping from Harvard Square, Cambridge, through 
Boston proper to Codman Square, Dorchester. 

Change in Rules of Procedure. — The Public Service Com- 
mission of the Second District of New York has just adopted 
the first changes in its rules of procedure since the organi- 
zation of the commission in 1907, designed to provide for the 
new functions imposed on the commission by the Legislature 
when such activities as those of the telegraph and telephone 
companies, auto-bus lines, the steam corporations and the 
baggage transfer companies were put under its jurisdiction. 
The changes do not in any way detract from the general 
simplicity and effectiveness of the thirty-four rules. 

Texas Interurban Retrenching. — J. F. Strickland, presi- 
dent of the Texas Traction Company and the Southern 
Traction Company, Dallas, Tex., issued the following state- 
ment recently: "The general decrease in business and the 
falling off in receipts of late have made it necessary for 
the companies to follow out a retrenchment policy. We 
have, therefore, decided to cut the salaries of executive 
officers beginning with the president and including the heads 
of departments only. There will be no reductions in other 
salaries." The reduction will amount to $25,000 or $30,000 
per annum. 

Mr. Thornton Rises to the Occasion. — H. W. Thornton, 
general manager of the Great Eastern Railway, London, 
England, and formerly with the Long Island Railroad, is 
reported by cable from London on Jan. 3 to have received 
great praise at the hands of the British press in connection 
with the facilities which he afforded to newspaper men 
in their work of covering the wreck which occurred on the 
line of the Great Eastern Railway at Ilford on Jan. 1. His 
attitude is said to have been in striking contrast to that 
previously taken in Great Britain of treating newspaper men 
generally as annoying interlopers in cases of this kind. 

Plea for Rehearing in St. Louis Mill Tax Case. — On Jan. 
2 the Supreme Court of Missouri instructed its clerk not 
to file the motion of the United Railways, St. Louis, for a 
rehearing in the mill-tax case referred to in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Jan. 2, page 70, because the company 
had not presented the petition within ten days after the 
court had rendered its decision. H. S. Priest, counsel for 
the company, then announced that he would present his 
argument to the court at Jefferson City, saying that the 
court has the power to allow a motion for rehearing to be 
filed at any time during the term in which the original 
decision is handed down. If he fails to secure consideration 
before the Missouri court for a rehearing Mr. Priest says the 
case will be appealed to the United States Supreme Court. 

Mayors' Utility Bureau Organized. — Preliminary plans for 
the organization of the national agency through which all 
American cities may co-operate in exchanging information 
about public utilities were made at the University Club, 
Philadelphia, Pa., on Dec. 28, when the trustees appointed 
at the recent convention of American Mayors held their 
first meeting. After perfecting their own organization the 
trustees outlined the activities which will be essayed in 
1915 by the new utilities bureau. The election of officers 
resulted as follows: President, Charles R. Van Hise, presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin; secretary, Clyde L. 
King of the University of Pennsylvania; treasurer, S. S. 
Fels. Morris L. Cooke, director of public works of Phila- 
delphia, was chosen acting director of the bureau. The 
problems discussed at the conference of mayors in Phila- 
delphia were reviewed at length in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Nov. 21, 1914, page 1144. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



113 



Modification of Missouri Utility Law Proposed. — The re- 
peal of that provision of the public utilities act of Missouri 
which prohibits a stock corporation from purchasing or 
owning- to exceed 10 per cent of the stock of any steam or 
electric railroad will be recommended to the Legislature by 
the Public Service Commission, according to John M. Atkin- 
son, chairman. Mr. Atkinson is reported to have said that 
the commission will ask for the repeal of this section be- 
cause it is regarded as a serious obstacle to the proper 
development of transportation facilities in Missouri. As 
stated in the Electric Railway Journal of Aug. 8, 1914, 
page 272, William B. McKinley, head of the Illinois Trac- 
tion Company contends that this- 10 per cent statute is 
practically a bar to the construction of railroads in Mis- 
souri and that it would prevent a company like the Illinois 
Traction Company from owning the stock of a corporation 
organized in Missouri to construct electric railways. 

Extension of Cambridge Subway Nearly Ready for Service. 
— The Boston Transit Commission has practically completed 
the section of the Cambridge subway extension in Boston be- 
tween Park Street and upper Summer Street and within a 
few weeks it is expected that train service will be extended 
to a temporary terminal near Chauncy Street, giving rapid 
transit connections between the Harvard Square line and 
north and south-bound Washington Street tunnel trains, 
through a transfer station near the point where the two 
rapid transit lines cross one above the other. A small 
amount of station work is being completed by the commis- 
sion, and the Boston Elevated Railway is installing tracks, 
signals and other equipment prior to the inauguration of 
traffic. The opening of the line to this point in advance 
of its completion to the South Station will be a great con- 
venience to the public on account of the transfer arrange- 
ments above outlined, and it is probable that later in the 
year service will be extended to the railroad terminal. 

The Subway Labor Problem. — The Public Service Com- 
mission for the First District of New York has announced 
that it will appeal immediately from the decision of the 
Appellate Division, First Department, handed down on Dec. 
31, holding unconstitutional the alien labor provisions of the 
State labor law, in order that a final construction of the 
statute may be obtained from the highest court in the State. 
The commission's counsel will move for an appeal and will 
endeavor to get the case before the Court of Appeals at 
once. The State labor law provides that none but citizens 
of the United States shall be employed upon public work 
and that, so far as possible, preference in such employment 
shall be given to citizens of the State of New York. The 
question having arisen in the case of one of the contractors 
for the new subways, a taxpayer's action was begun in the 
Supreme Court for an injunction to restrain the commission 
from declaring forfeited any subway contract because of 
the employment of aliens by the contractor. The commis- 
sion demurred to this complaint, and the demurrer was 
sustained by the lower court; but on appeal the Appellate 
Division reversed this decision and held the law unconsti- 
tutional. It is this decision from which an appeal will be 
taken. 

Auto Bus Franchise Hearing Concluded in New York. — 

The franchise committee of the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment of New York held a final hearing on Dec. 31 
in regard to the tentative routes for the establishment of 
additional bus lines in New York City. James L. Quacken- 
bush, counsel for the New York Railways, defined the rela- 
tions of the New York Railways to the Fifth Avenue Coach 
Company, which operates buses on Fifth Avenue and other 
thoroughfares. He said that the Interborough-Metropolitan 
Company, which owns the stock of the New York Railways, 
holds in addition about 100,000 shares of the 235,000 shares 
of stock of the Fifth Avenue Coach Company. According to 
Mr. Quackenbush a deficit was likely to occur in the earn- 
ings of the coach company when the new subways were 
placed in operation because the present congestion would 
not continue to exist with the new rapid transit lines in 
operation. Edward A. Maher, vice-president and general 
manager of the Third Avenue Railway, said that 58 per 
cent of the street accidents in London were the result of 
motor bus operation. He asked the city to protect the 
interests of the surface railway companies. Briefs are to 
be submitted by Jan. 9 and the committee will then formu- 
late a tentative motor bus scheme for further criticism. 



PROGRAMS OF ASSOCIATION MEETINGS 

Illinois Electric Railway Association 
The Illinois Electric Railway Association will hold its an- 
nual meeting on Jan. 15 at the Auditorium Hotel, Chicago. 
The session will be devoted to committee reports and the 
election of officers and will be followed by the regular associ- 
ation luncheon. 



Chamber of Commerce of the United States 

The annual meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States will be held at the New Willard Hotel, Wash- 
ington, D. C, on Feb. 3, 4 and 5, 1915. A considerable part 
of the program will be devoted to foreign trade, the elimi- 
nation of undue restrictions, the upbuilding of the merchant 
marine, and the aid that can be rendered by the Federal 
Reserve Board 



Western Association of Electrical Inspectors 

The tenth annual national convention of the Western 
Association of Electrical Inspectors will be held at the Hotel 
Raddison, Minneapolis, Minn., on Jan. 26, 27 and 28. The 
program this year includes only one subject of interest to 
electric railways, namely, the report of the committee on 
electric traction systems. This committee was instructed to 
advise the members concerning electrical hazards involved 
in the operation of electric traction systems and to propose 
safeguards. 



Wisconsin E'.ectrical Association 

President P. H. Korst announces that the annual con- 
vention of the Wisconsin Electrical Association and the 
Wisconsin Gas Association will be held in Milwaukee, Wis., 
on Jan. 20, 21 and 22, at the Hotel Pfister. This is the 
first year that a joint meeting of the associations has been 
arranged. Secretary George Allison announces the follow- 
ing program for that part of the association's work which 
is of special interest to central station and electric railway 
companies: 

Jan. 21 

Paper, "Financing of Public Utility Properties," by 
Andrew Cooke, consulting financial expert, Chicago, for- 
merly vice-president of the Harris Trust & Savings Bank. 

Paper, "The Continuous Meter Reading and Discount 
System," by F. J. Maxwell, auditor of the Eastern Wis- 
consin Railway & Light Company, Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Paper, "Advertising Influence of Public Service Em- 
ployees," by R. O. Jasperson, advertising agent Milwaukee 
Gas Light Company. 

Paper, "The Wisconsin Railroad Commission's Method of 
Rate-Making," by a member of the commission. 

Paper, "Practical Effect of the Workmen's Compensation 
Act," by Carl Muskat, attorney, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Paper, "Increased Taxation in Wisconsin and Its Effects 
on Public Service Companies," by Edwin Gruhl, assistant 
to president of the Watertown Gas & Electric Company, 
Watertown, Wis. 

Jan. 22 

Paper, "One-Man Electric Car Operation in a Small City," 
by R. M. Howard, general manager of the Minnesota division 
of the Wisconsin Railway, Light & Power Company, Winona. 

Paper, "Latent Water Powers and Difficulties of Develop- 
ment under the New Wisconsin Water Power Law," by 
Daniel W. Mead, Madison, Wis. 

Paper, "Latest Tendencies and Developments in Street 
Lighting and Incandescent Lamps," by S. L. E. Rose, illumi- 
nating engineer of the General Electric Company, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. 

Paper, "How to Overcome Some Operating Difficulties 
of Small Electric Utilities," by J. N. Cadby and C. B. 
Hayden, electrical engineers of the Railroad Commission 
of Wisconsin. 

Paper, "Experience and Suggestions for the New Busi- 
ness Departments of' a Small Electric Utility," by C. M. 
Axford, of the commercial department of the Wisconsin 
Public Service Company, Green Bay, Wis. 

Paper, "Practical Suggestions for Increasing the Effi- 
ciency of Small Steam-Electric Power Plants," by W. F. 
Lathrop, of the Wisconsin Gas & Electric Company, Racine. 



114 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



Financial and Corporate 

FINANCIAL REVIEW AND FORECAST 

According to a review of the 1914 financial situation, both 
domestic and foreign, made by John Moody, the last year 
has marked the culmination of the era of high finance which 
set in more than fifteen years ago. Practically all the "bub- 
bles" growing out of that extraordinary period have now 
burst, and security values as a whole have returned to ap- 
proximate bases of actual values. Moreover, public opin- 
ion, which for ten years has generally been antagonistic to 
corporate interests, has now definitely veered, and the pendu- 
lum is about to swing the other way. The federal reserve 
banking system has for the first time in history given legit- 
imate business opportunity a firm basis on which to build, 
and has eliminated all dangers of financial panics of the 
style of 1873 and 1907. The European war has caused a 
severe setback in the progress towards prosperity for which 
the country was directly headed six months ago, but it is 
not a lasting disaster for this country. 

Mr. Moody takes the unusual view that the final effect of 
the destruction of capital and of general impoverishment 
throughout Europe on account of the war will cause a sharp 
fall in per capita consumption of goods and average com- 
modity prices. This will reduce the demand for new capital 
much more than the supply is reduced, which will cause 
interest rates to fall. This condition will be maintained for 
five or six years, or even longer. With money cheap it pays 
better to buy bonds than to loan money, and this buying 
will tend to maintain and raise bond prices. As a sure re- 
sult, high grade bond prices will tend to rise steadily until 
the point of equalization is reached with the general price 
of capital. Following this will logically come a more cau- 
tious rise in bonds and securities of junior grade, the val- 
ues of which are more directly affected by the trend of in- 
terest rates than by earning power and profits. Speculative 
securities, however, will not be benefited to a large extent 
by this general factor. There will be dullness rather than 
weakness in ordinary stocks, as most prices have already 
discounted a period of unusual depression. 

A prominent authority in the electric railway field states 
that money is getting easier and this will continue during the 
next three months. At the end of the war, however, high in- 
terest rates will prevail for a considerable period on account 
of the demand for capital to make up the destruction caused 
by the war. It is expected that during the spring and sum- 
mer there will be a considerable amount of refunding and 
financing, as companies will take this opportunity for chang- 
ing short-time loans to long-term securities. Not much new 
investment, however, is looked for this year in the electric 
lighting, power and railway business. All necessary mainte- 
nance work will be done and probably a few extensions will 
be made, but all work will be kept down to a reasonable 
minimum. There will be less investment in hydroelectric 
schemes, because investors now realize that the steam tur- 
bine is more reliable than water power, requires far less in- 
vestment and under most conditions is as economical. The 
tariff situation was initially responsible for the present de- 
pression and that it still had something to do with it, but its 
effect is now overshadowed by the war. In the wheat district 
the farmers are feeling prosperous because of the high prices 
secured for their product, although there are a great many 
men out of work even in that district. This money in these 
districts will go into refinancing rehabilitation and short ex- 
tensions, but very little into new construction. 

Another electric railway operator believes that these car- 
riers will not give out large orders for supplies until about 
April; but by that time he expects to see either a consider- 
able business expansion or the exact reverse. The construc- 
tion period, therefore, will be later this year than usual and 
the total amount of expenditures will be curtailed. At the 
same time a slight increase in railway business may be ex- 
pected, with a corresponding increase in expenditures for 
maintenance. The primary difficulty is to secure money, 
which is not due to a shortage but to a feeling of panic re- 
sulting in the hoarding of cash in banks. In general the 
business condition is inherently sound and not so bad as pop- 
ularly believed. 



HUDSON & MANHATTAN RAILROAD EARNINGS 

Banking Firm in Letter to Security Holders Reviews Rail- 
road's Progress in 1914 

Harvey Fisk & Sons, New York, have issued a statement 
to the bondholders and stockholders of the Hudson & Man- 
hattan Railroad, New York, N. Y., reviewing the company's 
record during 1914. The following comparison of income is 
included: 

1914 1913 

Passengers carried *59, 800,000 59,434,152 

Gross revenue, all sources $5,550,000 $5,512,762 

Operating expenses and taxes (including 

depreciation) 2,491,000 2,515,637 

Gross income applicable to fixed charges.. $3,059,000 $2,997,125 
Income deductions other than bond interest 250,000 261,435 

Net income applicable to bond interest.... $2,809,000 $2,735,690 
N. Y. & New Jersey 5's 250,000 250,000 

Balance $2,559,000 $2,485,690 

First lien and refunding 5's and H. M. 

4y 2 's 1,870,605 1,870,605 

Balance available for income bonds $688,395 $615,085 

♦November and December partly estimated. 

It is stated that, in view of the fact that company's busi- 
ness was showing a steady increase up to the time of the 
outbreak of the European war, it is probable but for that 
event and its immediate general effect, and particularly upon 
the shipping trade of Hoboken, that this year's business 
would have been markedly the best in the company's history. 
As it is, the company more than held its own and reports an 
excellent year's business with the 5 per cent interest upon 
its first mortgage bonds earned one and a third times, leav- 
ing a surplus, after making proper allowance for the upkeep 
of the property, depreciation, renewal and amortization, suf- 
ficient to permit of the payment of 2 per cent interest upon 
the adjustment income mortgage bonds. 

The statement continues: 

"The fact should be kept in mind that these results have 
been obtained with the use of only about 40 per cent of the 
capacity of the tubes. There are now being carried in the 
cars of the company over half of the number of passengers 
who used the ferries in 1907, the year before the uptown 
tubes were opened for business. The total number of people 
crossing under or over the Hudson river in 1914 closely ap- 
proximated 160,000,000, of which the Hudson tubes carried 
say 60,000,000, or 38 per cent. Without the expenditure of 
another dollar for equipment 15,000,000 more passengers 
could be carried through the tubes and 75,000,000 more, or 
150,000,000 in all, could be carried by the expenditure of a 
moderate amount of capital for additional equipment. These 
figures of the capacity of the tubes are arrived at after mak- 
ing due allowance for rush hour service. In other words, 
they do not represent theoretical capacity, but actual capac- 
ity, based upon normal and usual operating conditions." 



NORTHERN ELECTRIC RAILWAY FINANCES 

The bankers' committee which, under A. Bonnheim, chair- 
man, has been working on a plan of rehabilitation for the 
Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal., is sending to security 
holders of the company a letter outlining its plans and ask- 
ing signatures to the agreements necessary to make the plan 
effective. Most of the features of the proposed arrange- 
ments were noted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Dec. 5. 

The new agreements do not differ greatly from the origi- 
nal draft, except as to the release of the Sloss family from 
liability as endorsers on the delivery of securities aggregat- 
ing $500,000. The agreements provide for the purchase from 
the Northern Electric Railway of $1,400,000 of underlying 
bonds at 90, now held as security by banks and individuals at 
about 70. The proceeds will pay off obligations of about 
$980,000 and give the company about $280,000 new money, of 
which $130,000 will go to the payment of coupon interest and 
sinking fund on the underlying bonds. This will leave about 
$150,000 in the treasury of the company for working capital. 

In connection with its letter and copies of the proposed 
agreements the committee has made public a report made on 
Feb. 6, 1914, by the J. G. White Engineering Corporation 
with respect to the physical condition and values of the 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



115 



Northern Electric Railway, including the main trackage and 
all subsidiaries. This report shows that the net earnings 
from the operation of the system have grown from $73,365 
in 1907 to $381,914 in 1914. The J. G. White Engineering 
Corporation estimates that $527,103 net ought to be earned 
in 1915 and $577,935 in 1916. The estimate of the reproduc- 
tion cost of the road follows: Vallejo & Northern, right-of- 
way, lands and construction, $1,012,215; Northern Electric, 
right-of-way, lands and construction and equipment, $5,562,- 
930; Sacramento & Woodland, right-of-way, lands and con- 
struction, $707,610; Marysville & Colusa, right-of-way, lands 
and construction, $903,762; total $8,186,517. Add legal and 
organization expenses, engineering and supervision, miscel- 
laneous and general expense, interest during construction 
(20 per cent), $1,637,303. Approximate reproduction cost, 
exclusive of enhanced value of lands, $9,823,820. 



DISTRIBUTION OF PACIFIC GAS & ELECTRIC STOCK 

On Aug. 15, 1914, the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, 
San Francisco, Cal., announced the sale of $8,750,000 par 
value of its new issue of first preferred 6 per cent stock. 
The present distribution of this issue, the sale of which 
has been followed in previous issues of the Electric Rail- 
way Journal, is as follows for stock issued and subscribed 
for: 

Number of Par Value of 
Subscribers Shares Taken 



Employees 1621 $548,600 

Customers 1162 1,325,600 

Stockholders 712 6,875,800 



Total 3495 $8,750,000 



The participation of employees and consumers in the pur- 
chase of the securities is particularly noteworthy. Employees 
numbering 1621, constituting about 40 per cent of the per- 
manent staff, have become stockholders, and 1162 consum- 
ers have purchased $1,325,600 of the new stock. Additional 
sales to investors in the company's territory are being made 
at the average rate of about $10,000 per day, and the allot- 
ment of stock set aside to meet anticipated demands of 
consumers promises to become exhausted in the very near 
future. 

The company now has outstanding about $51,000,000 par 
value of stock, including its common, junior preferred and 
first preferred. As shown in the following statement, al- 
most one-half of all this stock is owned on the Pacific Coast: 

Number of 
Holders Shares Par Value 



Pacific Coast 3976 234,751 $23,475,100 

Middle West 76S 65.S74 . 6,587,400 

Eastern Coast 665 165,459 16,545,900 

Europe 383 42,509 4,250,900 



Total 5792 50S.593 $50,859,300 



The proportion of Pacific Coast holdings has increased 
almost 10 per cent during the last six months, and with the 
continuing distribution of first preferred stock among local 
investors it will probably show further increase. Of the total 
number of individual stockholders, 3976, almost 70 per cent 
of the total number, are residents of California, having first 
hand knowledge of the company's properties, business and 
management. 



Alabama Traction Light & Power Company, New York, 

N. Y. — The holders of certificates of option to purchase 
shares of the Alabama Traction Light & Power Company, 
Ltd., at $15 (at current rate of exchange) were lately in- 
formed that the option expired on Dec. 31. Any holders 
desiring to extend the option to Dec. 31, 1915, can do so 
on payment of ten shillings per share. As an alternative 
a holder may have the option extended until twelve months 
after the conclusion of peace or until the expiration of the 
Court's Act of 1914 on the payment of £2 per share. 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, Wichita, Kan. — 
It is reported that the Arkansas Valley Interurban Rail- 
way has been asked to take over the operation of the pro- 
posed Newton, Kansas & Nebraska Railway, but no definite 
response is announced. This new steam railroad has the 
backing of $20,000 of bonds recently voted by the city of 
Newton, Kan., and township elections are planned for like 
purposes. The first unit proposed is 28 miles, from Newton 
northward to Canton. It is said that the operation of so 



short a road by steam might not be profitable, and ad- 
vances have therefore been made to the electric line. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass.. — A semi-annual 
dividend of 2V 2 per cent was paid on Dec. 31 on the 
$20,517,200 of common stock of the Bay State Street Rail- 
way. This compares with 2\i per cent on June 30, 1914, 
3 per cent on Dec. 31, 1913, 2% per cent on June 30, 1913, 
3 per cent on Dec. 31, 1912, 2 per cent on June 26, 1912, 
and 3 per cent on Dec. 30, 1911. 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies, Newtonville, Mass. 
— The trustees of the Boston Suburban Electric Companies 
on Dec. 31 declared a quarterly dividend of $1 on the pre- 
ferred stock. This restores the dividend to the usual basis, 
from which it had been reduced to 50 cents at the last quar- 
ter. The reduction was due in part to the increase of 
$100,000 in wages by arbitration. Since then the company's 
principal subsidiary, the Middlesex & Boston Street Rail- 
way, increased its fares, thus giving larger dividends to the 
holding company. 

British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver, B. C. — 
A dividend at the rate of 8 per cent per annum has been 
declared on the deferred ordinary stock of the British 
Columbia Electric Railway for the half year, making 8 
per cent for the year. The same amount was paid last 
year. 

Chicago (111.) Elevated Railway.— E. H. Rollins & Son, 
Boston, are offering on a 4% per cent basis a small portion 
remaining unsold of the $2,050,000 of the equipment trust 
gold 5 per cent certificates, series A, issued by the Com- 
mercial Trust Company, Philadelphia, as trustee, with pay- 
ments jointly and severally guaranteed by endorsement on 
each certificate by the Metropolitan West-side Elevated 
Railroad, the Northwestern Elevated Railroad and the 
South-side Elevated Railroad. These certificates are dated 
Aug. 1, 1914, and are due in semi-annual installments from 
Feb. 1, 1917, to Aug. 1, 1926, $102,000 each Feb. 1 and 
$103,000 each Aug. 1. They are secured by one hundred 
and eighty-four all-steel passenger motor cars and sixty- 
six all-steel passenger trailer cars. 

Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Electric Street Rail- 
way, Cincinnati, Ohio. — On Dec. 28 Frank B. Shutts ten- 
dered his resignation as receiver of the property of the 
Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Electric Street Railway 
to Insolvency Judge Warner of Cincinnati. C. E. Hooven, 
who was president of the solvent company, was appointed 
in his stead, under a bond of $25,000. Mr. Shutts resigned 
on account of business in the South that required much of 
his attention. 

Cincinnati, Milford & Loveland Traction Company, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. — At a meeting of the board of directors of 
the Cincinnati, Milford & Loveland Traction Company on 
Dec. 29, 1914, Charles C. Harris, superintendent, was elected 
president to succeed B. H. Kroger, who disposed of his in- 
terest recently. Mr. Harris and A. C. Wenzel, auditor of 
the company, were elected members of the board of direc- 
tors to represent the interests that purchased Mr. Kroger's 
stock. Thorne Baker was elected vice-president; C. W. 
Baker, treasurer, and J. N. Roberts, secretary. 

Citizen's Traction Company, Oil City, Pa. — A semi-annual 
dividend of 3 per cent has been declared on the $1,000,000 
of 6 per cent cumulative preferred stock of the Citizen's 
Traction Company, payable on Jan. 5 to holders of record 
of Dec. 31. In July, 1914, 2% per cent was paid; in Janu- 
ary, 1914, and July, 1913, 2 per cent., and in January, 1913, 
an initial payment of 2% per cent. 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Railroad, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. — The Ohio Supreme Court in a recent final ruling 
confirmed the claim of Newton J. Catrow against the Colum- 
bus, Delaware & Marion Electric Railroad. This claim was 
for $72,963, which he contended was due him on a note 
originally made to John G. Webb of Springfield, Ohio, who 
promoted the road, and assigned to him by the latter. This 
ruling sustains the Common Pleas and Appelate Courts of 
Franklin county. The case had been in the courts since 
August, 1919. When the suit was brought, a petition was 
also filed for a receiver, and Eli M. West was appointed 
to that position, which he still holds. 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company, Columbus, 
Ohio. — The stockholders of the Columbus Railway Power & 



116 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



Light Company are to vote at the annual meeting on Jan. 
26 on the question of purchasing all the property and assets 
of the Columbus Light, Heat & Power Company. Previous 
references to the consolidation of these companies were 
made in the Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 7, Nov. 14 
and Nov. 28. 

Gary & Interurban Railroad. Gary, Ind. — The directors 
of the Gary & Interurban Railroad, which operates four 
electric railway companies consolidated in January, 1913, 
have filed a motion through their attorney to dismiss the 
bill of complaint filed in the Federal Court by J. T. Kinsley, 
of Philadelphia. The suit is an effort to test the validity 
of the consolidation of these roads, and follows a denial 
of a similar order in the State courts, as noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 14. The motion by the 
company's attorneys for a dismissal is based on the fact 
that the consolidation was made under the Indiana statutes, 
and dissolution can be brought about only by the State of 
Indiana. 

Havana Electric Railway Light & Power Company, 
Havana, Cuba. — The Guaranty Trust Company, New York, 
is offering at 99 and interest the unsold portion of a total 
authorized issue of $2,000,000 of two-year 6 per cent se- 
cured gold notes of the Havana Electric Railway Light & 
Power Company, dated Sept. 1, 1914, and due on Sept. 1, 
1916. The notes are redeemable at the option of the com- 
pany at any time upon thirty days notice, at 101 and in- 
terest prior to Dec. 1, 1915, and at 100% and interest if 
redeemed on or after that day. These notes provide funds 
to complete the new powerhouse of the company. A new 
mortgage has been filed with the Guaranty Trust Company 
as trustee to secure not exceeding $25,000,000 of general 
mortgage 5 per cent sinking fund gold bonds, of which the 
entire amount now issued ($4 000,000) has been pledged to 
secure the above $2,000,000 of notes. The new bonds are 
dated Sept. 1, 1914, and due on Sept. 1, 1954. They are 
subject to redemption at the option of the company at any 
time at thirty days notice at 105. An amount of $14 100 000 
is reserved to be used in exchange for or to take up certain 
outstanding obligations, $2,500,000 is reserved to assist in 
refunding certain issues, and $4,400,000 is reserved for im- 
provements and extensions. 

Lorain (Ohio) Street Railroad. — The Public Utilities Com- 
mission of Ohio has authorized the Lorain Street Railroad 
to sell $200,000 par value of its three-year collateral trust 
promissory notes or bonds, such securities to bear interest 
at the rate of 6 per cent. They are to be callable at par 
and interest at the option of the company upon fifteen days 
written notice, with the privilege of conversion into bonds 
of the $750,000 issue dated Nov. 1, 1897, on the basis of 
92%. The company is also authorized to secure the three- 
year notes or bonds by depositing under a collateral trust 
agreement the $200,000 par value of the $750,000 issue which 
had been retained by the Guaranty. Trust Company, New 
York, trustee, for exchange into the first mortgage bonds 
of the Lorain Street Railway, maturing on Jan. 1, 1915. 
There is also to be deposited $100,000 of the $117,000 par 
value of the bond issue certified by the Citizen's Savings & 
Trust Company, trustee, on July 1, 1906. The company 
is authorized to sell the three-year notes or bonds at not 
less than 95, the proceeds to be used for the payment and 
redemption of the before mentioned first mortgage bonds 
of the Lorain Street Railway, maturing on Jan. 1, 1915. 
Authority is granted to the Lake Shore Electric Railway, 
the owner of all of the capital stock of the Lorain Street 
Railroad, to guarantee the payment of the notes, with in- 
terest, at maturity. 

Los Angeles & San Diego Beach Railway, San Diego, Cal. 
— The California Railroad Commission has 'issued a supple- 
mental order approving the form of a trust deed between 
the Los Angeles & San Diego Beach Railway and the 
Southern Trust & Savings Bank of San Diego, dated Dec. 
31, 1914, and securing an issue of $375,000 of bonds recently 
approved by the commission, as noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 5. 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Railway, Haverill, 
Mass. — N. W. Harris & Company, Inc., and Merrill Oldham 
& Company, Boston, are offering jointly at 97 and interest, 
to yield 5% per cent, $707,000 of first and refunding mort- 
gage 5 per cent gold bonds of the Massachusetts North- 



eastern Street Railway, dated July 1, 1914, and due on 
July 1, 1934, but callable at 110 and interest on any interest 
date upon forty-three days notice. These bonds ?re part 
of a total issue of $2,000,000, of which $356,000 is reserved 
to retire existing bonds and $1,000,000 for additions and 
improvements. 

Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street Railway, Canton, Mass. 

— The Massachusetts Public Service Commission has author- 
ized an issue of $30,000 of twenty-year 5 per cent bonds 
by the Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street Railway to be 
used in reducing the company's capital stock to $32,500. 
The application for the issuance of these bonds was noted 
in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 5. 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway, Oakland, Cal. — 

Wallace Alexander, chairman of the meeting of the secur- 
ity holders of the Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway on 
Dec. 11, has announced the choice of Louis Rosenthal, chair- 
man, J. F. Koster, James S. Wallace and Wallace Alexander 
as a special committee to act with a committee appointed by 
the board of directors. This committee will pass upon the 
reports of experts who are examining the present status of 
the company and determine the right course for future 
development. 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. — The Philadelphia 

Company has declared a quarterly dividend of 1% per cent 
on its common stock, payable on Feb. 1 in scrip, redeem- 
able at the option of the company on or before Feb. 1, 1918, 
to bear interest at the rate of 7 per cent. This is the second 
quarter the company has paid scrip. The first scrip dividend 
was paid on Nov. 2 and matures in eighteen months, while 
the present issue will not mature in three years. Lengthen- 
ing the life of the present scrip, it is pointed out, is for the 
purpose of diversifying the obligations so they may be re- 
tired out of earnings. 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, Oakland, Cal. 

— The California Railroad Commission has rendered a de- 
cision authorizing the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rail- 
ways to renew two promissory notes in the sum of $5,890. 
These notes will bear interest at 6 per cent per annum 
and will be payable ninety days after date to the Railway 
Improvement Company. 

Southern Traction Company of Illinois, East St. Louis, 
ill. — The receivers of the Southern Traction Company of 
Illinois on Dec. 31 filed suit against the Lorimer-Gallagher 
Construction Company for $364,789. The claimants allege 
that the amount involved is the difference between money 
actually expended in constructing the partly completed lines 
of the company and the sum realized on $1,090,000 of securi- 
ties hypothecated by the construction company with the 
suspended La Salle Street Bank, Chicago. 

United Railways of St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo.— The United 
Railways of St. Louis has sold to the Mississippi Valley 
Trust Company and the Altheimer & Rawlings Investment 
Company $600,000 of St. Louis & Suburban Railway con- 
solidated first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds. These were 
held in escrow for the retirement of the $600,000 of St. 
Louis, Cable & Western Railway first mortgage bonds, which 
became due and were paid on Nov. 1. 

United Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. — It is reported 
that a preliminary meeting of preferred stockholders of the 
United Traction Company of Pittsburgh was recently held 
at the office of the Philadelphia Trust, Safe Deposit & In- 
surance Company for the appointment of a committee to 
take action in regard to the anticipated passing or payment 
in script of the semi-annual dividend of 2% per cent usually 
paid on Jan. 1, on the company's $3,000,000 of 5 per cent 
cumulative preferred stock. The company in a letter to 
the preferred stockholders had previously stated that under 
the operating agreement of 1902 between the company and 
the Pittsburgh Railways, the latter paid ordinary mainte- 
nance expenses and the former the expenses for extraordi- 
nary repairs. It might, and probably would be necessary 
to use during 1915 the rental received from the Pittsburgh 
Railways in payment for such extraordinary repairs and im- 
provements, etc., to the lines of railway and the property 
of the company, and possibly to issue some form of script 
to the stockholders. The company's $17,000,000 of common 
stock, upon which no dividends have been paid since 1912, 
is all owned by the Pittsburgh Railways. 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



117 



DIVIDENDS DECLARED 

Athens Railway & Electric Company, Athens, Ga., quar- 
terly, lVi per cent, preferred. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 3 per cent, pre- 
ferred; 2% per cent, common. 

Cincinnati, Newport & Coving-ton Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Covington, Ky., quarterly, lVs per cent, preferred; 
quarterly, 1% per cent, common. 

Citizen's Traction Company, Oil City, Pa., $1.50, preferred. 

Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company, Elmira, N. Y., 
quarterly, \% per cent, second preferred; 2 per cent, 
common. 

Kentucky Securities Corporation, Lexington, Ken., quar- 
terly, 1% per cent., preferred. 

Ottawa (Ont.) Traction Company, Ltd., quarterly, 1 per 
cent; bonus, 1 per cent. 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, Iowa, 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 



ELECTRIC: RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 

BANGOR RAILWAY & ELECTRIC COMPANY, BANGOR, 
MAINE 



Gross Operating- 



Net 



Fixed 



Net- 



Period Earnings Expenses Earnings Charges Surplus 

lm., Nov., '14 $64,570 *$30,293 134,277 $1 7,4X4 $16,793 

! '13 65,372 *28,704 36,668 17,354 19 31 4 

•14 777, 888 *376,192 401,696 209,010 192,686 

'13 758,775 *344,605 414,170 207,571 206,599 



12 " 
12 " 



CHATTANOOGA RAILWAY & LIGHT COMPANY, CHATTA- 
NOOGA, TENN. 



lm., Nov., '14 $84,896 *$55,377 

1 13 97,032 *59,424 

12 14 1,096,462 *694,357 

12 " " '13 1,200,004 *713,936 



$29,519 
37,608 
4 02,105 
486,068 



$29,122 $397 

26.072 11,536 

336,185 65,920 

295,931 190,137 



COLUMBUS RAILWAY, POWER & LIGHT COMPANY, COLUM- 
BUS, OHIO 

{42.5S4 $68,615 



lm., Nov., '14 
1 13 



$261,656 *$150,457 $111,199 
267,661 *165,022 102,639 



COMMONWEALTH POWER, RAILWAY & LIGHT COMPANY, 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

lm., Nov., 
1 " 

12 " 

12 ". 



'14 $1,239,728 *$66S,055 .$571,673 $361,226 $210,447 

'13 1,237,366 *689,531 547,835 325,395 222 440 

'14 14,757,391 *8, 344, 91 6,412,481 4,185,446 2,227 035 

'13 14,045,728 *S,133,070 5,912,658 3,807,765 2,104,893 



CUMBERLAND COUNTY POWER & LIGHT COMPANY, PORT- 
LAND, MAINE 

lm., Nov., '14 $196,249 *$121,462 $74,787 $62,385 $12 402 

1 13 195,100 *110,630 84,470 63,576 2o'894 

12" " '14 2,515,657 *1, 448, 814 1,066,843 759,912 306 931 

12 13 2,324,384 *1,29S, 822 1,025,562 707,207 318,355 

EAST ST. LOUIS & SUBURBAN RAILWAY, EAST ST. LOUIS, 

ILL. 

lm., Nov., '14 $207,713 *.$122,761 $84,952 $58,401 $26 551 

1 13 236,850 *137,14S 99,702 49,940 49 762 

12 " " '14 2,648,458 *1, 650,308 99S.150 676,854 321,333 

12 13 2,690,543 *1, 572, 337 1,118,206 590,451 527 755 



GRAND RAPIDS (MICH.) RAILWAY 



lm., Nov., '14 

1 " " '13 
12 14 

12 " " '13 



$98,208 
101,387 
1,283,116 
1,283,466 



*$68,834 
*66,017 
*837,226 
*797,441 



$29,374 
35,370 
445,890 
489,025 



$13,701 $15,673 

11.7S7 23,583 

162,037 283,853 

168,462 320,563 



LEWISTON, AUGUSTA & WATERVILLE STREET RAILWAY, 
LEWISTON, MAINE 



lm., Nov., '14 

1 " " '13 
12 14 
12 13 



$49,437 
51,794 
677,269 
672,493 



•$37,253 
*34,835 
*466,270 
*422,884 



$12,184 
16,959 
210,999 
249,609 



$15,670 f$3,486 

15,338 1,621 

186,121 24,878 

178,637 70,972 



NASHVILLE RAILWAY & LIGHT COMPANY, NASHVILLE, 

TENN. 



lm., Nov. 
1 " 

12 " 
12 " 



'14 $184,099 *$104,308 $79,791 

'13 189,660 *106,246 83,414 

'14 2,240,922 *1, 352, 859 888,063 

'1 3 2,198,393 *1, 313, 999 884,394 



$41,899 $37,892 

39,828 43,586 

508,520 379,543 

461,300 423,094 



PORTLAND (MAINE) RAILROAD 



lm., 
1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



Nov., 



'14 $76,066 

'13 75,113 

'14 1,043,651 

'1 3 1,033,142 



•$52,241 
*50,468 
♦644,979 
*698,666 



$23,825 
24,645 
398,672 
334,476 



$20,436 $3,389 

21,695 2,950 

252,771 145,901 

167,636 166,840 



PORTLAND RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER COMPANY, PORT- 
LAND, ORE. 

lm., Nov., '14 $494,626 $257,639 $236,987 $1 83,066 $53,921 

1" " '1 3 576,244 272,250 303,994 1 76,425 127 569 

12" " '14 6,366,154 3,2S4,272 3,081,882 2,165,187 916 695 

12" " '13 6,703,123 3,301,122 3,402,001 1,984,520 1,41 7,481 

•Includes taxes. fDeficit. 



Traffic and Transportation 

ROCHESTER FARE CASE 

Final Arguments Before Commission in Rush-Hour 3-Cent- 
Fare Case 

Final arguments on the petition of the city of Rochester for 
3-cent street car fares were heard before the Public Service 
Commission of the Second District of New York at Albany 
on the afternoon of Jan. 6. For the city Assistant Corpora- 
tion Counsel Cunningham made the principal address, sum- 
ming up the arguments he has made throughout the hearings 
and supplementing his written brief. For the New York 
State Railways D. M. Beach made the principal argument, 
supplemented by Horace E. Andrews, president, and Walter 
L. Kernan, vice-president. 

Both sides agreed that for the purposes of the proceedings 
the capital sum on which the company was entitled to earn a 
return should be considered as $10,000,000. A disagreement 
arose over certain items of running expenses as alleged by 
the company, and the commission has instructed its account- 
ants to examine these and report to the commission. Com- 
missioner Decker, who presided at the session on Jan. 6, 
stated that should all of the contentions of the company in 
these respects be sustained by the accountants there would 
be no grounds for reducing the fare in Rochester. Should 
the contention of the city authorities that these items are ex- 
cessive be sustained, Mr. Decker said there might be grounds 
for reducing the fare in view of the prospective increase of 
business which such a reduction might under certain circum- 
stances be expected to entail. 

The items contested were the company's allowances for 
damage and accident claims, for the rent of the subways in 
which it carries all its wires in the Rochester 5-cent-fare 
zone, for the cost of power, and for the increase in wages 
granted by the recent decision of the arbitration committee. 

The deductions from revenues which the company wanted 
and the allowance of which will depend on the report of an 
examiner of the commission were $48,000 for increased 
wages, $108,000 for increased damages and accidents, and 
$19,000 for conduit rental. 

The city was represented by Mayor Edgerton, as well as 
Mr. Cunningham, but the Mayor announced that he was pres- 
ent only as a spectator. At the opening of the hearing Mr. 
Cunningham presented to the commission a copy of an al- 
leged interview with Commissioner Devoe P. Hodson, printed 
in a Rochester paper on April 17, 1913, in which the com- 
missioner was quoted as saying that a 3-cent fare in Roches- 
ter for workingmen "would be discriminatory." Commis- 
sioner Hodson, who was sitting, read the printed interview 
through and then said: "I have never prejudged a case and I 
have had considerable judicial experience. No one in Buffalo 
would believe that I would do such a thing. I may have said 
offhand that a report might be so drawn as to appear unjust, 
but to express such an opinion deliberately for publication, I 
never have. If this is presented as a reason why I should be 
unfit to sit in this case, however, I shall withdraw at once, 
though I did not express myself as conveyed in this inter- 
view." 

Mr. Cunningham asserted that he merely submitted the 
facts to the commission without asking for the withdrawal of 
the commissioner, and Commissioner Decker, presiding, ruled 
that they did not constitute legal grounds for the withdrawal 
of Mr. Hodson. Mr. Hodson nevertheless insisted on with- 
drawing from the case and announced that he will take no 
part in the decision of the commission. 

Mr. Cunningham suggested that pending the decision of 
the commission on the general 3-cent-fare proposition the 
company be ordered to charge only 3 cents for passengers 
who were not supplied with seats. He said this idea might 
be further carried out until the decision of this case by 
charging a 3-cent fare for those in seats and only 2 cents for 
standees. 

D. M. Beach, for the company, declared that if street rail- 
ways and other large enterprises were to be operated suc- 
cessfully they must get an even larger return than 6 per cent 
on their stock. As an instance of the difficulty of the Roch- 
ester railways he cited their failure to sell bonds authorized 
by the commission last year at the price specified, and said 
that unless stock could be made an attractive purchase for 



118 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



the investor it would be increasingly difficult to finance ex- 
tensions and improvements. He declared that the Rochester 
railways had expended more for extensions and improve- 
ments in the last few years than any other business enter- 
prise of like magnitude in the city, but said that with a 
3-cent fare these expenditures would have to stop. 

Mr. Beach met the assertion of Mr. Cunningham that 
Rochester had to pay more for power than other cities deriv- 
ing it from the same source by explaining that the other 
cities bought the power "raw" or the high tension voltage, 
transforming it themselves, while Rochester bought it al- 
ready transformed to low voltage direct current for use in 
the cars. He concluded his argument with the assertion that 
even on the reduced figures for which Mr. Cunningham con- 
tends the company is entitled to return, that return would be 
only 1 per cent under a 3-cent fare ruling of the commission. 

Mr. Kernan answered the contention of Mr. Cunningham 
that the street railway properties had been consolidated into 
the New York State Railways to stifle competition. He said 
that the whole proceeding was conducted under the supervi- 
sion of the commission and had been approved by it as a 
proper means for financing the properties involved. 



TWIN CITY PENSION ANNOUNCEMENT 



Fifty Per Cent of Former Wage for All Employees Who 
Retire on Pension 

C. G. Goodrich, president of the Twin City Rapid Transit 
Company, Minneapolis, Minn., made the following announce- 
ment on Jan. 1 regarding the establishment of a pension 
plan for the employees: 

"For some years past it has been the desire of the man- 
agement of the companies comprising the Twin City Lines to 
adopt some plan providing for faithful employees when they 
had reached the age when they could no longer stand the 
physical strain incident to their employment, and when it 
was desirable that they should be relieved of their active 
work and at no expense whatever to them. We believe that 
our companies are now financially able to carry out this plan 
and have worked out one which we hope will meet with the 
approval of our employees. 

"Briefly, the plan provides for the organization of an em- 
ployees mutual benefit association, in the management of 
which our employees shall participate, and for the payment 
of disability, sickness and death benefits, as well as free 
medical services at the stations. Membership in the associ- 
ation is to be divided into three classes as follows: 

"Class A — Employees whose monthly wage is $100 and not 
more than $208.33. 

"Class B — Employees whose monthly wage is $60 and less 
than $100. 

"Class C — Employees whose monthly wage is less than 
$60. 

"The company will pay the entrance fee of every employee 
who joins the association during the first three months of 
its organization. 

"The monthly dues of the association will be: 
"Class A members, 90 cents; Class B, 60 cents; Class C, 30 
cents. 

"The company will pay into the association for its use and 
benefit monthly an amount equal to 50 per cent of the 
'monthly dues of members. In addition the company will 
also pay the entire cost of management and administration 
of the affairs of the association, including the salaries and 
expenses of the medical staff. The company will also con- 
tinue to furnish clubrooms to employees, as in the past. 
The Employees Mutual Benefit Association will pay accident 
benefits as follows: Class A members, $12.25 per week for 
fifty-two weeks; Class B members, $10.50 per week for fifty- 
two weeks; Class C members, $7 per week for fifty-two 
weeks. 

"It will pay sick benefits as follows: Class A members, 
$12.25 per week for fifty-two weeks; Class B members, 
$10.50 per week for fifty-two weeks; Class C members, $7 
per week for fifty-two weeks. 

"It will pay death benefits as follows: Class A members, 
$600; Class B members, $500; Class C members, $300. 

"The pension system established at this time provides for 
the payment of pensions to old employees who may be re- 
tired at the age of sixty-five years, and draw a pension 
. thereafter. The pension system is based on 2 per cent per 



year of service of the average annual wage for the last ten 
years, with a maximum of 50 per cent. Practically speak- 
ing, this means that all of our employees who retire on pen- 
sions will draw 50 per cent of their former wage. No part 
of the pension payments is to be contributed by employees, 
the company paying the entire pension. 

"We believe when the employees of our companies have 
familiarized themselves with the provisions of the constitu- 
tion and by-laws of the Employees Mutual Benefit Associa- 
tion and the rules governing it that the plan will meet with 
their cordial endorsement and that the association will have 
practically all of the employees enrolled in its membership 
within a few months." 

ST. JOSEPH RATES RESTRAINED 

An order restraining the Missouri Public Service Com- 
mission from enforcing its decision establishing lower com- 
mutation rates on the Kansas City, Clay County & St. Jo- 
seph Railway was issued on Dec. 30 by Federal Judge A. L. 
Van Valkenburgh at Kansas City. The lower rates had 
been ordered to go into effect on Jan. 1. The company had 
asked a rehearing by the commission, which had been 
denied. The injunction will be effective against the lower 
rates until such time as two other federal judges may hear 
the case with Judge Van Valkenburgh, who intimated that 
this might occur within three weeks. 

The application for the restraining order was based upon 
the confiscatory nature of the commission's order. The 
complaint alleged that the valuation arrived at by the com- 
mission, on the basis of which the new rates were figured, 
was so low that apparently reasonable earnings upon it 
would not allow a living income upon the operation of the 
property. Among the items of the complaint displaying the 
allegations of deficient valuation by the commission were 
many affidavits by persons formerly connected with the rail- 
way and by officials of other interurban railways serving 
Kansas City. The court gave the commission ten days in 
which to file a brief. The company's case was presented 
by Judge J. M. Olin, Madison, who has conducted the com- 
pany's affairs before the commission, and Bowersock, Hall & 
Hook, Kansas City. 

AUGUSTA-AIKEN FARE INCREASE ALLOWED 

Full Text of the Resolution Allowing the Company to In- 
crease Fares from 1 Cent to 2 Cents a Mile 

The Railroad Commission of South Carolina on Dec. 29 
adopted a resolution reaffirming the order of Nov. 18, which 
allows the Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation, 
Augusta, Ga., to increase its passenger rates from 1 cent to 
2 cents a mile. B. L. Caughman and G. McDuffie Hampton 
voted for the resolution. John G. Richards, Jr., chairman, 
voted against the resolution. Commissioner Hampton of- 
fered the following resolution, which was adopted: 

"After carefully weighing all the testimony during the 
hearing held Dec. 10 in Columbia and continued to Augusta 
on Dec. 16 and 17, inclusive, I am more than ever convinced 
that the resolution adopted by the majority of the board on 
Nov. 12, 1914, should stand in its entirety, with the addition 
to the resolution of the words, 'the minimum fare shall be 5 
cents.' 

"My decision is arrived at for the following reasons: First, 
the testimony, especially at the Augusta hearing, convinces 
me that the Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation 
did not get a fair return on its investment; secondly, that as 
an interurban line operating in South Carolina it should be 
entitled to the same rate and privileges enjoyed by similar 
roads. For the last twelve years this road has operated un- 
der a passenger rate of 1 cent per mile voluntarily put in. 
It has applied to the Railroad Commission for a flat rate of 2 
cents, which I sincerely think is just and equitable. Should 
the Railroad Commission refuse to grant the petition it 
would be a decided case of discrimination and would deny the 
Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation the right to 
be placed on a parity with similar roads in the State. To my 
mind, this would create a distinct discrimination and estab- 
lish a precedent by the commission that would be far-reach- 
ing and lead to a change of rate-making in the future that 
would be hard to adjust, in my judgment. 

"Complaint of service, which incidentally developed at 
these hearings, has nothing to do with rate-making. The 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



119 



commission will investigate this matter in the usual form 
and have the proper service rendered in a reasonable time. 

"Section 3174, code of South Carolina, 1912, reads, in part, 
as follows: 'The commissioners . . . shall make reason- 
able and just rules and regulations to be observed by all rail- 
road companies doing' business in this State, as to charges to 
any and all points for the necessary hauling and delivery of 
all freights; shall make just and reasonable rules and regula- 
tions as may be necessary for preventing unjust discrimina- 
tion in the transportation of freight and passengers on the 
railroads in this State.' 

"Well-established statistics all over the United States 
have shown conclusively that no interurban road can suc- 
cessfully operate and maintain itself under a passenger rate 
of less than 2 cents per mile. 

"Therefore be it resolved, That the Augusta-Aiken Rail- 
way's petition be granted to increase its maximum passenger 
rate to 2 cents per mile, minimum fare to be 5 cents, to be- 
come effective on Jan. 1, 1915, with the distinct understand- 
ing that in the meanwhile the physical condition of the road 
shall be improved as rapidly as possible and continue to be 
kept in a safe condition, and that competent and efficient 
service shall be rendered on all cars and enough cars must 
be put into operation comfortably to care for the patrons, 
the above improvements to be subject to the approval of the 
Railroad Commission. 

"Resolved, further, That the company shall submit its 
tariff to the Railroad Commission for approval within thirty 
days in order that said tariff, when approved, may be includ- 
ed in the commission's annual report." 



REDUCTION ORDERED IN SEATTLE-EVERETT FARE 

The Public Service Commission of the State of Washing- 
ton has prescribed a passenger rate of 2 cents a mile in- 
stead of 3 cents on the Seattle-Everett line of the Puget 
Sound Traction, Light & Power Company. The order of 
the commission sets forth that in the opinion of the com- 
mission the fair value of the line is $1,500,000 and that on 
that investment the earnings have been 13 per cent a year. 
The commission rejects the contention of the company that 
the losses sustained in operating the Bellingham-Mt. Vernon 
line should be set off against the profits of the Seattle- 
Everett line. The commission, in its order, also requires 
the road to carry children between the ages of five and 
twelve years at half fare and to furnish at least one car 
in each direction daily to carry checked baggage up to a 
limit of 150 lb., free of charge. No ruling is made on 
freight rates, the commission urging that the company 
and patrons endeavor to effect an amicable arrangement on 
this subject. The commission says that it has no power 
to prescribe the issuance of commutation tickets. 

A. W. Leonard, president of the Puget Sound Traction, 
Light & Power Company, in a statement to the press, said: 

"All of the evidence submitted plainly showed that the 
earnings of the line were not sufficient to provide a fair 
return on the investment. The earnings for 1913 came 
nearer to a suitable return on the investment, but those 
of 1914 have fallen far below the total of last year. There 
was nothing introduced at the hearing to sustain such an 
order as the commission has made, in reducing passenger 
rates from 3 cents to 2 cents a mile." 

In the absence of the official order from the commission, 
neither Mr. Leonard nor James B. Howe, counsel for the 
company, would intimate the attitude of the corporation 
toward an appeal. 



CHRISTMAS ENTERTAINMENT IN WASHINGTON 

Children and parents to the number of about 2200 crowd- 
ed the New National Theater, Washington, D. C, on the 
afternoon of Dec. 29, at the fourteenth annual Christmas 
celebration of the Washington Railway & Electric Company 
and the Potomac Electric Power Company, given by the 
public service companies for their employees and employees' 
children. The feature of the afternoon was a dancing and 
singing act in which thirty-five children, ranging in age 
from nine to fourteen years, participated. After the chil- 
dren finished their act several vaudeville numbers from 
local theaters delighted the spectators — and then Santa 
Claus himself arrived. He lit with electricity the two large 
trees, one either side the stage. All the children and par- 



ents were then invited upon the stage, where fruit and 
candy and other gifts were handed to each child. Not only 
were the children thus provided for, but car tickets were 
distributed for the trip home. 



Change in Local One-Way Fare. — The Buffalo & Lake 
Erie Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., has announced that 
the loeal one-way fare in both directions between Irving 
and Silver Creek will be advanced from 7 cents to 10 cents, 
effective on Jan. 24, 1915. 

Curtailing Free Tickets in Topeka. — The Kansas Public 
Utilities Commission has issued an order calling in compli- 
mentary tickets on the Topeka Street Railway, and an- 
nouncing that after Jan. 1, 1915, no street car passes should 
be issued to members of the commission or employees. 

Savings Accounts in Columbus. — In order to encourage 
thrift the Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company, 
Columbus, Ohio, as a Christmas present opened a savings 
account for each of its employees in the Citizens' Trust & 
Savings Bank, starting with $1 for the single men and $2 
for the married men. The clerks received turkeys. 

"Safety First" New Year Resolution. — Several days 
before New Year's the Louisville (Ky.) Railway placed in 
its cars, as one of the series of "safety first" cards it is 
using, a big yellow affair with this slogan: "Let your 
New Year's Resolution for 1915 be 'Safety First.' " Credit 
was accorded on the card to Motorman J. M. Hinkle, the 
author of the sentence. 

Community Christmas Tree Stimulates Traffic. — The 
Jovian Order at Erie, Pa., this Christmas gave Erie its first 
community Christmas tree. The tree was mounted on a 
platform in the center of Perry Park, the crowning adorn- 
ment being a 4-ft. electric star. It was incidentally dis- 
covered that the electric railways in Erie took in probably 
$300 more than their regular Christmas revenue in moving 
the extra crowd to the park. 

Reduction in Fare Asked. — A complaint has been filed 
with the Public Utilities Commission of Kansas by patrons 
of the Missouri & Kansas Interurban Railway at four sta- 
tions asking for a round-trip fare of 25 cents and tickets 
on the return trip good for five days. The one-way fare 
is 15 cents. It is also asked that the company be required 
to extend the time on its thirty-day commutation books so 
that they shall be good for a year. 

Car Step Order in New Hampshire. — As a result of an 
inquiry into the height of street car steps in New Hamp- 
shire the Public Service Commission of that State on Jan. 4 
issued an order that the steps of street cars operated in 
New Hampshire should not be more than 15 in. in height. 
The order does not apply to the Concord & Manchester 
Electric Branch of the Boston & Maine Railroad, which has 
already complied with an order of the commission in regard 
to steps. 

Increase in Fare in Effect in Vermont. — The increased 
fare on the Barre & Montpelier Traction & Power Com- 
pany's lines, running between Montpelier and Barre, Vt., 
went into effect on Dec. 28, in accordance with the new 
schedule filed with the Public Service Commission. The new 
fare is 15 cents between the two cities, or 25 cents for a 
round trip. For the last eight years the fare has been 10 
cents. Last summer the company raised the fare to 11 
cents, but the Supreme Court ruled that the company could 
now collect more than 5 cents in either Barre or Montpelier. 

Extension of "Copper Zone" System of Fares in Indiana. — 
The Indiana Railways & Light Company, Kokomo, Ind., 
applied to the Public Service Commission of Indiana on 
Jan. 2 for permission to place in effect the "copper zone" 
system of passenger fares on the 2 cent a mile basis. As 
previously announced in the Electric Railway Journal, 
this system of fares went into effect on the lines of the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana on Jan. 1 and it is 
stated that the officials of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 
Easton Traction Company have signified their intention of 
applying to the State for permission to install a similar 
system on their line. 

Accidents in Greater New York. — According to the re- 
ports of accidents on railroads and street railroads in 
Greater New York received by the Public Service Commis- 
sion for the First District the number of killed in Noyember, 



120 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



1914, was only eighteen as against thirty-one in November, 
1913, and thirty-two in November, 1912. The total number 
of accidents also decreased from 5860 in November, 1913, 
to 4726 in November, 1914. The decrease in the number 
of accidents was largely upon the surface car lines, and 
one of the causes is believed to be the operation of the 
"near-side stop" rule, which went into effect on Sept. 1. 
The report shows that the boarding accidents decreased 
from 827 to 652 and the alighting accidents from 717 to 451 
for November. 

New Ventilating Ordinance for Chicago. — Past heating 
and ventilating ordinances governing the Chicago Surface 
Lines' cars have specified 350 cu. ft. per passenger per 
hour, based upon the maximum seated and standing load, 
or approximately 28,000 cu. ft. of air per hour with an 
eighty-passenger load. In addition to specifying the quan- 
tity of fresh air, the location of the intakes and outlets were 
also defined, the former being beneath the seats and the 
outlets in the ceiling. The new ventilating ordinance just 
passed does not specify the character of ventilation, but 
provides that the carbon-dioxide content shall not exceed 
twelve parts in 10,000. The new ordinance was passed be- 
cause the combined ventilating and heating requirements 
included in the old ordinances were not practical under ex- 
tremely low outside temperature conditions. 

Annual Atlanta Luncheon. — Officials and employees of the 
electrical department of the Georgia Railway & Power Com- 
pany, Atlanta, Ga., observed a custom more than twenty 
years old when they gathered on New Year's Day in the Da- 
vis Street plant of the company in Atlanta as its guests at 
the annual feast. Five hundred covers were laid by the pro- 
prietor of an Atlanta restaurant, and the viands were kept 
hot in improvised ovens. At the conclusion of the luncheon the 
guests gathered outside, where P. S. Arkwright, president, 
welcomed them, introducing H. M. Atkinson, chairman of the 
directors. Twenty years ago the New Year's Day luncheon 
custom was inaugurated by Mr. Atkinson, then president of 
the Georgia Electric Light Company. The first luncheon 
was served, as have been all others since, in the Davis Street 
plant, then the. main station of the old company. 

The Louisville I. C. C. Case. — Local shippers at Louisville, 
Ky., have taken the announcement of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission that it would at once reopen the case 
against the Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction 
Company and other Insull lines, by which they were ordered 
to make a division of the through rates between Louisville 
and Indianapolis, and other northern Indiana points, as 
indicating that these companies having failed to put the 
order into effect, the commission will now determine how 
these rates shall be divided. In this connection the Louis- 
ville Board of Trade, complainant in the case, points out 
that the relief ordered in the matter of better provisions for 
handling freight at the local terminals has not been pro- 
vided. The Louisville & Indianapolis Company owns tracks 
of its own between Seymour and Sellersburg, but for the 
rest of the distance operates over tracks of the Indian- 
apolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Company and the 
Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Company. 

Reduction in Southern Pacific Company Rates Asked. — 
The city of Palo Alto, Cal., and the Palo Alto Chamber of 
Commerce have filed a complaint with the Railroad Com- 
mission of California against the Southern Pacific Company, 
in which it is alleged that that company's rates from San 
Francisco, San Jose and intermediate points to Palo Alto 
are excessive and discriminatory. As evidence of discrimi- 
nation, the complaint points out that the distance from San 
Francisco to Palo Alto is 30 miles and that the distance 
from San Francisco to Niles, via the Oakland ferry, is 
approximately the same; yet the single fare from San 
Francisco to Niles is 75 cents, while the single fare to Palo 
Alto is 95 cents. The monthly daily commutation ticket 
from Niles to San Francisco is $8.50, while the monthly 
daily commutation ticket from Palo Alto to San Francisco 
is $9.50. Richmond and Melrose are cited as other points 
enjoying lower fares than Palo Alto in proportion to dis- 
tance. The commission's attention is also called to' the 
fact that the Palo Alto rates include the transportation of 
baggage, although most of the patrons do not desire this 
privilege. Complainants ask, therefore, that the company 
be compelled to publish a schedule of non-baggage fares 
less than rates that include the baggage privilege. 



Personal Mention 



Mr. W. E. Mandelick, secretary of the Underground Elec- 
tric Railways, Ltd., London, England, who has been on a 
short visit, has returned to London. 

Mr. J. A. Wright has been appointed auditor of the Dallas 
Traction Company and the Southern Traction Company, 
Dallas, Tex., to succeed Mr. W. L. Davis. 

Mr. J. W. Simons has been advanced from the position of 
trainmaster to be superintendent of transportation of the 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad, Highwood, 111. 

Mr. H. I. Gahagan, in addition to his duties as treasurer 
of the Texas Traction Company and the Southern Traction 
Company, Dallas, Tex., succeeds Mr. Burr Martin as super- 
intendent of safety. 

Mr. G. S. Henry, formerly superintendent of transporta- 
tion of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad, High- 
wood, 111., has been appointed general superintendent to 
succeed Mr. E. J. Bock, resigned. 

Mr. J. W. Lee, Jr., publicity agent, will have charge of 
the publicity department of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Philadelphia, Pa., succeeding Mr. Ivy L. Lee, whose resigna- 
tion from the company was announced recently in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal. 

Mr. R. B. Stichter, who has been general manager of the 
Texas Traction Company and the Southern Traction Com- 
pany, with offices at Dallas, Tex., has been elected vice- 
president of both companies. Mr. Stichter has been gen- 
eral manager of the companies since March, 1909, when he 
succeeded Mr. Theodore Stebbins. 

Mr. Edward Horner, superintendent of the Danville Rail- 
way & Light Company, Danville, 111., has resigned, effec- 
tive on Jan. 15. Mr. Horner entered the service of the 
company in 1904 as a conductor and in 1910 was promoted 
to be superintendent. He will be succeeded by Mr. Jesse 
F. Smalley, dispatcher in the office of the Illinois Traction 
System at Danville. 

Mr. Guy E. Mitchell, for some years associated with the 
late Ralph D. Gillett in electrical construction work in con- 
nection with the building of electric railways in the Berk- 
shire district of Massachusetts, and formerly chief drafts- 
man of the motive power department Boston & Maine Rail- 
road, has been appointed manager of the Westfield (Mass.) 
electric lighting department. 

Mr. E. J. Bock, who for the last four years has been 
general superintendent of the Chicago & Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railroad, Highwood, 111., has resigned on account of 
ill health. Prior to becoming general superintendent of 
the company, Mr. Bock served as superintendent of trans- 
portation for two years, and previous to that he was chief 
dispatcher of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, 
Chicago, 111., for twelve years. 

Mr. Burr Martin, who has been superintendent of safety 
and way and structures of the Texas Traction Company and 
the Southern Traction Company, Dallas, Tex., has been 
appointed general manager of the companies to succeed Mr. 
R. B. Stichter, who, as announced elsewhere in this column, 
has been elected vice-president of the companies. All de- 
partments will report to Mr. Martin except the auditing 
department and the claim department, both of which will 
report direct to the president. 

Mr. Joseph B. Eastman has been appointed a member of 
the Public Service Commission of Massachusetts by Gov- 
ernor Walsh, succeeding Hon. George W. Anderson, who 
resigned recently to become United States District Attor- 
ney. Mr. Eastman was born at Katonah, N. Y., in 1882. 
After he was graduated from Amherst College in 1904 he 
spent some time at the South End House, Boston, in socio- 
logical work, later becoming counsel and secretary of the 
Boston Public Franchise League. For the last nine years 
he has played a prominent part in many commission and 
legislative matters affecting electric railway, lighting and 
gas companies and assisted in drafting the bill which estab- 
lished the Public Service Commission in 1913 upon its pres- 
ent basis. Among the matters of street railway interest 
which have occupied Mr. Eastman's attention have been 
the renewal of tunnel leases at Boston, the investigation of 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



121 




D. D. CURRAN 



holding companies and the study of railroad and street 
railway relations. During the last eighteen months Mr. 
Eastman served as counsel for the unions in the arbitra- 
tions of wages on the Boston Elevated Railway and the 
Middlesex & Boston Street Railway, and is at present counsel 
for the union in the arbitration between the Bay State Street 
Railway and local branches of the Amalgamated Association. 
He is a member of the Boston Chamber of Commerce and the 
Boston City Club. 

Mr. D. D. Curran, whose election as president of the New 

Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, La., was 

noted in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 26, 1914, 

will assume his duties with 

that company on Feb. 1. 

In a statement which he is- 
sued Mr. Curran said that 

he accepted the presidency 

of the company with the 

full knowledge that it was 

a local institution; that 

large sums of New Orleans 

money were invested in the 

securities of the company, 

and that his best efforts 

would be put forth to recon- 
cile any differences which 

might exist between the 

corporation and the public. 

Mr. Curran has long been 

a resident of New Orleans 

and is thoroughly familiar 
with local traditions. The 
company with which he now becomes connected controls and 
operates more than 200 miles of electric railway in New 
Orleans and furnishes current for both power and lighting 
service. Mr. Curran's previous experience has all been in 
steam railway work, but in this he has been eminently 
successful and is most highly regarded in New Orleans and 
in the territory through which the lines of the company 
with which he has so long been identified operated. He en- 
tered railway service in 1873 as a brakeman on the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, which position he held for five years. 
He was then successively freight conductor of the Mobile 
& Montgomery Railroad, passenger conductor of the same 
road, yard master of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad 
at Montgomery and trainmaster of the same road at Bir- 
mingham, Ala. From 1887 to 1893 Mr. Curran was con- 
nected with the Central of Georgia Railroad successively as 
superintendent of the South Carolina Division, superintend- 
ent of the Southwestern division, superintendent of the Co- 
lumbus & Western division and superintendent of the Sa- 
vannah & Western division. He was appointed to the last 
mentioned position in 1892. From February, 1893, to Au- 
gust, 1907, he was superintendent of the New Orleans & 
Northeastern Railroad. In August, 1907, he was elected 
president of that company, of which he is also general 
manager. 

OBITUARY 

D. E. Budd, one of the pioneers in street railway develop- 
ment in Portland, Ore., is dead. He is said to have obtained 
the first franchise for the operation of street cars in Port- 
land. 

A. W. Westman, superintendent of the Windsor, Essex & 
Lake Shore Rapid Railway, Kingsville, Ont., was electro- 
cuted at the company's carhouse at Kingsville on Dec. 21 
while preparing to put the snow plow in action. 

Giles S. Allison, long associated with the Security Register 
Company, St. Louis, Mo., and for many years prominent in 
the electric railway manufacturing field, died on Dec. 24 in 
St. Louis. The cause was throat trouble. Mr. Allison was 
sixty-two years old. 

Mr. Joseph Donlan, at one time superintendent of the 
New Haven (Conn.) Street Railways, now included in the 
system of the Connecticut Company, is dead. After leav- 
ing the New Haven Street Railway Mr. Donlan became 
connected with the National Casket Company at New Haven, 
and subsequently entered the main office of that company in 
Brooklyn. 



Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 
ported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 
*United Public Service Company, Rochester, Ind. — In- 
corporated in Indiana presumably to build electric railways 
and other public utilities in Rochester. Capital stock, 
$250,000. Incorporators: John E. Beyer, Earl E. Beyer 
and Charles A. Davis. 

'Portland, Vancouver & Northern Railway, Vancouver, 
Wash. — Application for a charter has been made by this 
company in Washington to build an electric line between 
Vancouver, Wash., and Portland, Ore. Headquarters: Van- 
couver, Wash. Officers: Henry Crass, Mayor of Vancouver, 
president, and George W. Ford, secretary. 

FRANCHISES 

Fresno, Cal. — The Fresno Traction Company has re- 
ceived a franchise from the Council along Fresno Avenue 
and on Fresno Street from Belmont Street along J Street, 
Stanislaus Street, O Street, Tulare Street and P Street 
to the Southern Pacific reservation in Fresno. 

San Jose, Cal. — Blaming the European war for its fail- 
ure to begin construction upon the electric line from Al- 
viso to San Jose, the San Jose Terminal Railway, through 
Lee H. Landis, its president, at a recent meeting of the 
Council surrendered its deposit of $500 which guaranteed 
construction would be started before Jan. 1, and asked 
for a new franchise for that portion of the railway which 
will lie within the city limits. Mr. Landis addressed the 
Council and an ordinance for the granting of the new, or 
renewed franchise, was given first reading. That portion 
of the line which lies in San Jose will run on Second Street 
between Julian Street and the northerly city limits. Mr. 
Landis promised that actual construction would be begun 
immediately after the first of the year and that the line 
would be in operation before the end of 1915. 

Macon, Ga. — The Macon Railway & Light Company has 
asked the Council for a franchise to extend, relocate and 
remove different sections of its tracks in Macon. 

Carbondale, 111. — The Murphysboro & Southern Illinois 
Railway has asked the Council for a franchise in Carbon- 
dale. This is part of a plan to build an electric line be- 
tween Carbondale and Murphysboro. A. B. Minton, Mur- 
physboro, president. [E. R. J., Oct. 3, '14.] 

New Orleans, La. — The Orleans-Kenner Electric Railway 
has purchased the franchise from the Council to build an 
interurban, line between New Orleans and Kenner. 

Camden City, N. J. — The Public Service Railway has 
asked the Council for a franchise over White Horse Pike. 
The company proposes to reroute the Haddon Heights 
line. 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y. — On the condition that it erect 
a trolley station at a cost of $50,000 and meet other re- 
quirements asked by the village officials of Saratoga 
Springs, the request of the Hudson Valley Railway for a 
franchise to maintain tracks across Broadway in Saratoga 
Springs to connect the Glens Falls line with the Troy di- 
vision will be granted. Whether or not the proposition 
will be received favorably by the Hudson Valley Railway 
officials is not known. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — The Cincinnati, Newport & Covington 
Street Railway has asked the Council for a renewal of its 
franchise in Cincinnati. 

Urbana, Ohio.— The Ohio Electric Railway has received 
a twenty-five-year franchise from the Council in Urbana. 

Easton, Pa. — The Easton Tr ansit Company has received 
a franchise from the Council to reconstruct all of its lines 
on the South Side, laying new track, etc. The company 
has also received permission to lengthen several of the 
switches in Easton. 

Waco, Tex.— The Southern Traction Company has asked 
the Council for a franchise to extend its tracks south from 
Elm Street about 1 mile in Waco. 



122 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — This com- 
pany plans to expend $105,000 for betterments on its lines 
from San Bernardino to Highland and Patton. 

Bristol & Plainville Tramway, Bristol, Conn. — Plans are 
being made by this company to ask the next General As- 
sembly for the right to amend its charter to extend its 
lines on Main Street, South Street, East Road, Wolcott, 
Crown, Earl, View and Divinity Streets, making a circuit 
which will take in the entire south section of Bristol. The 
company will also ask for permission to discontinue its 
tracks on Park Street in Bristol. 

Wilmington, New Castle & Delaware Railway, New 
Castle, Del. — Plans are being made by this company to re- 
build and install a new roadbed on about 5% miles of its 
lines. 

Columbus (Ga.) Railroad. — Plans are being considered 
by this company and the Girard City Council for an elec- 
tric line in Lower Girard, presumably to connect at som<j 
point in the western part of Lower Girard with the pres- 
ent Girard line and complete a loop or belt, crossing the 
new Dillingham Street bridge into Columbus. 

Savannah (Ga.) Electric Company. — Work has been be- 
gun by this company on the extension of its Habersham 
line from Thirty-Seventh Street in Savannah giving a di- 
rect service from the business section to the Chatham 
Crescent in Savannah. 

Caldwell (Idaho) Traction Company. — Citizens of Cald- 
well have agreed to take bonds of this railway to finance 
the construction of the Wilder branch of the Oregon Short 
Line. The estimated cost of electrifying the branch is 
$50,000. 

Bloomington & Normal Railway & Light Company, 
Bloomington, 111. — This company has perfected plans to 
remove its tracks on Franklin Avenue in the center of the 
street. When the old horse car line from Bloomington to 
Normal was established many years ago the track was 
laid on the west side of Franklin Avenue and has since 
remained there. 

Chicago, Peoria & Quincy Traction Company, Peoria, 
111. — E. L. Coleman, representing Wolf Teitle & Company, 
Chicago, who are financing this railway, announces that 
the line will be built. Residents of Peoria are reported to 
have subscribed for $350,000 of the stock, residents of Can- 
ton for $300,000, and it is expected to sell $300,000 in 
Quincy. It is intended to begin construction work in the 
spring. [E. R. J., Dec. 26, '14.] 

Illinois Traction System, Peoria, 111. — Plans are being 
made by this company to double-track the Prospect Heights 
line in East Bluff to the city limits of East Bluff. 

Springfield & Central Illinois Traction Company, Spring- 
field, 111. — It is reported that this company, headed by Isaac 
A. Smith, St. Louis, organized under the laws of Illinois 
and authorized to issue bonds to the amount of $20,000,000, 
will during the coming summer begin construction work on 
an interurban railway which will ultimately extend from 
St. Louis across Illinois to Terre Haute, Ind. It is an- 
nounced that the right-of-way has been obtained from 
Terre Haute to St. Louis, and also for an intersecting line 
from Springfield to Duquoin, and that the necessary fran- 
chises have been granted. The promoters of this line state 
that the first issue of $2,500,000 of bonds will be taken by 
a syndicate of English capitalists, and that 60 per cent was 
already underwritten before the war broke out. The tempo- 
rary failure to realize on the remaining 40 per cent is given 
as the reason for delaying the work of construction until 
next summer. According to the plans announced, the build- 
ing of the line will begin at St. Louis, and it is now con- 
templated to construct the line as far as Newton, county 
seat of Jasper County. It is said that the line will be put 
in operation as soon as the first 25 miles are completed. 
Plans provide for a power plant to be erected 46 miles east 
of St. Louis, near the intersection of the north and south 
and east and west lines of the proposed system. It is also 
planned to operate electric lighting plants in the small 
towns along the lines. Isaac A. Smith, president; George 
W. White, vice-president, A. C. Skilman, secretary, and 
N. E. McMillan, treasurer. All are residents of St. Louis. 



Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company, Indianap- 
olis, Ind.— This company has placed in operation its new 
1-mile line on Minnesota Street from Shelby Street to 
Churchman Avenue in Indianapolis. 

Des Moines (la.) Railway. — Plans are being contem- 
plated by this company for an extension from Colfax to 
Newton. Also for plans to build a line through territory 
south of Des Moines. 

Bangor Railway & Electric Company, Bangor, Maine. — 
This company has ordered the necessary equipment for the 
building of a double-track loop on Harlow and Central 
Streets in Bangor. It is expected that this loop will re- 
lieve the congested railway conditions on Main Street. The 
sum of $40,000 will be expended in this work. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb. — 
Plans are being contemplated by this company to extend 
its Harney line south from the Sixth Street terminus to 
Gibson. 

Haddonfield, N. J. — Plans are being considered to build 
an electric railway to connect Haddonfield, Berlin and 
Gibbsboro. Frank O. Stem, Berlin, and associates are in- 
terested. 

Morris County Traction Company, Morristown, N. J. — 

Plans are being made by this company to reduce the run- 
ning time between Morristown and Dover by fifteen min- 
utes. Work has been begun laying 1000 ft. of double track 
at Morris Plains for a new turnout. The new track begins 
at Glen Brook Place and extends past the business section 
toward the hospital junction. 

*Flushing, N. Y. — The Public Service Commission, First 
District, has announced that in all probability the so-called 
Flushing route extending from Corona to Bayside has 
been legalized by the consent of the property owners at 
Broadway and Twenty-Second Street, Flushing, where the 
route of the proposed line would extend. 

Monticello & Middletown Railway, Monticello, N. Y. — 
As soon as surveys are completed work will be begun by 
this company on its line to connect Middleboro, Blooming- 
burgh, Wurtsboro, Rock Hill, Bridgeville, Monticello, White 
Lake and Bethel, a distance of 45 miles. The motive power 
will be gasoline and the repair shops will be located at 
Monticello. Capital stock, authorized, $500,000. Blake A. 
Mapledoram, Monticello, general manager and chief engi- 
neer. [E. R. J., Dec. 26, '14.] 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company. — Plans are being 
made by this company to extend and double-track many of 
its lines in Cincinnati. 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company, Columbus, 
Ohio. — A resolution has been adopted by the City Council 
of Columbus providing for the appointment of a commit- 
tee to act with the Chamber of Commerce representatives 
in conferring with the Columbus Railway, Power & Light 
Company on the plan to obtain funds with which to make 
extensive improvements on East Main, East Long and 
West Broad Streets the coming spring. 

East Linden Electric Railway, Linden, Ohio. — It is pos- 
sible that the new route of this railway proposed to the 
Council recently will prove unsatisfactory, because of com- 
plications that may result from granting franchises to two 
different corporations in the same street for a portion of 
the route. Phillip B. Gaynor, of New York, president of 
the company, was in the city last week looking into the 
situation. [E. R. J., Oct. 5, '14.] 

Niagara Falls, Welland & Lake Erie Railway, Welland, 
Ont. — The Council of Welland, Ont., has accepted the offer 
of this company to pay $60,250 in twenty years towards the 
cost of street paving. The Council also gave its formal 
permission to allow the company to cross the Canal Bridge 
at Main Street in Welland to connect up with the west side 
extension. 

Portland, Ore. — W. H. Daly, Commissioner of Public Utili- 
ties, will take steps immediately to revoke the franchise 
granted George F. Heusner, for a system of electric rail- 
ways operating between Renton and the downtown districts 
of Portland and the $10,000 bond forfeited. This will be 
done owing to the failure of Mr. Heusner to comply with 
the provisions of the franchise which was granted on Nov. 
26, 1913, and accepted Jan. 30, 1914. One of the provisions 



January 9, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



123 



of the grant was that work was to be begun within thirty 
days after final action by the Council, and cars were to be 
running within eighteen months. Nothing has been done to 
indicate that a car line is ever to be built in accordance with 
the grant. The franchise provided that $350,000 was to be 
spent in construction. [E. R. J., March 14, '14.] 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New Castle Railway, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — This company has placed in operation its 
new Ellwood, Koppel & Beaver Falls branch. R. H. Boggs, 
Pittsburgh, president, of the new line. 

*Sharon, Pa. — With the beginning of operations on the 
construction of the line between Sharon and Brookfield 
Center it is learned that a syndicate of Cleveland cap- 
italists has had engineers at work surveying for the con- 
struction of an electric line between Warren and Sharon 
which would make a feeder for the Cleveland-Youngstown 
Railway. 

Montreal & Southern Counties Railway, Montreal, Que. — 
Plans are being contemplated by this company to extend 
its tracks to Youville Square in Montreal. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company, 
Fort Wayne, Ind. — Preliminary arrangements are being 
made by this company to build a three-story brick build- 
ing on Market Street at Logansport. In this new structure 
will be located the local superintendent's, dispatcher's and 
division offices, also the freight office and storage rooms. 
Work on this new structure will be begun as soon as the 
weather permits. 

Bangor Railway & Electric Company, Bangor, Maine. — 
Plans are being made by this company to establish a new 
pas~enger station in the Graham building on Harlow Street 
in Bangor. 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynesboro Railway, 
Waynesboro, Pa. — This company has begun the construc- 
tion of a new passenger station at Kauffmans station to 
replace the old building. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

Staten Island, Midland Railway, New Brighton, N. Y. — 
This company will install new substation apparatus consist- 
ing of two 500-kw rotary converters, six 165-kva and four 
400-kva transformers, switchboard and accessories, all of 
which have been purchased from the General Electric Com- 
pany. 

Hocking Sunday Creek Traction Company, Nelsonville, 

Ohio. — This company has ordered for shipment to Nel- 
sonville, Ohio, one 400-kw, 1200-volt rotary converter set 
consisting of two machines on common bedplate, each of 
200-kw capacity, 600-volt, direct current, three-phase, sixty 
cycles and 1200 r.p.m., and three 135-kva, 11,000-volt high- 
tension to rotary-voltage oil-insulated, self-cooled trans- 
formers, with one switchboard for the control of the above 
apparatus. The order has been placed with the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

Steubenville & East Liverpool Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Steubenville, Ohio. — This company has placed an 
order with the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company for the following apparatus, to be shipped to 
Steubenville, Ohio: one outdoor transformer sub-station 
consisting of two 1500-kva, oil-insulated, water-cooled, 
three-phase, sixty-cycle, 66,000-volt or 33,000-volt to 
16,500-volt outdoor radiator type transformers; one set 
steel work and towers, and outdoor switching equipment. 
The company has ordered for its Steubenville sub-station, 
the following apparatus: three 500-kva, 16,500-volt to 2400- 
volt, single-phase to two-phase; six 24-kva, single-phase 
automatic induction regulators with accessories; one 500- 
kw, sixty-cycle, 600-volt direct-current 900 r.p.m., six- 
phase rotary converter; one 550-kva, sixty-cycle, 15,000- 
volt to rotary-voltage, three-phase oil-insulated self-cooled 
transformer; two 330-kva, three-phase, sixty-cycle, 15,000- 
volt to rotary-voltage oil-insulated self-cooled transform- 
ers, with one switching equipment for the above apparatus. 

San Antonio (Tex.) Traction Company. — A new rotary 
converter is being installed by this company at its power 
plant on Villita Street in San Antonio. The new converter 
has a capacity of 1500 hp. 



Manufactures and Supplies 



ROLLING STOCK 

Toronto (Ont.) Civic Railway is reported as expecting to 
buy six steel and six wood cars. 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway, Kansas 
City, Mo., is in the market for six interurban cars. 

Oklahoma City (Okla.) Railway has ordered eight double- 
truck T-post city cars from the St. Louis Car Company. 

London & Port Stanley Railway, London, Ont., is reported 
as having ordered three trailers from the Preston Car & 
Coach Company. 

Shore Line Electric Railway, Norwich, Conn., according 
to an unconfirmed report, has ordered about five cars from 
the Wason Manufacturing Con pany. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y., 
has ordered twelve all-steel cars from the Pressed Steel Car 
Company for operation in the Steinway Tunnel. 

Sheboygan (Wis.) Railway & Light Company, noted in 
the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 12 as expecting to 
order two new steel cars for city service, has purchased 
this equipment from the St. Louis Car Company. The cars 
will be equipped with Baldwin trucks. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway, according to later de- 
velopments in the placing of its 100-trailer order, has or- 
dered seventy-five cars from The J. G. Brill Company, while 
twenty-five cars will be built by the Laconia Car Company. 
The trucks for all these equipments will be built by the for- 
mer company. 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Washington, 

D. C, is in receipt of a communication from a business man 
in South America who desires to establish commercial rela- 
tions with American manufacturers of gasoline and electric 
motor cars, and who states that he now has an inquiry for 
two cars and trailers. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway has placed an order with 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company for a 
50-ton Baldwin-Westinghouse locomotive. This machine is 
to be used between Royal Oaks, just outside the city limits 
of Detroit, and Flint, a distance of about 55 miles. The 
freight between the terminals and intermediate towns is 
composed chiefly of 1. c. 1. movements. The railway, after 
considerable investigation, selected a standard locomotive 
type instead of the car-type locomotive with which this 
class of service has been previously and is at present han- 
dled. The locomotive will be equipped with No. 301-D-6 
field control, slow-speed motors especially designed for loco- 
motive application, and pneumatically operated unit switch 
control. This company is reported as having authorized the 
construction of fifty stepless trailers in its own shops. 

TRADE NOTES 

New York Insulating Wire Company, New York, N. Y., 

has appointed Lewis O. Brewster as general manager. 

Gould Storage Battery Company, New York, N. Y., has lo- 
cated its Detroit office in Room 604, Kerr Building, 100 Beau- 
bien Street. 

Nachod Signal Company, Inc., announces the removal of 
its office and plant to Louisville, Ky. Carl P. Nachod re- 
mains the president and chief engineer. 

Wallace Supply Company, New York, N. Y., has changed 
its corporate name to Wallace Supplies Manufacturing Com- 
pany. This company, besides making its own car fittings 
and specialties, also manufactures for others. 

W. R. Kerschner Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., has 
been incorporated to take over the business which for the 
past twelve years has been conducted by W. R. Kerschner 
personally. The financial interest and personnel which 
comes into the new company are closely allied with the man- 
ufacturing and equipment end of the electric railway indus- 
try. The increasing business which Mr. Kerschner has done 
for the last several years has necessitated the expansion into 
an incorporated company. 

Canadian General Electric Company, Toronto, Ont., has 
appointed the Hon. J. S. Hendrie, Lieutenant-Governor of 
Ontario, as a director to fill the vacancy created by the 



124 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 2 



death of the late Senator Jaffray. At the annual meeting 
of the company an appropriation of $50,000 was set aside 
to cover the expense of maintaining during the continuance 
of the war the corps of electrical engineers raised by the 
company, and subscriptions to the Red Cross Fund and other 
patriotic and benevolent purposes. 

Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company, New York, N. Y., has been 
incorporated with capitalization of $2,000,000 to manage 
public utilities corporations and do a stock and bond broker- 
age business. The new company will take over the business 
of the firm of Hodenpyl & Hardy. There will be no change 
in the interests connected. The officers of the new com- 
pany will be H. G. Hodenpyl, president; George E. Hardy, 
B. C. Cobb, J. C. Wendock, W. H. Barthold and A. H. John- 
son, vice-presidents, and Jacob Hekman, secretary and 
treasurer. 

Titanium Alloy Manufacturing Company, Niagara Falls, 

N. Y., reports that the New York Central Railroad's recent 
order for open-hearth steel rails includes 2000 tons of 
titanium-treated steel. These rails will be treated with 0.10 
per cent of titanium. The order constitutes the first that has 
been placed by the New York Central Lines for titanium 
open-hearth steel and is the result of experimental work 
which has covered a period of at least two years. Titanium 
has been used in Bessemer steel by these lines in the past, 
but until now their open-hearth rails have been untreated 
with the exception of those used for experimental purposes. 

Coil Manufacturing & Repair Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 
has purchased the factory equipment, business and good- 
will of the Cleveland Coil & Manufacturing Company. The 
new company took charge of the business on Dec. 31 and is 
prepared to supply the trade with armature, field and in- 
duction motor coils and do a general rewinding and repair- 
ing business. About three years ago the business which 
this company has assumed was conducted as the electrical 
department of the Van Dorn & Dutton Company. The 
principal owner and manager of the new company is H. A. 
Kuhle, wjio for a number of years was secretary of the 
Cleveland Switchboard Company and during the past three 
years was one of the proprietors of the Electric Wiring- 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has organized a separate department for 
the production and sale of automobile accessories to be 
known as the Automobile Equipment Department, of which 
G. Brewer Griffin is manager and to which he will devote 
his entire time hereafter. Mr. Griffin was formerly man- 
ager of the detail and supply department, having had active 
charge of automobile equipment sales from the inception of 
the business by the Westinghouse Company. John J. Gibson, 
formerly district manager for the company at Philadelphia, 
has been appointed manager of the detail and supply de- 
partment to succeed Mr. Griffin. This company also an- 
nounces the appointment of H. W. Cope, formerly assist- 
ant manager of the industrial and power department at 
East Pittsburgh, as director of its exhibit at the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. This 
company has recently received orders from the Hershey 
(Pa.) Transit Company for several four-motor equipments 
of No. 101-B-2 motors and type K control, and from the 
Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Railway & Utilities Company, Tus- 
caloosa, Ala., for one quadruple equipment of No. 310-C, 
75-hp, 600-volt railway motor for installation on a com- 
bination baggage, express and freight car, also for a sub- 
station and car equipment to be used in connection with 
the electrification of a portion of the road near Tusca- 
loosa. 

Esterline Company, Indianapolis, Ind., manufacturer of 
"Golden Glow" headlights, reports the shipment of head- 
lights and equipment to the following railroads during the 
month of December: Cambria & Indiana Railroad, Colver, 
Pa.; Toronto (Ont.) Suburban Railway; Windsor, Essex & 
Lake Shore Rapid Railway, Kingsville, Ont.; Virginia 
Railway & Power Company, Norfolk, Va.; Tarentum, Brack- 
enridge & Butler Street Railway, Tarentum, Pa.; Union Elec- 
tric Company, Dubuque, la.; Sioux City (la.) Service Com- 
pany; Hot Springs (Ark.) Street Railway; Princeton (W. 
Va.) Power Company; Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway, Jo- 
liet, 111.; Los Angeles (Cal.) Railway Corporation; Lawrence 
(Kan.) Railway & Light Company; San Francisco-Oakland 



Terminal Railway, Oakland, Cal.; Shreveport (La.) Traction 
Company; Mahoning & Shenango Railway, Light & Power 
Company, Youngstown, Ohio; Wilmington, New Castle & 
Delaware City Railway, New Castle, Del.; Jamestown, West- 
field & Northwestern Railway Company, Jamestown, N. Y.; 
Warren Company, Warren, Ariz.; Altoona & Logan Valley 
Electric Railway, Altoona, Pa.; Roanoke (Va.) Railway & 
Electric Company; New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road, Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y.; Railway Motor Car Com- 
pany, Marion, Ind.; Cincinnati, Bluff ton & Chicago Railroad, 
Bluffton, Ind.; Osgood Bradley Car Company, Worcester, 
Mass. (for Richmond, Staten Island, new cars); Savannah 
(Ga.) Electric Company; Boston & Maine Railroad, North 
Adams, Mass.; Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Co'mpany; Allen- 
town & Reading Traction Company, Kutztown, Pa.; San An- 
tonio (Tex.) Traction Company; Vicksburg (Miss.) Light & 
Traction Company; Birmingham (Ala.) Railway, Light & 
Power Company. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 

Steel City Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has issued 
bulletin sheets Nos. 26, 27 and 28 describing respectively 
its star fixture stems and beam straps, outlet boxes for 
concrete work and conduit bushing adapters and Hickey fix- 
ture hangers. 

Sangamo Electric Company, Springfield, 111., has issued 
Bulletin No. 40, describing and illustrating its a.c. single- 
phase and polyphase watthour meters. The catalog dis- 
cusses the features, constructions, adjustment and perform- 
ance characteristics of the type "H" watthour meter, and 
gives directions for testing and for connecting the meters. 
The catalog- also describes current and potential trans- 
formers. The bulletin is designed and written by Ray D. 
Lillibridge, Inc., New York, N. Y. 

Prepayment Car Sales Company, New York, N. Y., has 
issued a folder which contains a novel presentation of the 
merits of prepayment car platforms. Following the spirit 
of the suggestion recently made, that electric railways 
should endeavor to analyze and apply in a practical manner 
each idea embodied in the ten principles adopted by the 
American Electric Railway Association at Atlantic City last 
tall, the folder demonstrates how each principle of the code 
in turn is fostered and supplemented by prepayment opera- 
tion. 

Pawling & Harnischfeger Company, Milwaukee, Wis., has 

issued a handsome booklet which outlines the progress of 
this company during its thirty years of activity. The book- 
let is well illustrated with interior views of the manufactur- 
ing plant and offices of this company. A brief sketch is also 
included of the organization of the company accompanied by 
photographs of its personnel. Among the products now 
manufactured by the company are traveling cranes of vari- 
ous types, grab buckets for foundry service, traveling elec- 
tric hoists and monorail systems, I-beam trolleys, horizontal 
drilling and power machines, wheel and boom type excava- 
tors and power traction tampers. 

Harrison Safety Boiler Works, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
issued a booklet of seventy-two pages describing its Coch- 
rane multiport valves for back pressure, relief and vacuum 
service, flow service in connection with mixed flow turbines, 
and check valve service with bleeder or extraction turbines. 
The essential idea of the multiport valves is the use of a 
number of small disks instead of large disks in order to 
secure greater safety, quietness, lightness of moving parts 
and tightness. The several disks are each fitted with an 
independent dashpot held to seat by independent springs, 
the tension of all the springs being adjusted simultaneously 
by a pressure plate, the position of which can be changed by 
means of a handwheel on the outside of the casing. Thus 
there are no parts directly connected to the disks themselves 
extending through the casing, hence no possibility of bind- 
ing, as by over-tightening of glands, or of tying down or 
overweighting, the movement of the pressure plate being 
definitely limited. Another advantage claimed is the abil- 
ity to adjust the back pressure quickly and easily by chang- 
ing the position of the pressure plate, which may be done 
from any distance, as by means of chain or rods. In addi- 
tion to full descriptive and tabular matter the book con- 
tains numerous diagrams and layouts, also data on the 
effects of air in condensers and upon turbine performance. 



Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Revie yr ^ 

N 



B Y 



Vol. XLV 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 16, 1915 



IMPORTANCE An excellent feature of the na- 

OF FIRST-AID tion-wide "safety first" movement, 

TRAINING , ■ f . ■ ■ , 

and in fact in many instances pre- 
ceding it, has been the establishment of first-aid-to-the- 
injured stations. Resuscitation from electric shock is an 
example of their excellent work, and the equipping of all 
shops and carhouses with first-aid outfits represents a 
move along the same line. At this time it is particu- 
larly to the generally established practice among pub- 
lic utilities of installing the first-aid outfits that we 
want to direct attention. When a road has provided a 
first-aid outfit its work is just begun, since only the 
tools have been supplied without necessary training of 
employees for their proper use. It is often possible to 
find among employees someone who is acquainted with 
the proper method to pursue in first-aid work, yet there 
is always a chance that that particular person is not 
available when he is most needed. To make certain that 
first-aid treatment will be available for all accidents ap- 
pears to be a fine opportunity for constructive work on 
the part of the company surgeon. In fact, the surgeon 
of the Chicago Elevated Railways has carefully trained 
a first-aid squad, which in turn trains employees at 
shops and carhouses in the use of the first-aid equip- 
ment, as well as how to perform various other kinds of 
first-aid work. Manifestly, such a schooling is produc- 
tive of excellent results. 

DISCIPLINARY While an excess of red tape, so to 

VALUE OF EM- speak, in the way of reports is to 

PLOYEES' REPORTS be avo jded, one must not lose sight 
of their worth for maintaining good discipline as well as 
for record purposes. A difficulty well known to depart- 
ment heads is the ever-present problem of eliminating 
interdepartmental friction and petty jealousies among 
ambitious employees. To a certain extent, there is 
bound to be some internal stress in any organization or 
department where each man is striving to make a good 
showing, but a certain number of report forms help to 
confine this feeling to a healthy form of rivalry. As an 
example of this, work-train service furnished to the way 
department is often unnecessarily delayed, while, on the 
other hand, through the carelessness of their crews, 
work trains often hold up the regular traffic. To meet 
this condition certain managers have required that the 
causes and lengths of all delays to trains be reported by 
both the dispatcher and the representative of the way 
department or other department in charge of the work 
train. The result of this checking of one report against 
another, particularly where serious complaint has been 
made, has been greatly to reduce the number of reports 



and materially improve rerH^nsS^b^wv^en employees. 
Similar good effects have followed the application of the 
same plan to disputes between the overhead and trans- 
portation departments, particularly where power or tele-' 
phone line interruptions have occurred. Where it is 
found that there is a discrepancy between the report of 
one department and another on the same subject it 
is, by means of an investigation, an easy matter to dis- 
cover who is in the wrong. The chief effect of this form 
of disciplining, however, has been that discrepancies 
seldom occur because one party to a difficulty knows that 
the other is preparing a report covering the same sub- 
ject, consequently each endeavors to be honest in the 
information which he furnishes. 



A BRITISH 
VIEW OF THE 
CAB SIGNAL 



In view of the interest in cab 
signals that has been suddenly 
aroused through the radical ac- 
tion of the New York Municipal Railways in adopting 
them for the new subways in Brooklyn, it is rather a 
surprising coincidence that a recent discussion of this 
device by the British Institution of Mechanical Engi- 
neers should have indicated, at least by implication, a 
sudden change of attitude with regard to its merits and 
possibilities. Conservative practice in Great Britain 
for some years past has been very generally opposed to 
the cab signal, which is, inherently, an initial step 
toward automatic train control, because the energy 
which illuminates the red lamp in the cab may be util- 
ized, just as easily, to shut off power or to apply brakes. 
The objections to the use of the cab signal, apparently, 
have been directed mainly toward the complications in- 
volved, automatic stops in connection with fixed sig- 
nals having received very much more attention than the 
cab signal as a practical means to provide greater safety 
of operation. Yet at the December meeting of the 
British Institution of Civil Engineers, according to The 
Engineer, evidence was brought out to the effect that 
the automatic stop was "impracticable," by which is 
probably meant that it was very limited in application. 
The same charge was not made against the cab signal 
because this is in presumably successful use on 
sections of two British railroads to-day. However, 
our contemporary points out that the cab sig- 
nal, as an indication only, seems unlikely to effect any 
improvement over present methods, although it may 
facilitate train operation in foggy weather, and this 
statement can hardly be denied. At the same time, if, 
as is here implied, it is the case that the cab signal may 
be considered to have reached a parity with the present 
system in regard to reliability, maintenance cost and 



126 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 3 



expense of installation, it seems difficult to avoid the 
conclusion that it is an improvement, because it neces- 
sarily contains the possibilities of automatic protection 
against collisions. This is a feature that the roadside- 
signal systems have failed thus far to achieve in gen- 
erally practical form, notwithstanding the many years 
that they have been in extended use. Indeed, it seems 
probable that the popularity of the cab signal in the 
near future will depend only upon its ability to equal 
the operating record of the older systems, and, appar- 
ently, this is a task to which it will soon be set in 
this country on a large scale. 



THE MID-WINTER MEETING 

The seventh mid-winter meeting of the American 
Electric Railway Association will be held in Washing- 
ton on Jan. 29. The proceedings will be confined to a 
single day. The meeting will be unique in that the 
President of the United States and other distinguished 
representatives of the federal government will be in 
attendance. President Wilson will speak at the confer- 
ence and, while his subject has not yet been announced, 
knowing as he does the purpose of the conference and 
the opportunity which it affords for reaching the heart 
of the industry, he cannot but touch upon those sub- 
jects which vitally concern its leaders. The presence 
of the President and his colleagues shows that they 
recognize the important part which electric railway 
transportation occupies in the prosperity of the coun- 
try and the daily life of its citizens. 

It is high time that the public should come to an 
equal realization of this and also of the magnitude 
of the interests involved in the industry. It occupies 
a different position from that of the steam railroads, 
partly because of its youth, partly because it is a grad- 
ual accretion of large numbers of small detached units 
without great inherent adhesive force. But now, 
through the progress made by interurban roads in par- 
ticular, the electric railway is assuming national pro- 
portions, as is evident from the increasing control ex- 
ercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission and 
the growing interest of the federal government in its 
affairs. 

The mid-winter meeting is destined to play a more 
and more important part in the work of the associa- 
tion. This, with its affiliated associations, has two 
functions — technical and administrative. The annual 
convention in October largely ministers to the former. 
Here the committees present their reports, the result 
of the year's efforts, and the manufacturers show what 
progress they have made in their respective fields. 
Papers and discussions largely relate to keeping the 
cars moving efficiently and with satisfaction to the 
public. The winter conference is for a different pur- 
pose — the deliberate consideration of the broad prin- 
ciples underlying success in transportation, the appli- 
cation of which make operation possible. Those prin- 
ciples are not simple; in fact, compared with the tech- 
nique of operation, they might be called vague. They 
are involved with finance, labor, the public temper, the 



idiosyncrasies of legislation and regulative bodies, and 
so on. There are, therefore, two compelling reasons 
why all of the executives concerned with these phases 
of railway operation should attend the mid-winter con- 
ference this year. First, they have an unusual oppor- 
tunity to demonstrate to the federal legislators the im- 
portance of their work, and there are pressing problems 
of administration which they need to consider. 



CHICAGO TRACTION SITUATION 
Although Chicago, through contractual relations, is 
a co-partner in the operation of its surface railway 
lines, nearly every aldermanic or mayoral election is 
heralded with scathing criticism of some phase of the 
railway's operation. To one thoroughly familiar with 
the 1907 ordinances, known as "the settlement ordi- 
nances," since they were supposed to clear up an un- 
satisfactory situation, it appears ridiculous that the 
city should raise the "railway issue" whenever its 
politicians are up for re-election. To the City Council 
the ordinance gives the power to specify a standard of 
service and grant extensions. This service standard 
governs the annual additions made to rolling stock. 
Yet with this power in its own hands, the city admin- 
istration is now engaged in a systematic campaign of 
criticism, seemingly because, out of it, some of the ad- 
ministration's henchmen hope to offer a panacea which 
will return them to office. 

About a year ago a department of public service was 
added to the city governmental organization, and, judg- 
ing from the results of its work, for the sole purpose 
of offering destructive criticism in whatever direction 
the administration might care to turn its attention. 
Literally, thousands of petty offences, beyond the con- 
trol of any street railway organization, have been 
charged against the surface railways by this depart- 
ment. These add fuel to the campaign of criticism, 
but it is quite certain that no substantial improve- 
ment will result from this flagellation of the railways. 
It may be that criticism is deserved in some few in- 
stances, but the City Council, through its local trans- 
portation committee, has power to correct these. 

While the various phases of this campaign have re- 
ceived publicity through the newspapers, a few of the 
editors have grasped the crux of the situation, namely, 
that the control of Chicago's transportation facilities 
has no place in local politics. The settlement ordinances 
created the Board of Supervising Engineers, whose 
powers do not include supervision over the operation 
of the surface railways. The record of this organiza- 
tion and the caliber of its members certainly warrant 
the bestowal of this additional responsibility. The fact 
that the city has representation equal to the railways 
on the board should insure unbiased rulings. It is to 
be hoped that the strategy of the administration will 
reveal itself to the public to the extent that it in turn 
will cease to support anything but sound business judg- 
ment. On the other hand, the failure of the admin- 
istration to execute past promises to improve trans- 
portation already has caused some important com- 



January 16, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



127 



mercial organizations to seek relief by appealing to the 
Illinois Public Utilities Commission, which has hereto- 
fore not taken part in the controversial questions aris- 
ing between the city of Chicago and its public utilities. 
It is generally agreed by those who have carefully 
studied Chicago's transportation problem, that the only 
solution is to be found in additional downtown terminal 
capacity. More surface tracks are out of the question, 
additional elevated lines are not desired, hence there 
must be resort to subways. For the past six years sub- 
ways have been discussed, and in fact during the past 
two years they have received sufficient consideration to 
warrant definite action. The present city administra- 
tion promised to begin the subway system if it was 
elected, yet has always found a plausible excuse for 
not abiding by its promise when the opportunity was 
offered. 

REACTANCE IN TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS 
The necessity in large power systems for greater 
protection of electrical generating and distributing ap- 
paratus than is afforded by automatic circuit breakers, 
was clearly demonstrated in the discussion at the Jan- 
uary meeting of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers in New York. Under short-circuit condi- 
tions currents may rise practically instantaneously to 
many times the normal values, producing overheating 
and excessive mechanical stresses and jeopardizing 
equipment other than that directly affected. Switches 
which will automatically and certainly open circuits 
carrying enormous currents are available, but in ex- 
tremely large plants the combined generating capacity 
may be such as to produce short-circuit currents in 
excess of the ability of switches to interrupt. In such 
cases it is essential to limit the magnitude of the cur- 
rents by introducing reactance into the circuit. For 
this purpose the inherent reactance in generators and 
transformers can be augmented and reactance coils 
can be inserted in feeders, between generators and 
busbars and between busbar sections. While it is 
true that the difficulties with short-circuits are most 
serious in very large plants, the principle of re- 
actance protection is of wide application, which explains 
the very general interest in the methods proposed for 
minimizing these difficulties. 

Unless electrical mass is deliberately added to it by 
introducing magnetic leakage in generator armatures 
or in transformers or by connecting reactors in circuit, 
as already mentioned, the electric circuit is practically 
inertialess. Until within a few years this was con- 
sidered a virtue for several reasons. For example, from 
the standpoint of switching, small electrical energy stor- 
age capacity is desirable, for when a switch opens the 
stored energy must be dissipated in heat in the switch 
arc and in the resistance of the line as the stored elec- 
tric charge surges back and forth. Still more impor- 
tant is the fact that the smaller the reactance the better 
is the voltage regulation. When reactance is introduced 
for protection, therefore, it involves the dissipation of 
more energy in switching and more reactive voltage 
drop. The former can be taken care of in the design of 
the circuit breakers. The latter is not now considered 



as important as it once was, particularly as constant 
voltage can now be obtained, when necessary, by auxil- 
iary regulating devices. At any rate, in large plants 
the necessity for protection is so urgent that something 
must be sacrificed to secure it, and the result is a com- 
promise among conflicting requirements. 

In his paper on this subject, abstracted elsewhere in 
this issue, I. W. Gross gives the results of a mathemati- 
cal analysis of short-circuit phenomena. We regard the 
analysis as valuable in the following particulars: First, 
it gives an idea of the magnitude and the laws of varia- 
tion of the mechanical forces and the heating effects 
which may result from short-circuits, although the au- 
thor has assumed conditions which make the results 
conservatively large; that is, he has assumed that there 
are "dead" short-circuits, that the heat is entirely con- 
fined to the conductor, etc. Hence the values derived 
may be considered the limiting ones. Second, it illus- 
trates the scientific method of attacking a problem to 
secure data which may be relied upon as a guide to 
practical design. While the mathematics employed may 
seem more refined than the accuracy of the fundamental 
assumptions would warrant, the argument is logical, 
and the accuracy of the results can be discounted suffi- 
ciently to allow for possible variations in the premises 
without invalidating the argument. Third, as the study 
was made in connection with the design of the extension 
of a large power plant the results have a practical qual- 
ity which gives them a higher standing than if they 
were a merely academic production. Among the very 
interesting facts brought out by Mr. Gross the most 
astounding is that forces of a ton or more per running 
foot may be developed in a cable. The conductor wrap- 
ping, which is fortunately amply strong, then performs 
the important extra function of preventing bursting at 
short-circuit time, due to the tendency of the conductors 
to fly apart. Another startling fact is the rapidity of 
temperature rise, so that one-fifth of a second is none 
too short a period for the opening of the circuit breaker. 
One trembles for the fate of a cable if the breaker 
fails to open promptly. 

Mr. Gross also took up the question of the best loca- 
tion for the protective reactance coils in a power plant. 
These coils are bulky and they cost money. After it has 
been decided how much protection is desired the prob- 
lem is to get that with the least cost for the coils and the 
space to accommodate them. In the discussion it was 
brought out that reactors in individual feeders radiat- 
ing from a very large power plant may be so bulky as 
to be out of the question. It was to determine the most 
economical arrangement for a given case that Mr. Gross 
undertook the study which resulted in the preparation 
of his paper. 

This whole subject of reactance is tied up with the 
modern tendencies in power generation and transmis- 
sion. Centralized generation is the order of the day, 
largely on account of considerations of economy. But 
centralized generation is risky unless precautions which 
are not necessary in smaller and detached plants are 
taken to insure reliability. If "all the eggs are put in 
one basket" they must be heavily insured. 



128 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLV, No. 3 

The Double Trolley System in Seattle 

One of the Very Few Installed in This Country — It Contains Many Interesting Features, Some of Which Are 

Explained in Detail 

BY H. J. KENNEDY, ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 



Particular technical interest attaches to Division "A" 
of the electric railway recently put into operation by the 
city of Seattle, Wash., due especially to the use of a 
double-trolley system, which may, perhaps, be called 
the "heroic remedy" or preventive against electrolysis. 
With the traffic relations and financial and political 
conditions surrounding the construction of this railway 
the present article is not concerned beyond stating that 
physically it is a continuation of the Seattle, Renton & 
Southern Railway, from the northerly terminus of the 
latter, past the westerly shore of Lake Union nearly 
into Ballard. 




SEATTLE MUNICIPAL RAILWAY — COMPONENTS OF DOUBLE- 
TROLLEY STRAIGHT LINE CONSTRUCTION 




4r 

SEATTLE MUNICIPAL RAILWAY — COMPONENTS OF DOUBLE- 
TROLLEY CURVE CONSTRUCTION 

It is proper to state first that the wires are spaced 
18 in. center to center, symmetrically with respect to 
the track center line. An illustration of the principal 
components of the typical straight-line construction is 
shown, the hangers being 9 in. on each side of the center, 
as indicated by the 2-ft. rule. Another illustration 
shows curve construction. On a double-track line, start- 
ing at the wooden pole at one side, the sequence of ma- 
terial is as follows: %-in. eyebolt; %-in. galvanized 
steel strand ; standard, round, wood strain-insulator 10 
in. long; %-in. steel strand; standard straight-line 
hanger of cap-and-cone type with lock washer; standard 
Giant strain-insulator of 2%-in. diameter, with two 
eyes into which the ends of the steel strand are close- 
tied; standard straight-line hanger; %-in. steel strand 
across to other track, where the order is reversed, back 
to the other wooden pole. 

With the exception of the portion of the railway 
within the underground conduit district (using iron 
poles), the poles are of Washington cedar, from 30 ft. 
to 75 ft. in length. The spacing was complicated by 



street and alley intersections ( often diagonal ) , en- 
trances, existing poles, cross lines, etc., and varied from 
50 ft. to 125 ft. Two cross-arms on one side of street 
are assigned to carry the railway feeders. Many of the 
poles have as many as eight cross-arms, due to the nec- 
essity of carrying wires for the fire alarm and police 
telegraph service, the city lighting wires, and the dif- 
ferent power, telephone and telegraph company's wires. 

The cross-overs most used are being equipped with 
trolley frogs, insulated crossings and section breaks, 
so that the trolley wheels run without interruption from 
the main line to the cross-over, and vice versa, the cur- 





SEATTLE MUNICIPAL RAILWAY — RIGHT-ANGLE CROSSING 
OF DOUBLE TROLLEY AND SINGLE TROLLEY 



rent supply being subjected to a brief interruption as 
the wheels pass over an insulated break, or to reversal, 
due to the oppositive location of positive and negative 
wires — which reversal, of course, has no effect on the 
direction of motion of the motors, since armature and 
field are affected alike. 

On cross-overs which are not used continually, the 
expense and complication of trolley frogs, etc., are saved 
by stopping the cross-over trolley wires 18 in. away 
from the main track wires, trolley poles being shifted 
by hand from one pair of wires to the other. 

Where the double-trolley railway crosses the single- 
trolley railway, insulated crossings were installed at the 
expense of the double-trolley railway, an agreement be- 
ing drawn up between the two covering the matters of 
first cost, cost of maintenance and liability for repairs 
and accidents. In each case the single-trolley wires 
were allowed the under-run, principally because they 
were there first, but also because the double-trolley cir- 
cuit is broken at two places in series in passing the 
crossing, whereas the single-trolley circuit would have 



January 16, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



129 



been broken at the single-trolley wheel only, with 
greater chance of drawing an arc. 

These insulated crossings were specially made with 
extra long wood breaks, for the reason that the negative 
of the single-trolley system is grounded; whereas if it 
should at any time become desirable for the neutral of 
the three-wire generator which was employed on the 
double-trolley system to be grounded (with equal insu- 
lation on both sides, it is virtually at ground potential), 
the negative of the double-trolley system would then 
be at 300 volts lower potential than the ground or than 
the negative of the single-trolley system, and 900 volts 
lower than the potential of the positive of the single- 
trolley system. 

The feeder system at present installed is consider- 
ably less than that designed for ultimate installation 
when the line is extended and the traffic becomes very 
much heavier than at the present time. Five feeder- 
circuit breakers were installed in the substation, with 
space for some additional ones. Only three have been 
utilized at the start, one feeding a pair of 1,192,500 circ. 
mil aluminum cables ( each equivalent to 750,000 circ. mil 
copper), extending northerly and westerly to near the 
outer end of the line; another tapped on by 638,000 circ. 
mil aluminum cables (equivalent to 400,000 circ. mil cop- 
per) to trolley wire opposite substation, and another pair 
of 1,192,500 circ. mil aluminum cables extending south. 
Feeder taps are located from 1000 ft. to 2270 ft. apart, 
with section breaks between them. With this arrange- 
ment of feeders, with ten cars in operation on the 
division and 600 volts emf at Aloha Street, it is esti- 
mated that the maximum drop would be experienced at 
the outer end of the line, being about 61.5 volts or 10.3 
per cent at the furthest feeder tap. Near the southerly 
end the drop is less. On the initial installation, a sav- 
ing in first cost of more than $3,000 was made by using 
aluminum instead of copper, the price per pound of 
aluminum cable being 22.3 cents delivered at Seattle, 
while copper cable was 15.6 cents per pound, the total 
weight of aluminum required being of course very much 
less for equal conductance. 



SEATTLE MUNICIPAL RAILWAY — EXTERIOR VIEW OF 
SUBSTATION 




SEATTLE MUNICIPAL RAILWAY — EXCITER END OF MOTOR- 
GENERATOR SET 



Power for the line is supplied from a single substa- 
tion, which was designed, in addition to its railway 
function, also to form part of the municipal electrical 
distribution system, centering in the Yesler Way sub- 
station at the city end of the 60,000-volt transmission 
lines from the plant at Cedar Falls in the mountains. 
The distribution from Yesler Way to the various out- 
lying substations is accomplished by a 15,000-volt, two- 
phase, five-wire system with grounded neutral. The 
substations are transformer stations, that are used 
principally for lighting, but also for carrying a certain 
amount of a.c. motor load. The lighting department is 
already supplying 250-volt direct current, principally 
for elevator motors, from its Yesler Way substation, and 
the addition of similar facilities in the railway substa- 
tion puts the department in a much stronger position 
to make contracts. In consequence two 500-kw syn- 
chronous motor-generator sets were installed, the gen- 
erators being of the three-wire type to supply direct 
current at 300 volts, as well as the 600-volt current re- 
quired by the railway. 

In the accompanying illustration of the machine two 
slip rings may be seen mounted on the shaft ; they are 
connected to electrically opposite points of the armature 
winding. From the carbon brushes making contact 
with these rings, connections are made to a Thompson- 
Ryan balancing coil, which prevents difficulty from 
sparking and armature reaction when the 300-volt loads 
are unbalanced. The balancing coil is intended to be 
capable of carrying continuously in the neutral 25 per 
cent of the full load current without exceeding the full- 
load temperature of generator. The neutral is con- 
nected to the middle point of the coil and is led through 
the generator breaker to the neutral bus. The coil has 
been located in the basement close beside the machine 
foundation, to minimize the length of lead to the machine 
and to improve the regulation. It was specified that 
under the extreme unbalanced condition, above speci- 
fied, the variation of emf on either side of the neutral 
should not be greater than 2 per cent of the mean. The 
generator is over-compounded 50 volts between no load 
and full load. The series fields are split, one-half being 
connected to the positive brush and the other half to 
the negative brush. A 75-hp induction motor and a 
10-kw 125-volt d.c. generator are mounted on the main 
shaft of the machine, the former being used for bring- 
ing the main motor up to synchronous speed in starting 
the machine and the latter being used for an exciter. 



The Pennsylvania Railroad System reports that of 
the 188,411,876 passengers carried in 1914 not one was 
killed. The report shows that trains on this system trav- 
eled 67,389,381 miles. 




130 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 3 



Census Report on Electric Railways 



Rolling Stock, Traffic, Capitalization, Financial Operations and Employees Ara Considered in This Final 
Abstract of the Forthcoming Census Report on Street and Electric Railways 



In the last issue of this paper an abstract was pub- 
lished of the first part of the forthcoming Census Re- 
port on Electric Railways. The subjects considered 
were the development of the industry, power equipment 
and track. In this issue an abstract is published of 
the remainder of the statistical portion of the census 
report. 

Rolling Stock and Traffic 

Table I shows a classification of the different types 
of cars in use. Prepayment cars are reported for the 
first time in this census report. They are in general 
use in all parts of the country, except in New England 
and the mountain states. The states leading in express, 
freight, mail and baggage cars are Illinois with 1917 
cars and California with 1507 cars. Of the 73,758 cars 
with electric motors 45,996 have two motors and 25,806 
have "four or more" motors. The other cars have one 
motor or three motors each. Of the total number of 
94,016 cars 43 per cent are equipped with hand brakes 
exclusively and 57 per cent with power brakes. This 
shows an increase in cars with power brakes during the 
past five years, because in 1907 the percentages were, 
hand brakes 58.8 and power brakes 41.2. 

There were 277 electric locomotives in use by the 
street and electric railways in 1912 as compared with 
117 in 1907 and three in 1902. These locomotives are 
exclusive of the number employed on the electrified di- 
visions of steam railroads, of which, in 1912, there 
were 341. Of the total number of cars 71.4 per cent 
were owned by companies having gross incomes of 
$1,000,000 or more per year, 15.4 per cent by companies 
with gross incomes between $250,000 and $1,000,000, 
and 13.2 per cent by companies with gross income of 
less than $250,000. 



Table I — Cars — Ni'mber and Kimd 





Number 




Per Cent of Total 

A 


Per Cei 


t of Increase 1 
















1902- 


1907- 


1902- 




1!I1L> 


1907 


1902 


1912 


1907 


1902 


1912 


1912 


1907 


Total 


94,016 


83,641 


66,784 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


40.8 


12.4 


25.2 




83,956 


75,685 


61,404 


89.3 


90.5 


92.0 


36.7 


10.9 


23.3 


Passenger 


76,162 


70,016 


60,290 


81.0 


83.7 


90.3 


26.3 


8.8 


16.1 




48,123 


40,470 


32,658 


51.2 


48.4 


48.9 


47.3 


10.(1 


23.9 


Open 


18.993 


22,537 


24,259 


20.2 


26.9 


36.3 


-21.7 


-15.7 


-7.1 


Combination — 
















Closed and open 


7,985 


6,442 


3,134 


8.5 


7.7 


4.7 


154.8 


24.0 


105.6 


Passenger, with bag- 


















gage, express, freight. 




















or mail 


1,061 


567 


239 


1.1 


0.7 


0.4 


344.0 


87.1 


137.2 


Express, freight, mail ami 




















baggage 


7,794 


5,569 


1,114 


8.3 


6.8 


1.7 


599.6 


] 40.0 


399.9 


Service cars — work cars, 




















snow plows, sweepers. 




















etc 


10,060 


7,956 


5,380 


111.7 


9.5 


8.0 


87.0 


26.4 


47.9 


Prepayment cars 


16,012 






17.0 












Parlor, sleeping, dining, 




















and private cars 


149 


118 


(?) 


0.1 


0.1 






26.3 




Oars equipped with mo- 




















tors 


73,779 


63,517 


50,699 


78.5 


75.9 


75.9 


45.5 


16.1 


25.3 




277 


117 


3 










136.8 





'A minus sign ( — ) denotes decrease. 
-Figures not available. 



Table II — Passenger Traffic— Street and Electric Railways and Steam Railroads 1 



1912 



1907 



1902 



Per Cent of 
Increase 



1902- 1907- 1902- 

1912 1912 1907 

Number of revenue passengers: 

Street and electric railways 9,545,554,667 7,441,114,508 4,774,211,904 100.0 28.3 55.9 

Steam railroads 1,004,081,346 873,905,133 649,878,505 54.5 14.9 34.5 

Receipts from passengers: 

Street and electric railways 8502,651,637 $382,132,494 $233,821,548 115.0 31.5 63.4 

Steam railroads 660,373,176 564,606,343 372,963,248 77.1 17.0 51.4 



The total number of passengers carried in 1912 was 
12,135,341,716, or an increase of 27.3 per cent over the 
number carried in 1907, and 107.9 per cent over the 
number carried in 1902. The number of transfer and 
free passengers in 1912 was equal to 27.1 per cent of the 
number of revenue passengers, as compared with 28.1 
per cent in 1907. During the past five years the average 
number of revenue passengers per mile of track in- 
creased 7.4 per cent. The average number of revenue 
passengers per car-mile was 5.06, as compared with 4.70 
in 1907 and 4.26 in 1902. The average number per car- 
hour was 48.38, as compared with 43.06 in 1907 and 
33.28 in 1902 for those companies reporting car-hours. 
In 1912 92.1 per cent of the companies reported car- 
hours; in 1907, 77.6 per cent and in 1902, 47.7 per cent. 

Table II gives an interesting comparison between the 
steam and electric railways. It shows that the passen- 
ger traffic on the electric railways was nine and one- 
half times that on the steam railroads, while the receipts 
from passengers were about 24 per cent less. 

Capitalization 

Table III shows the gross and net capitalization of the 
street and electric railways exclusively. In 1907 com- 
mon stock formed the largest proportion of the out- 
standing capitalization, being for the operating and 

Table III — Capitalization. Including Floating Debt and Real-Estate Mortgages 



1912 

Capital stock $2,379,346,313 $2,097,708,856 

Common 1,970,385,003 

Preferred 408,961,310 

Funded debt 2,329,221,828 

Floating debt and real-estate mortages 302 , 259 , 042 

Total 5,010,827,183 



Stocks and bonds of other electric railway 
companies and treasury securities 



Net capitalization . 



Investments in other securities and nonrail- 
way properties 



360,105,164 
,650,722,019 

105,145,250 





Per Cent 


1907 


of 




Increase 1 


$2,097,708,856 


13.4 


1,776,920,076 


10.8 


320,788,780 


27.5 


1,677,063,240 


38.8 


282,986,902 


6.7 


4,057,758,998 


23.5 


237,896,093 


51.4 


3,819,862,935 


21.8 


136,768,104 


-23.1 



Net capitalization based on street and electric 
railways: 

Inclusive of floating debt and real-estate 

mortages 4,545,576,769 3,683,094,801 

Per mile of track 112,405 107,942 

Exclusive of floating debt and real-estate 

mortgages 4,243,317,727 3,400,107,899 

Per mile of track 104,930 100,495 

'A minus sign (— ) denotes decrease. 

Table IV— Gross Income or Operating Companies, Br Sootce 

Per Cent of Increase 



23.4 
4.1 



24.8 
4.4 



Account 



1912 



1907 



1902 



1902- 1907- 1902- 
1912 1912 1907 

Gross income $585,980,517 $429,744,254 $250,504,627 133.9 36.3 71.69 



Operating revenues $567,511,704 $418,187,858 $247,553,999 129.2 35.7 68.9 

Passenger 502,651,637 382,132,494 233,821,548 115.0 31.5 63.4 



'Steam railroad statistics from reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 



Parlor, chair, and special car... 


1,036,520 


705,261 


303,608 


Freight 


10,165,616 


5,231,215 


1,038,097 


Mail 


723,640 


646,575 


432,080 


Baggage, express and milk . . . . 


3,687,947 


1,560,802 


401,672 


Other transportation revenue 


1,919,413 






Sale of electric current 


36,500,030 


20,093,302 


7,703,574 


Other nontransportation reve- 








nue 


10,826,901 


7,818,209 


3,853,420 


Income from other sources 


18,418,813 


11,556,396 


2,950,628 


Per Cent of Gross Income 








Operating revenues 


96.9 


97.3 


98.8 


Passenger 


85.8 


88.9 


93.3 


Parlor, chair, and special car . 


0.2 


0.2 


0.1 


Freight, mail, baggage, and 








express 


2.5 


1.7 


0.8 


Sale of electric current 


6.2 


4.7 


3.1 


Other operating revenue 


2.2 


1.8 


15 




3.1 


2.7 


1.2 



January 16, 1915] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



131 



lessor companies 47.1 per cent of the total, while in 
1912 it is only 41.8 per cent of the total. On the other 
hand the five years between 1907 and 1912 have shown 
a larger proportionate increase of the funded debt, which 
now constitutes 49.4 per cent of the total, while the 
common stock is 41.8 per cent and preferred stock 8.8 
per cent of the total. 

Holding Companies 

There were sixty-one holding companies or organiza- 
tions in 1912 identified largely with the industry. The 



T \ ble V — Per Cent Distribi tion, By Accounts, 
Companies 



Gross Income of Operating 



Total — Companies Report- Companies Report- 
All Companies ing Net Income ing Net Deficit 1 

Account , A — % f A — - — ■ — ^ r 

1912 1907 1902 1912 1907 1902 1912 1907 1902 

Grossincome 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

Operating revenues 96.9 97.3 98.8 97.0 97.1 99.4 95.8 98.1 95.2 

Miscellaneous income 3.1 2.7 1.2 3.0 2 9 0.6 4.2 1 9 4.8 

Operating expenses 56.8 58.5 56.8 55.4 57.0 55.7 68.3 63.5 64.3 

Deductions from income 32.6 32.1 31.0 31.0 27.6 28.5 45.4 47.9 47.2 

Taxes 6.0 4.6 5.2 6.1 4.8 5.2 4.8 4.0 5.3 

Interest 16.7 14.8 15.2 15.2 14.7 14.2 28.7 15 3 21.9 

Rent of leased lines and ter- 
minals 7.6 11.2 10.2 7.5 6.4 8.8 9.1 28.0 19.4 

Miscellaneous deductions. .. . 2.3 1.5 0.4 2.2 1.8 0.3 2.8 0.6 0.6 

Netincomeornetdeficit 1 10.6 9.4 12.2 13.6 15.3 15.8 U3.7 HI. 4 ill. 5 

Dividends 8 8 6.2 6.3 9 9 7.9 7.2 0.1 ('-) 0.3 

Surplus or deficit 1.8 3.2 5.9 3 7 7.4 8.5 '13.8 Ml 4 '11 8 

'Indicates deficit. 

a Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

Table VI — Per Cent Distribution op Operating Expenses, By Accounts 

Operating General 

Expenses Accounts 

Account f • v — ^ f A 

1912 1907 1902 1912 1907 1902 

Operating expenses 100.0 100.0 100.0 

Way and structures 13.9 11.4 9.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 

Superintendence of way and structures 0.8 ... .... 5.6 

Maintenance of way 9.1 8.7 6.8 65.0 76.5 70.9 

Maintenance of electric lines 1.7 1.9 2 .1 11.9 16 .8 21.8 

Buildings and structures 0.8 0.8 0.7 5.8 6 7 7.3 

Depreciation of way and structures 1.1 8.0 

Other operations 0.5 3.7 

Equipment 12.0 12.5 11.7 100.0 100 100.0 

Superintendence of equipment 0.5 4.2 ... .... 

Maintenance of power equipment 1.1 1.5 1.5 9.4 12.2 13.1 

Maintenance of cars and locomotives 5.1 5.5 5.4 42 . 3 43 . 9 45 . 9 

Maintenance of electric equipment of cars anil lo- 
comotives 3.0 4 3 3.7 24.7 34 1 31.9 

Miscellaneous equipment expenses 0.9 1.2 1.1 7.6 9.8 9.1 

Depreciation of equipment 1.1 9.2 

Other operations .3 2 .7 

Traffic expenses 0.8 0.7 0.8 

Conducting transportation 57.0 56.1 59.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 

Superintendence of transportation 2.1 1.4 18 3.8 2.5 31 

Power 18.2 17.5 16.2 41.9 31.2 27.4 

Power-plant employees 1.91 ., . . )0 (3.31 P| . 

Substation employees 0.6J 01 ai \ 1.0/ °' 

Fuelforpower 6.1 8.4 9.0 10.6 14.9 15.3 

Other power supplies and expenses 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.9 2.1 

Power purchased 7.4 4.9 2 7 13 8.7 4 6 

Other operations 1.6 2.9 

Operation of cars 36.7 37.2 41.0 64.4 66.3 69.5 

Conductors, motormen, and trainmen 29.5 29.8 34.2 51.8 53.0 58.0 

Miscellaneous transportation expenses 7.2 7.5 6.8 12.6 13.3 11.5 

General and miscellaneous 16.3 16.8 17.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 

General expenses 5.7 6.0 6 7 35.3 35.9 38.8 

Injuries and damages 6.2 7.2 6.6 38.2 43.0 38.1 

Insurance 0.9 1.2 1.5 5.8 7.4 8.4 

. Stationery and printing 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 

Store and stable expenses 0.6 0.7 1 2 3.8 3 9 6 7 

Rent of tracks and terminals 1.1 1.1 1.0 6.8 6.5 6.0 

Rent of equipment 04 0.2 2.2 1.4 

Other operations 10 5.8 

Wages, supplies, and expenses incident to electric 

service, not elsewhere included 2 4 15 



total amount of their reported assets was $1,239,057,- 
329, of which 61.7 per cent was invested in stocks and 
bonds of electric railway companies. Only seven of these 

Table VII — Per Cent Distribution of Operating Expenses By Accounts — Companies 
Classified According to Income prom Railway Operations: 1912 



Per Cent of Operating 



Account 



Number of companies 

( Operating expenses 

Way and structures 

Equipment 

Traffic 

Conducting transportation 

Superintendence of transportation . 



' ieneral anil miscellaneous 



Per Cent of T 


otal 




Expenses 




Class 


Class 


Class 




Class 


Class 


Class 


A 


B 


c 


Total 


A 


B 


C 


9.3 


15.9 


74.8 










72.0 


16.0 


12.0 


100 


100 'o 


100.0 


ioo.o 


72.5 


16.0 


11.5 


13.9 


14.0 


13.9 


13 4 


74.7 


14.5 


10.8 


12.0 


12.5 


10.9 


10 x 


51.6 


29.0 


19.5 


0.8 


0.6 


14 


1.3 


72.7 


15.7 


11.7 


57.0 


57.5 


55.8 


55 4 


77.2 


13.8 


9.0 


2.1 


2.3 


1.8 


1 6 


64.4 


18.8 


16.8 


18.2 


16 3 


21.4 


25.5 


76.5 


14.3 


9.2 


36.7 


39.0 


32.7 


28.3 


68.3 


17 6 


14 1 


16.3 


15.4 


17.9 


19 2 


NIES— 


■Deductions from Income, by 


Accounts 
Per Cent Dis- 



Account 



1912 



1907 



Number of companies 975 

Deductions from income $191,123,408 $138 

Taxes 35,027,965 19 

On real and personal property 15,658,239 9 

On capital stock 3,899,146 2 

Onearnings 9,486,792 5 

Federal corporation tax 1,016,901 

Miscellaneous 4,966,887 

Interest on funded and floating debt and 

mortgages 98,025,338 63 

Rent of leased lines and terminals 44,784,521 48 

Charges for sinking fund 6,229,136 

Miscellaneous deductions 7.056,448 6 

' Included under "Miscellaneous deductions." 



tribution 
1912 1907 



939 
094,716 
755 . 602 
464,616 
348,439 
437,028 



2,505,519 

740,744 
022,596 

m 

575,774 



18 


3 


14 


.3 


8 


2 


6 


.9 


2 





1 


.7 


5. 





3. 


9 





.6 






2 


.6 


1. 


8 


51 


3 


46 


2 


23. 


4 


34 


8 


3 


,3 






3 


7 


4 


8 



Table IX — Ratio of Taxes to Gross Income Less Operating Expenses (per Cent) 

Division 1912 1907 1902 

United States 13.8 11.1 12.2 

New England 2l7l 1772 1974 

Middle Atlantic 12.6 9.4 11.9 

East North Central 15.2 11.2 10.7 

West North Central 14.0 11.4 10.6 

South Atlantic 11.9 11.6 11.6 

East South Central 14.4 15.0 11.7 

West South Central 10.4 9.3 13.1 

Mountain 10.7 6.6 8.5 

Pacific 12.2 11.5 10.0 

Table X — General Results of Operations of All Companies and of Companies Classi- 
fied According to Income from Railway Operations, 1912 

All Corn- 
Unit panies Class A Class B Class C 

Number of compauies 975 91 155 729 

Ratio of operating expenses to operating revenues 

(percent) 58.7 56.7 61.7 68.3 

Per mile of track: 

Operating revenues 813,820 $19,844 $8,937 $5,784 

Operating revenues exclusive of income from sale 

ofcurreut 12,931 19,011 7,929 4,890 

Operating expenses 8,107 11,252 5,517 3,949 

Net operating revenue 5,713 8,592 3,420 1,835 

Per car-mile: Cents Cents Cents Cents 

Operating reveuues 29.53 29.49 30.63 28.32 

Operating revenues exclusive of income from sale 

of current 27.63 28.25 27.18 23.94 

Operating expenses 17.32 16.72 18.91 19.33 

Conducting transportation 9.87 9.62 10.56 10.71 

Allother 7.45 7.10 8.35 8.62 

Net operating revenue 12.21 12.77 11.72 8.99 

Per revenue passenger: 

Operating revenues 5.95 5.54 7.51 7.68 

Passenger revenue 5.27 5 08 6.10 5.87 

Allother 8 68 0.46 1.41 1.80 

Operating expenses 3 .49 3.14 4.64 5.24 

Net operating revenue 2.46 2.40 2.87 2.44 



Table XI— Operating Ratios for 1912 and 1007 

Number ot Companies Reporting ( 'Derating Katio- 




80 Per Cent 
but Under 
90 Per Cent 



90 Per Cent 
and Over 



1912 
177 



1907 
160 



Total number 

Revenue passengers per mile of track: 
Under 25,000 

25,000 but under 50,000 

50,000 but under 100,000 

100,000 but under 200,000 

200,000 but under 300,000 

300,000 but under 400,000 

400,000 and over 

Revenue passengers per car-mile: 
Under 2 ' 

2 but under 3 

3 but under 4 

4 but under 5 

5 but under 6 

6 but under 7 

7 and over 

'Not including two companies doing freight business only. 'Exclusive of six companies which failed to furnish this information, and one freight road. 



1912 
109 



1007 
109 



1912 
161 



1907 
134 



184 


169 


4 


11 


31 


27 


50 


45 


25 


26 


26 


21 


48 


39 


143 


134 


6 


9 


24 


21 


27 


22 


30 


22 ■ 
37 


16 


26 


40 


34 


242 


232 


13 


19 


40 


39 


61 


73 


46 


37 


25 


45 


39 


220 


263 


19 


17 


60 


61 


55 


83 


47 


52 


22 


30 


17 


20 


95 


67 


11 


7 


33 


20 


23 


23 


16 


12 


6 


3 





2 


41 


32 


9 


8 


14 


11 


10 


8 


5 


5 


1 




2 




48 


41 




6 


22 


16 


7 


9 


8 


6 


1 


4 


3 




157 


144 


4 


6 


28 


26 


34 


35 


27 


23 


17 


19 


47 


35 


168 


164 


7 


11 


27 


34 


36 


27 


32 


30 


27 


27 


39 


35 


194 


217 


10 


15 


38 


30 


40 


68 


43 


36 


25 


36 


38 


32 


200 


202 
122 


1 15 


15 


52 


56 


64 


67 


37 


37 


17 


11 


15 


16 


137 


16 


17 


43 


26 


37 


41 


18 


23 


15 


7 


8 


8 


57 


37 


9 


4 


20 


10 


14 


10 


5 


6 


3 


4 


6 


3 


60 


52 


8 


• 9 


16 


13 


8 


15 


15 


5 


5 


5 


S 


5 



132 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLV, No. 3 



holding companies were in New York, but they con- 
trolled 35.9 per cent of the total investment. 

Financial Operations 

The first eight states, in the order of the magnitude 
of their gross receipts, were the same in 1912 as in 
1907, viz : New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Mas- 
sachusetts, California, Missouri and New Jersey. The 
ninth state in 1912 was Michigan, which in 1907 was 
twelfth in the list. 

The gross income of all companies in 1912 was $621,- 
535,884, of which $35,144,521 was reported by the lessor 
companies as income from rental paid by the operating 
companies. The gross income of the operating com- 
panies is shown in Table IV. Table V shows the per 
cent distribution by accounts of gross income of oper- 
ating companies, showing net income and also net de- 
ficit. The bulk of the deficit comes from companies in 
the New England and Middle Atlantic divisions. In 
1912 these divisions furnished 61.5 per cent of the total 
deficit, as compared with 58.3 per cent in 1907 and 52.6 
per cent in 1902. 

Table VI shows the per cent distribution of operating 

Table XII — Employees, by Classes of Occupation 









Per Cent of 


Class 


1912 


1907 


Increase 


Number of companies 


975 


'939 


3.8 


Persons employed: 








Number 


282,401 


221,429 


27.6 






$150,991,099 


33.0 


Salaried employees — 




Number 


23,271 


1 1 , 700 


98.9 






$12, 909,466 


102.4 


Salaried officers of corporation — 








Number 


1,927 


1,518 


26.9 


Salaries - 


$5,708,653 


$3,852,252 


48.2 


Managers and superintendents — 








Number 


2 88° 


2,094 


37.6